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Encyclopedia > Lottery

A lottery is a popular form of gambling which involves the drawing of lots for a prize. Some governments outlaw it, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national lottery. It is common to find some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ...


The first signs of a lottery trace back the Han Dynasty between 205 and 187 B.C., where ancient Keno slips were discovered. The lottery has helped finance major governmental projects like the Great Wall of China. From the Chinese "The Book of Songs" (second millenium B.C.) comes a reference to a game of chance as "the drawing of wood", which in context appears to describe the drawing of lots. From the Celtic era, the Cornish words "teulet pren" translates into "to throw wood" and means "to draw lots". The Iliad by Homer refers to lots being placed into Agamemon's helmet to determine who would fight Hector. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... This article describes the lottery game. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th...


The first known European lottery occurred during the Roman Empire, and was mainly done as a form of amusement at dinner parties. Each guest would receive a ticket, and prizes would often consist of fancy items such as dinnerware. Every ticket holder would be assured of winning something. This type of lottery however, was no more than the distribution of gifts by wealthy noblemen during the Saturnalian revelries. The earliest records of a lottery offering tickets for sale is the lottery organized by Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar. The funds were for repairs to the City of Rome, and the winners were given prizes in the form of articles of unequal value. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The earliest public lottery on record is that which was held in the Dutch town of Sluis in 1434.


The first recorded lotteries to offer tickets for sale with prizes in the form of money were held in the Low Countries during the period 1443-1449. Various towns in Flanders (parts of Belgium, Holland, and France), held public lotteries to raise money for town fortifications, and raising money to help the poor. The town records of Ghent, Utrecht, and Bruges, indicate that the lotteries may well be of even greater antiquity. An early record dated May 9,1445 at L'Ecluse, refers to raising funds to build walls and town fortifications, with a lottery of 4,304 tickets and total prize money of 1737 florins.


The Dutch were the first to shift the lottery to solely money prizes and base prizes on odds (roughly about 1 in 4 tickets winning a prize). The lottery proved to be very popular, and was hailed as a painless form of taxation. In the Netherlands the lottery was used to raise money for e.g. supporting poor people, building dikes, construction of defense works for towns and to buy free sailors from slavery in the Arab countries. The English word lottery stems from the Dutch word loterij, which is derived from the Dutch noun lot meaning fate. The Dutch state owned staatsloterij is the oldest still existing lottery.


Lotteries come in many formats. The prize can be fixed cash or goods. In this format there is risk to the organizer if insufficient tickets are sold. The prize can be a fixed percentage of the receipts. A popular form of this is the "50-50" draw where the organizers promise that the prize will be 50% of the revenue. The prize may be guaranteed to be unique where each ticket sold has a unique number. Many recent lotteries allow purchasers to select the numbers on the lottery ticket resulting in the possibility of multiple winners. For other uses, see Cash (disambiguation). ...


Lotteries are most often run by governments or local states and are sometimes described as a regressive tax, since those most likely to buy tickets will typically be the less affluent members of a society. The astronomically high odds against winning have also led to the epithets of a "tax on stupidity", "math tax" or the oxymoron "voluntary tax" (playing the lottery is voluntary; taxes are not). They are intended to suggest that lotteries are governmental revenue-raising mechanisms that will attract only those consumers who fail to see that the game is a very bad deal. Indeed, the desire of lottery operators to guarantee themselves a profit requires that an average lottery ticket be worth substantially less than what it costs to buy. After taking into account the present value of the lottery prize as a single lump sum cash payment, the impact of any taxes that might apply, and the likelihood of having to share the prize with other winners, it is not uncommon to find that a ticket for a typical major lottery is worth less than one third of its purchase price. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A regressive tax is a tax imposed so that the tax... The present value of a single or multiple future payments (known as cash flows) is the nominal amounts of money to change hands at some future date, discounted to account for the time value of money, and other factors such as investment risk. ...


The fact that lotteries are commonly played leads to some contradictions against standard models of economic rationality. However, the expectations of some players may not be to win the game, but to experience the thrill and indulge in a fantasy of possibly becoming wealthy. Even ignoring the thrill factor, there is the theoretical possibility that the purchase of a lottery ticket could represent a gain in expected utility, even though it represents a loss in expected monetary value, thus making the purchase a rational decision. Insurance, for instance, represents negative expected monetary value but is not considered to be a tax on stupidity because it is generally believed to deliver positive expected utility to the individual. In economics, utility is a measure of the relative happiness or satisfaction (gratification) gained. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


Lottery tickets are usually scanned in large numbers, using marksense-technology. With today's computer performance, it takes less than one second to check if a particular combination was picked up by anyone, even for lotteries like Euromillions or MegaMillions. An optical reader is a device found within most computer scanners that captures visual information and translates the image into digital information the computer is capable of understanding and displaying. ...

Contents

Countries with a national lottery

This maneki neko beckons customers to purchase takarakuji tickets in Tokyo, Japan.
This maneki neko beckons customers to purchase takarakuji tickets in Tokyo, Japan.

Download high resolution version (599x750, 117 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (599x750, 117 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Maneki Neko is often used as a piggy bank. ...

Americas

The Mega-Sena is the largest lottery in Brazil. ... Lotto 6/49 is one of Canadas national lottery games, along with Lotto Super 7. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Europe

A map of the countries that participate in EuroMillions. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Viking Lotto is a unique Lotto game cooporation between the national lotteries in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Finland and Estonia. ... The corporate logo. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... A play here! sign outside a newsagent, incorporating the National Lotterys logo of a stylised hand with crossed fingers which emulates a smiling face. ... Monday - The Charities Lottery is a not-for-profit lottery in the United Kingdom, which is played over the internet or by post. ...

Asia

Mark Six (Chinese 六合彩) is a lotto game organized by the Hong Kong Jockey Club. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... TOTO is a legalized form of lottery sold in Singapore. ...

Africa

  • South Africa: South African National Lottery
  • Kenya :Toto 6/49, Kenya Charity Sweepstake,

Australia

Australian Lottery Games are various lotto related products licensed by Australian lottery companies: Tattersalls, New South Wales Lotteries, Gold Lotto and others. ... Official Logo (Australia) Powerball is a lottery operated by NSW Lotteries in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Tattersalls in Victoria and Tasmania, Golden Casket in Queensland, South Australia Lotteries Commission for South Australia and Lotterywest in Western Australia. ... Golden Casket is the government-owned lottery corporation in Queensland, Australia. ...

Country Lottery details

In several countries, lotteries are legalized by the governments themselves. In addition, with the explosion of the internet, several online web-only lotteries and traditional lotteries with online payments have surfaced. In the web-only lotteries, the user has to select his pick and either watch an ad for a few seconds before his pick is confirmed or has to click on a web banner/link to register his pick in the system. The numbers may be drawn by the site that runs the online lotto or might be linked to a major physical lotto draw to ensure reliability. Prize money ranges from $100,000 to $10 million.


Lottery in the United States

In the United States, the existence of lotteries is subject to the laws of each state; there is no national lottery. Lotteries in the United States are run by individual states -- there is no national lottery in the U.S. Most states have amended or re-written their constitutions to allow for a legal lottery. ...

Header from 1840 US patent on a new type of private lottery
Header from 1840 US patent on a new type of private lottery

Private lotteries were legal in the United States in the early 1800’s.[1] In fact, a number of US patents were granted on new types of lotteries. In today's vernacular, these would be considered business method patents. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ... Business method patents are a class of patents and one of many legal aspects of business. ...


Before the advent of state-sponsored lotteries, many illegal lotteries thrived; for example, see Numbers game and Peter H. Matthews. The first modern state lottery in the U.S. was established in the state of New Hampshire in 1964; today, lotteries are established in 42 states, the District of Columbia, and the Virgin Islands. The numbers game, or policy racket, is an illegal lottery played mostly in poor neighborhoods in U.S. cities, wherein the bettor attempts to pick three or four digits to match those that will be randomly drawn the following day. ... Peter H. Matthews (1873-1916) was an operator of policy games (illegal lotteries akin to the numbers racket) all over New York City. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The D.C. (District of Columbia) Lottery is run the city of Washington, the capital of the United States. ...


The first modern interstate lottery in the U.S. was formed in 1985 and linked three of the New England states. In 1988, the Multi-State Lottery Association (MUSL) was formed with Oregon, Iowa, Kansas, Rhode Island, West Virginia, Missouri, and the District of Columbia as its charter members; it is best known for its "Powerball" drawing, which is designed to build up very large jackpots. Another interstate lottery, The Big Game (now called Mega Millions), was formed in 1996 by the states of Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan and Virginia as its charter members. These states were joined by New Jersey (1999), New York and Ohio (2002), Washington (2002), Texas (2003) and California (2005) for a total of 12 members. [4] Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... The Iowa Lottery is run by the state of Iowa. ... The Kansas Lottery is run by the state of Kansas. ... The Rhode Island Lottery is run by the state of Rhode Island. ... The West Virginia Lottery is run by the state government. ... The Missouri Lottery is run by the state of Missouri. ... ... For other uses, see Powerball (disambiguation). ... Mega Millions logo Mega Millions is a multi-state US$1 lottery game in the United States. ... Lotteries in the United States are run by individual states -- there is no national lottery in the U.S. Most states have amended or re-written their constitutions to allow for a legal lottery. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Maryland Lottery is run by the state of Maryland. ... The Michigan Lottery is run by the state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The New Jersey Lottery is run by the state of New Jersey. ... The Ohio Lottery is run by the state of Ohio. ... Washingtons Lottery logo Washingtons Lottery is the official state lottery of Washington. ... The Texas Lottery is run by the state of Texas. ... California state law allows pari-mutuel prizes for online games, and so amounts are not fixed, as they are in other state lotteries. ...


Instant lottery tickets, also known as scratch cards, were first introduced in the 1970s and have since become a major source of state lottery revenue. Some states have introduced keno and video lottery terminals (slot machines in all but name). A scratchcard (also called scratch off, scratch game, scratch ticket, scratcher or scratchie) is a small piece of card where an area has been covered by a substance that cannot be seen through, but can be scratched off. ... This article describes the lottery game. ... Slot machines in the Trump Taj Mahal A slot machine (American English), fruit machine (British English), or poker machine (Australian English) is a certain type of casino game. ...


Other interstate lotteries include Hot Lotto and Wild Card 2, two of MUSL's other games. Hot Lotto logo Hot Lotto is administered by the United States Multi-State Lottery Association (MUSL), which also operates the Powerball lottery game. ... Wild Card 2 is a lottery game (which replaced the original version of Wild Card) played in four contiguous states in the northern United States (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. ...


With the advent of the Internet it became possible for people to play lottery-style games on-line, many times for free (the cost of the ticket being supplemented by merely seeing, say, a pop-up ad). Two of the many websites which offer free games (after registration) include iwinweekly.com and the larger iWon.com, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of IAC Search & Media. GTech Corporation, in the United States, administers 70% of the worldwide online and instant lottery business, according to its website. With online gaming rules generally prohibitive, "lottery" games face less scrutiny. This is leading to the increase in web sites offering lottery ticket purchasing services, charging premiums on base lottery prices. The legality of such services falls into question across many jurisdictions, especially throughout the United States, as the gambling laws related to lottery play generally have not kept pace with the spread of technology. GTECH Corporation, a company based in West Greenwich, Rhode Island, in the United States became a wholly owned subsidiary of Lottomatica, S.p. ...


Presently, many state lotteries in the USA donate large portions of their proceeds to the public education system. However these funds frequently replace instead of supplement conventional funding, resulting in no additional money for education. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Lottery in Canada

Loto-Quebec promotional photoshoot.

In Canada prior to 1967 buying a ticket on the Irish Sweepstakes was illegal. In that year the federal Liberal government introduced a special law (an Omnibus Bill) intended to bring up-to-date a number of obsolete laws. The Minister of Justice at that time, Pierre-Elliot Trudeau, sponsored the bill. On September 12, 1967, Mr. Trudeau announced that his government would insert an amendment concerning lotteries. Image File history File links Loto-Quebec Template:Handout http://photos. ... Image File history File links Loto-Quebec Template:Handout http://photos. ...


Even while the Omnibus Bill was still being written, Mayor Jean Drapeau of Montreal, trying to recover some of the money spent on the World’s Fair and the new subway system, announced a "voluntary tax". For a $2.00 donation you would be eligible to participate in a draw with a grand prize of $100 000. According to Mayor Drapeau, this "tax" was not a lottery for two reasons. The prizes were given out in the form of silver bars, not money, and the "competitors" chosen in a drawing would have to reply correctly to four questions about Montreal during a second draw. That competition would determine the value of the prize that the winner would win. The replies to the questions were printed on the back of the ticket and therefore the questions would not cause any undue problems. The inaugural draw was held on May 27, 1968.


There were debates in Ottawa and Quebec City about the legality of this 'voluntary tax'. The Minister of Justice alleged it was a lottery. Montreal’s mayor replied that it did not contravene the federal law. While everyone awaited the verdict, the monthly draws went off without a hitch. Players from all over Canada, the United States, Europe, and Asia participated.


On September 14, 1968 the Quebec Appeal Court declared Mayor Drapeau’s "voluntary tax" illegal. However, the municipal authorities did not give up the struggle. The Council announced in November that the City would appeal this decision to the Supreme Court.


As the debate over legalities continued, sales dropped significantly, because many people did not want to participate in anything illegal. Despite offers of new prizes the revenue continued to drop monthly, and by the nineteenth and final draw, was only a little over $800 000.


On December 23, 1969 an amendment was made to the Canadian Criminal Code allowing a provincial government to legally operate lottery systems.


The first provincial lottery in Canada was Quebec's Inter-Loto in 1970. Other provinces and regions introduced their own lotteries through the 1970s, and the federal government ran Loto Canada (originally the Olympic Lottery) for several years starting in the late 1970s to help recoup the expenses of the 1976 Summer Olympics. Lottery wins are generally not subject to Canadian tax, but may be taxable in other jurisdictions, depending on the residency of the winner.[5] The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


Today, Canada has two nation-wide lotteries: Lotto 6/49, and Lotto Super 7 (which started in 1994). These games are administered by the Interprovincial Lottery Corporation, which is a consortium of the five regional lottery commissions, all of which are owned by their respective provincial and territorial governments: Lotto 6/49 is one of Canadas national lottery games, along with Lotto Super 7. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

The Atlantic Lottery Corporation (ALC) is an organization which operates lottery games in Atlantic Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English, Canadian Gaelic Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Loto-Québec is an organization to develop and operate lotteries in Québec. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation (OLG), also known as Ontario Lottery and Gaming is a Crown Corporation of the Government of Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The Western Canada Lottery Corporation (WCLC) is a non-profit organization founded in 1974 that operates lottery and gaming-related activities for its members, the governments of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... This article is about the Canadian province. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... The British Columbia Lottery Corporation (BCLC) is a Crown Corporation of the Province of British Columbia, Canada. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735 km...

Lottery in France

The first known lottery in France was created by King Francis I in or around 1505. After that first attempt, lotteries were forbidden for two centuries. Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ...


They reappeared at the end of 17th century, as a "public lottery" for the Paris municipality (called Loterie de L'Hotel de Ville) and as "private" ones for religious orders (mostly for nuns in convents). Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... A Beguine convent in Amsterdam. ...


Lotteries became quickly one of the most important resources for religious congregations in the 18th century. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Lotteries helped to build or rebuild many churches (about 15 including the biggest ones) in Paris during the 18th century, including St Sulpice and Le Panthéon.


At the beginning of the century, the King avoided having to fund religious orders by giving them the right to run lotteries, but the amounts generated became so large that the second part of the century turned into a struggle between the monarchy and the Church for control of the lotteries. In 1774, the Loterie de L'École Militaire was founded by the monarchy (by Mme de Pompadour to be precise, to buy what is called today the Champ de Mars in Paris, and build a Military Academy that Napoleon Bonaparte would later attend) and all other lotteries, with 3 or 4 minor exceptions, were forbidden. This article is about the capital of France. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des...


This lottery became known a few years later as the Loterie Royale de France. Just before the French Revolution in 1789 the revenues from La Lotterie Royale de France were equivalent to between 5 and 7% of total French revenues. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Throughout the 18th century, philosophers like Voltaire as well as some bishops complained that lotteries exploit the poor. This subject has generated much oral and written debate over the morality of the lottery. A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ...


All lotteries (including state lotteries) were frowned upon by idealists of the French Revolution, who viewed them as a method used by the rich for cheating the poor out of their wages. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ...


The Lottery reappeared in France in 1936, called loto, when socialists needed to increase state revenue. Since that time, La Française des Jeux (government owned) has had a monopoly on most of the games in France, including the lotteries. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Lottery in New Zealand

Lotteries in New Zealand are controlled by the New Zealand government. A state owned trading organisation, the New Zealand Lotteries Commission, operates low prize scratch ticket games and powerball type lotteries with weekly prize jackpots. Lottery profits are distributed by The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board's directly to charities and community organisations. Sport and Recreation New Zealand, Creative New Zealand, and the New Zealand Film Commission are statutory bodies that operate autonomously in distributing their allocations from the Lottery Grants Board. There exist several lotteries in New Zealand all falling under the jurisdiction of the New Zealand Lotteries Commission (NZLC), New Zealand’s only gaming provider. ...


The lotteries are drawn on Saturday and Wednesday. Lotto is sold via a network of computer terminals in shopping centers across the nation. The Lotto game was first played in 1987 and replaced New Zealand's original national lotteries, the Art Union and the Golden Kiwi. Lotto is a pick 6 from 40 numbers game. The odds of winning the first division prize of around NZ$300,000 to NZ$2 million are 1 in 3,838,380.


The Powerball game is the standard pick 6 from 40 lotto numbers with an additional pick 1 from 8 powerball number. This game has odds of 1 in 30,707,040 and a first prize of between NZ$1million and NZ$15million. Big Wednesday is a game played by picking 6 numbers from 45 plus heads or tails from a coin toss. A jackpot cash prize of NZ$1million to NZ$15 million is supplemented with product prizes such as Porsches, boats and holiday homes. The odds of winning first prize are 1 in 16,290,120. Results services for these games can be found at NZ Lotto Results.


Probability of winning

The chances of winning a lottery jackpot are principally determined by several factors: the count of possible numbers, the count of winning numbers drawn, whether or not order is significant and whether drawn numbers are returned for the possibility of further drawing. Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... Jackpot is: A former British comic. ...


In a typical 6 from 49 lotto, 6 numbers are drawn from 49 and if the 6 numbers on a ticket match the numbers drawn, the ticket holder is a jackpot winner - this is true regardless of the order in which the numbers are drawn. The odds of being the jackpot winner are approximately 1 in 14 million (13,983,816 to be exact). The derivation of this result (and other winning scores) is shown in the Lottery mathematics article. To put these odds in context, suppose one buys one lottery ticket per week. 13,983,816 weeks is roughly 269,000 years; In the quarter-million years of play, one would only expect to win the jackpot once. This article discusses the way to calculate various probabilities in a lottery game in which one selects 6 numbers from 49, and hopes that as many of those 6 as possible match the 6 that are randomly selected from the same pool of 49 numbers in the draw. // [edit] Calculation...


The odds of winning any actual lottery can vary widely depending on lottery design. Mega Millions is a very popular multi-state lottery in the United States which is known for jackpots that grow very large from time to time. This attractive feature is made possible simply by designing the game to be extremely difficult to win: 1 chance in 175,711,536. That's over twelve times higher than the example above. Mega Millions players also pick six numbers, but two different "bags" are used. The first five numbers come from one bag that contains numbers from 1 to 56. The sixth number -- the "Mega Ball number" -- comes from the second bag, which contains numbers from 1 to 46. To win a Mega Millions jackpot, a player's five regular numbers must match the five regular numbers drawn and the Mega Ball number must match the Mega Ball number drawn. In other words, it is not good enough to pick 10, 18, 25, 33, 42 / 7 when the drawing is 7, 10, 25, 33, 42 / 18. Even though the player picked all the right numbers, the Mega Ball number at the end of the ticket doesn't match the one drawn, so the ticket would be credited with matching only four numbers (10, 25, 33, 42). Mega Millions logo Mega Millions is a multi-state US$1 lottery game in the United States. ...


The SuperEnalotto of Italy is supposedly the most difficult where players try to match 6 numbers out of 90. The odds in making the jackpot: 1 in 622,614,630. SuperEnalotto is a lottery played in Italy since 1997. ...


Most lotteries give lesser prizes for matching just some of the winning numbers. The Mega Millions game is an extreme case, giving a very small payout (US$2) even if a player matches only the Mega Ball number at the end of your ticket. Matching more numbers, the payout goes up. Although none of these additional prizes affect the chances of winning the jackpot, they do improve the odds of winning something and therefore add a little to the value of the ticket. In most lotteries, if a large amount of smaller prizes are awarded, the jackpot will be reduced, in a similar manner that if the jackpot is divided if multiple players have tickets with all the winning numbers. In general, the economic value of something is how much a product or service is worth to someone relative to other things (often measured in money). ...


In the UK National Lottery the smallest prize is £10 for matching three balls. There exists a Wheeling Challenge to create the smallest set of tickets to cover enough combinations to ensure that any 6 numbers drawn will match against at least 3 numbers on at least one of the tickets. The current record is 163 tickets.


The expected value of lottery bets is often notably bad. In the United States, an expected value of 50% of the purchase price is common. For instance, when the player buys a lottery ticket for, say, $10 he obtains a financial asset with an expected value of only $5. Hence, buying a lottery ticket reduces the buyers expected net worth. This is in contrast with financial securities like stocks and bonds whose prices are theoretically based on their expected real values, as expected by the markets at any given point in time. In probability theory the expected value (or mathematical expectation) of a random variable is the sum of the probability of each possible outcome of the experiment multiplied by its payoff (value). Thus, it represents the average amount one expects as the outcome of the random trial when identical odds are...


In a famous occurrence, a Polish-Irish businessman named Stefan Klincewicz bought up almost all of the 1,947,792 combinations available on the Irish lottery. He and his associates paid less than one million Irish pounds while the jackpot stood at £1.7 million. There were three winning tickets, but with the "Match 4" and "Match 5" prizes, Klincewicz made a small profit overall. The corporate logo. ... The corporate logo. ...


Notable prizes

Prize Lottery Country Name Date Notes
$390m Mega Millions United States Won by one ticket holder from New Jersey and one from Georgia 6 March 2007 World's largest jackpot
$365m Powerball United States One ticket bought jointly by eight co-workers at a Nebraska meat processing plant 18 February 2006 World's largest single winner
$363m The Big Game United States Two winning tickets: Larry and Nancy Ross (Michigan), Joe and Sue Kainz (Illinois) 9 May 2000 The Big Game is now named Mega Millions
€180m ($238m) EuroMillions France(2), Portugal(1) Three ticket holders 3 February 2006 Europe's largest jackpot
€115m ($152m) EuroMillions Ireland Dolores McNamara 29 July 2005 Europe's largest single winner and the world's largest single payout.
€71.8m ($91.6m) SuperEnalotto Italy One ticket bought jointly by ten bar customers in Milan 4 May 2005 Largest Italian prize
£42m ($81m) National Lottery United Kingdom Three ticket holders 6 January 1996 Largest UK prize
£35.4m ($71.4m) EuroMillions UK Angela Kelly, 40, East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire [6] 10 August 2007 Largest UK single winner
€37.6m ($49.6m) National Lottery Germany Won by a male nurse from North Rhine-Westphalia 7 October 2006 Largest German prize and single winner
€16.2 m ($22.2m) National Lottery Ireland Paul and Helen Cunningham 28 July 2007 Biggest single winner and jackpot (Ireland)

Sources:
http://www.usamega.com/archive-052000.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4746057.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4676172.stm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4740982.stm
http://www.sisal.it/se/se_main/1,4136,se_Record_Default,00.html
is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dolores McNamara (born January 13, 1960 in Blackpool, England) is the largest individual prizewinner in European lottery history. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On 20 September 2005 a primary school boy in Italy won £27.6 million in the national lottery. Although children are not allowed to gamble under Italian law, children are allowed to play the lottery. [7]


Payment of prizes

Winnings are not necessarily paid out in a lump sum, contrary to the expectation of many lottery participants. In certain countries, such as the USA, the winner gets to choose between an annuity payment and a one-time payment. The one-time payment is much smaller, indeed often only half, of the advertised lottery jackpot, even before applying any withholding tax to which the prize may be subject. The annuity option provides regular payments over a period that may range from 10 to 40 years. The principle of a withholding tax is that it is withheld (retained) by the payer and given directly to the taxation authorities. ...


In some online lotteries, the annual payments can be as little as $25,000 over 40 years, with a balloon payment in the final year. This type of installment payment is often made through investment in government-backed securities. Online lotteries pay the winners through their insurance backup. However, many winners choose to take the lump-sum payment, since they believe they can get a better rate of return on their investment elsewhere. Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


In some countries, lottery winnings are not subject to personal income tax, so there are no tax consequences to consider in choosing a payment option. In Canada, Australia, Ireland, and the United Kingdom all prizes are immediately paid out as one lump sum, tax-free to the winner. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income...


In the United States, federal courts have consistently held that a lump sum payments received from third parties in exchange for the rights to lottery annuities are not capital assets for tax purpose. Rather, the lump sum is subject to ordinary income tax treatment.


Scams and frauds

Lottery, like any form of gambling, is susceptible to fraud, despite the high degree of scrutiny claimed by the organizers. One method involved is to tamper with the machine used for the number selection. By rigging a machine, it is theoretically easy to win a lottery. This act is often done in connivance with an employee of the lottery firm. Methods used vary; loaded balls where select balls are made to pop-up making it either lighter or heavier than the rest. All balls should be independantly verified for materials, size, pressure, suseptibility to magnetism, and other qualities. Image File history File links Ambox_emblem_question. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


The most infamous case of insider lottery fraud was in Pennsylvania in 1980. The Pennsylvania lottery determined its winner by an air blower, where three numbers would bubble up. By injecting fluid into every ball except those numbered 4 and 6, and then buying tickets with every combination of 4 and 6, lottery personnel guaranteed themselves big winnings. On a game that is based on the basis of get rich quick, those on the inside can be tempted to cash in on the winnings themselves. Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


In some US States, such as Kansas and Minnesota, losing lottery tickets can be mailed in for a raffle of special prizes. The trouble with that is that employees of stores that sell lottery tickets sometimes collect the lottery tickets that are thrown away and send them in. As a lottery official put it "The retailers have an unlimited supply of free tickets. You do not need to be an FBI agent to realize that is a tremendously unfair advantage." [2] Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... A typical Neapolitan tombola. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Some advance fee fraud scams on the Internet are based on lotteries. The fraud starts with spam congratulating the recipient on their recent lottery win. The email explains that in order to release funds the email recipient must part with a certain amount (as tax/fees) as per the rules or risk forfeiture. An advance fee fraud is a confidence trick in which the target is persuaded to advance relatively small sums of money in the hope of realizing a much larger gain. ... E-mail spam, also known as bulk e-mail or junk e-mail is a subset of spam that involves sending nearly identical messages to numerous recipients by e-mail. ...


Another form of lottery scam involves the selling of "systems" which purport to improve a player's chances of selecting the winning numbers in a Lotto game. These scams are generally based on the buyer's (and perhaps the seller's) misunderstanding of probability and random numbers. Sale of these systems or software is legal, however, since they mention that the product cannot guarantee a win, let alone a jackpot.


See also

In mathematics, a combinadic is an ordered integer partition, or composition. ... For factorial rings in mathematics, see unique factorisation domain. ... Caravaggio, The Cardsharps, c. ... GTECH Corporation, a company based in West Greenwich, Rhode Island, in the United States became a wholly owned subsidiary of Lottomatica, S.p. ... This article describes the lottery game. ... This article is about fortune. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Footy tipping. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... e-Lottery is an Internet gambling firm mentioned in the Jack Abramoff Indian lobbying scandal because of its employment of Christian political activist Ralph Reed to oppose a federal ban on Internet gambling. ...

References

  1. ^ Bellhouse, D.R., “The Genoese Lottery”, Statistical Science, vol. 6, No. 2. (May, 1991), pp. 141 -148
  2. ^ "Legalized Gambling; America's Bad Bet" by John Eidsmoe

(3). The Lottery Encylopedia, 1986 by Ron Shelley (NY Public Library) (4). A History of English Lotteries, by John Ashton, London: Leadenhall Press 1893 (5). Fortune's Merry Wheel, by John Samuel Ezell, Harvard University Press 1960.


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Lottery
  • World Lottery Association
  • North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries
  • Multi-State Lottery Association
  • FTC Consumer Alert on International Lotteries
  • Euler's Analysis of the Genoese Lottery at Convergence

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