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Encyclopedia > Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor
Seal of Lothair III. on a deed from 1131
Seal of Lothair III. on a deed from 1131

Lothair III of Supplinburg (10751137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. He was the son of Count Gebhard of Supplinburg. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 581 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1916 × 1976 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   Siegel Kaiser w:de:Lotahr III. (HRR) auf einer Urkunde aus dem Jahr 1131, Bestätigung eines Schiffahrtsrechtes an die Abtei von Echternach Faithful reproductions of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 581 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1916 × 1976 pixel, file size: 486 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)   Siegel Kaiser w:de:Lotahr III. (HRR) auf einer Urkunde aus dem Jahr 1131, Bestätigung eines Schiffahrtsrechtes an die Abtei von Echternach Faithful reproductions of... Süpplingenburg is a municipality of 700 inhabitants (2003) in the district of Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony comprised lands in the north-westen part of present-day Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and to Westphalia. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... The following list of German Kings and Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun June 4 - Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II Births March 5 - King Henry II of England (died 1189) Honen Shonin, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (died 1212...

Contents

A note on the ordinal

The numbering of German rulers generally follows a sequence that leads back to the Carolingian empire and the East Frankish kingdom that emerged from it. Lothair III is thus seen as a successor of Emperor Lothair I (ruled 843-855) and King Lothair II of Lotharingia (ruled 855-869), most of whose kingdom was eventually absorbed into Germany. However, because Lothair II was not Emperor and did not rule Germany proper, some historians do not count him in the German sequence and thus call Lothair of Supplinburg Lothair II rather than Lothair III. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Lothair I Lothair I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 2 March 855), king of Italy (818 – 855) and Holy Roman Emperor (840 – 855), was the eldest son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his wife Ermengarde of Hesbaye, daughter of Ingerman, duke of Hesbaye. ... Lothair (825 - August 8, 869), was the second son of the emperor Lothair I. On his fathers death in 855, he received for his kingdom a district lying west of the Rhine, between the North Sea and the Jura mountains, which was called Regnum Lotharii and early in the...


Rise to power

Little is known of Lothair's youth. He was a posthumous child, born in June 1075 shortly after his father, Gebhard of Supplinburg, died in battle against the Emperor Henry IV. HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ...


After years of purchasing lands or gaining them via inheritance or marriage alliances throughout Saxony, Lothair gained the domains of the Billung, Nordheim and Brunswick families and became one of the dominant landowners in the northern duchy. He was made Duke of Saxony in 1106 by Emperor Henry V in exchange for his help against Henry's father, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Emboldened by the promotion, and incensed over the imposition of a new tax on ducal lords, Lothair subsequently revolted against Henry's rule and denied Henry's ability to rule Saxony during the Investiture Controversy. In 1115 his forces defeated those of the Emperor in the Battle of Welfesholz. The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ... Henry IV (left) and son Henry V (right). ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Events Clairvaux Abbey is founded by St. ... Combatants Saxony Holy Roman Empire Commanders Lothair I of Supplinburg Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor The Battle of Welfesholz was fought in 1115 between the armies of the Holy Roman Empire, and a rebellious Saxon force. ...


When Henry died in 1125, Lothair was viewed by the imperial chancellor, the Archbishop of Mainz, as a perfect candidate. As an extensive landowner, he brought power to the table, but he was old (slightly over fifty years of age) and had no male issue, potentially making him malleable for the nobility. He was therefore elected king of Germany after a contentious power struggle with Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, head of the Hohenstaufen. His election was notable in that it marked a departure from the concept of hereditary succession. Somewhat naive concerning the complex power struggle between the papacy and the empire, Lothair also consented to several symbolic acts that were subsequently interpreted by Rome as signaling acceptance of papal confirmation of his position. Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... Between 780/82 AD and 1802 AD the Archbishop of Mainz, was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince of the middle ages. ... Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1090 – April 6, 1147) was duke of Swabia. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ...


A campaign undertaken in the same year against Bohemia ended in defeat, making for a less than great start by Lothair. Among those imprisoned by the Bohemians was Albert of Ascanian, future Margrave of Brandenburg. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Albert I (c. ...


Dispute with the Staufens

During his reign, a succession dispute broke out between the houses of Welf and Staufen, the latter which was led by Frederick II and his brother Duke Conrad of Franconia. The Staufens, in addition to claiming the private Salian lands which clearly fell to them, also claimed all of the crown lands gained under Henry IV and Henry V. Lothair's attempts to seize the crown lands following approval from a group of nobles meeting in Regensburg provoked Staufen reaction. Frederick of Swabia was placed under the imperial ban, Conrad was deprived of Franconia, and the rectorate of Burgundy passed to Conrad of Zähringen. The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Conrad III (1093-1152), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia. ... Franconia (German: Franken) is a historic region in modern Germany, which today forms three administrative regions of the German federal state of Bavaria: Lower Franconia (Unterfranken), Middle Franconia (Mittelfranken), and Upper Franconia (Oberfranken). ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Zähringen is the name of an old and influential German noble family, taken from the castle and village of that name. ...


The Staufens, who had the support of their own lands plus support in many imperial cities, Austria and the Duchy of Swabia, raised Conrad as anti-king Conrad III. In 1128 he was crowned King of Italy by the Anselm V, Archbishop of Milan. Lothair took advantage of Conrad's expedition into Italy and his lack of resources by attacking the Staufens in Germany. Nürnberg and Speyer, two strong cities in support of the opposition, fell in 1129. Conrad's failure to make anything of his position in Italy, causing him to return in 1130 without anything to show for it, assured at least a partial victory for the king. In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Germany. ... An Antiking (German: ) is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch. ... Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Anselm V (Italian: Anselmo della Pusterla) was the Archbishop of Milan from 30 June 1126 to his deposition early in 1135. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Nuremberg coat of arms Location of Nuremberg Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Events Emperor Toba of Japan begins his cloistered rule sharing power with Sutuku, ex-emperor Shirakawas son. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ...


Relations with the Papacy

In the double papal election of 1130, both sides campaigned for Lothair's support. The king had an opportunity to take advantage of the situation and reassert imperial control over the papacy, but choosing instead to deal with the Staufen resistance, he let his inferiors make the decision. Anacletus II offered Lothair the Imperial crown, but in the end Innocent II gained his support, and he promised to escort the new pope back to Rome. In 1131 the two met at Liège, where the king demonstrated subservience to the pope, and his request that investiture be restored to him was ignored. He also agreed to assist Innocent against King Roger II of Sicily, an ally of Anacletus. Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierloni, (died January 25, 1138) was an Antipope that ruled between 1131 to his death, in a schism against the contested hasty election of Pope Innocent II. Pietro was born in a powerful Roman family and, as second son, was destined to the church. ... Innocent II, né Gregory Papareschi (d. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Liège (Dutch: Luik, German: Lüttich; before 1946, the citys name was written Liége, with the acute accent) is a major city located in the Belgian province of Liège, of which it is the capital. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ...


The force Lothair took with him into Italy in 1132 was not strong, due to his leaving troops in Germany to prevent the Hohenstaufen from revolting. Carefully avoiding the cities, which were hostile, he reached Rome in 1133, which was mostly held by Anacletus. As St. Peter's Basilica was closed to them, Innocent instead crowned Lothair as emperor in the Lateran. The emperor continued giving little or no resistance against papal interference with his power; he even ignored a bull by Innocent which stated that the emperor's authority derived from him. He also recognized papal claims to the Matildine lands (formerly owned by Countess Matilda), in exchange receiving those lands as fiefs. Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... Events Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae Durham Cathedral is completed Construction of Exeter Cathedral begun June 4 - Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II Births March 5 - King Henry II of England (died 1189) Honen Shonin, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (died 1212... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica of St. ... Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 - July 24, 1114), was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ...


Campaign against Sicily

Returning to Germany, he set out to create peace. The Staufen brothers, falling short on resources, were compelled to submit. The Reichstag in Bamberg in 1135 pardoned the two brothers and restored them to their lands. In return, they recognized Lothair as emperor and promised to assist him in another Italian campaign, and a ten-year Landpeace was declared. Bamberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ...


In 1136, at the insistence of Innocent and Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, the campaign began, directed against Roger of Sicily. Two main armies, one led by Lothair, the other by Henry the Proud of Bavaria, entered Italy. On the river Tronto, Count William of Loritello did homage to Lothair and opened the gates of Termoli to him. This was followed by Count Hugh II of Molise. Advancing deep into the southern part of the peninsula, the two armies met at Bari, and continued further south in 1137. Roger offered to give Apulia as a fief of the Empire to one of his sons and give another son as a hostage -- terms which Lothair refused after being pressured by Innocent. Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Mosaic of John II John II Comnenus (September 13, 1087 - April 8, 1143) was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. ... Henry II, known as the Proud (1108 - October 20, 1139) was Duke of Saxony (1138-1139) and Duke of Bavaria (1126-1139) as Henry X. He was the son of Henry the Black Duke of Bavaria, and Wulfhild, daughter of Magnus Billung, Duke of Saxony, and thus a member of... William was the son and successor of Count Robert II of Loritello in 1137. ... Termoli is a medium-sized town on the Adriatic coast of Italy, in the province of Campobasso, region of Molise. ... Location within Italy Bari is the capital of the province of Bari and of the Apulia (or Puglia) region, on the Adriatic sea, in Italy. ... This article is about the Italian region. ...


The German troops, however, were adamant against campaigning during the hot summer and revolted. The emperor, who had hoped for the complete conquest of Sicily, instead separated Capua and Apulia from Roger's kingdom and gave them to Roger's enemies. Innocent, however, protested, claiming that Apulia fell under papal claims; the two eventually jointly enfeoffed the duchy to Rainulf of Alife. Lothair turned north, but died while crossing the Alps in December 1137. Shortly beforehand, he gave his Tuscan Matildine lands to his son-in-law, Henry the Proud of Bavaria, and his last acts were to give him also the Duchy of Saxony and the imperial regalia. However, the kingship subsequently ended up in the hands of the Staufens, destroying Lothair's hopes for a powerful Welf hereditary monarchy. He is entombed in the monastery church of Königslutter. Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Königslutter am Elm is a city of 17,000 inhabitants (2003) in the district of Helmstedt, Lower Saxony, Germany, near the Elm hills. ...


Actions in the North and East

The emperor's most long-lasting contribution to Germany came from his actions in the north and east. Being a Saxon, he gave more attention to the region than previous emperors. Even before becoming German king, he had given control of Holstein and Stormarn to Adolf I of Schauenburg. In 1134 he appointed the Ascanian Albert as margrave of Brandenburg. In 1136 he appointed Conrad the Great of Wettin, already margrave of Meissen, to the position of margrave of Lausitz, uniting the two marches. In addition, he petitioned the pope to expand the rights of the Archbishops of Bremen and Magdeburg in the area. King Eric II of Denmark was made a vassal of the emperor in 1135, becoming a member of the Reichstag. Successful diplomatic intervention by Lothair in ending war between Poland and Bohemia resulted in the Polish Duke's Bolesław III Wrymouth submission and his payment of tribute that was long overdue. In addition, the Polish Duke had to accept Pomerania and Rügen as fiefs of the Empire. Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Stormarn is a district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Schloss ruine Schauenburg is a ruined castle on the near the borders of France and Germany, it is in the commune of Liestal, Switzerland. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Erik II Emune (c. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... BolesÅ‚aw III Wrymouth. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ...


Issue

By his wife, Richeza of Northeim, Lothair had only one surviving child, a daughter Gertrude, born 1118. In order to secure Welf support for his election, Lothair married Gertrude to Henry the Proud, the duke of Bavaria, in 1127. Their son was Henry the Lion. Richenza of Northeim (c. ... Gertrud of Süpplingenburg (18. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Henry, known as the Proud (around 1108 – October 20, 1139), was Duke of Bavaria (Henry X, 1126-1139), Duke of Saxony (Henry II, 1138-1139), and Margrave of Tuscany (1137-1139). ... Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since...


References

  • Karl Hampe (1973). Germany Under the Salian and Hohenstaufen Emperors. ISBN 0-631-14180-4
  • Encyclopædia Britannica: Lothair II
Preceded by
Henry V
Roman-German-Italian King
11251137
Succeeded by
Conrad III
Preceded by
Henry V
Holy Roman Emperor
11331137
Succeeded by
Frederick I Barbarossa
Preceded by
Magnus
Duke of Saxony
11061137
Succeeded by
Henry II, the Proud

 
 

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