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Encyclopedia > Lordship of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland

1171 – 1541

Coat of arms1 of Ireland Arms of the Kings of Ireland1 Capital Hill of Tara (ceremonial) Language(s) Irish Government Monarchy High King  - 1002-1014 Brian Boru  - 1151-1154 Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair History  - Established prehistory  - Norman invasion 1 May 1169  - Flight of the Earls September, 1607 1 The Wijnbergen Roll dating from c. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1552 × 2008 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/png) Coat of Arms of the Lordship of Ireland: Azure, three crowns Or, bordure Argent. ...


Coat of arms1 This is a list of flags which have been, or are still today, in the Republic of Ireland. ...

Capital Dublin
Language(s) Norman French, Irish, Welsh, English
Government Monarchy
Lord of Ireland
 - 1171-1189 Henry II
 - 1509-1541 Henry VIII
Lord Lieutenant
 - 1528-1529 Piers Butler
 - 1540–1548 Anthony St Leger
Legislature Parliament of Ireland
 - Upper house Irish House of Lords
 - Lower house Irish House of Commons
History
 - Established 1171
 - Act of the Irish Parliament 1541
1 The Lordship of Ireland did not have an official flag. A commission of Edward IV into the arms of Ireland found these to be the arms of the Lordship. The heraldic description is Azure, three crowns Or, bordure Argent. Typically bordered arms represent the younger branch of a family or maternal descent.

The Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541) was the nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169-71. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... The Norman language is a Romance language, one of the Oïl languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The title of Lord of Ireland was created for King Henry II of England in 1171. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the... Piers Butler, 8th Earl of Ormonde (c. ... Anthony St Leger is the name of at least two people, including: Anthony St Leger (Lord Deputy of Ireland) (1496-1559) Anthony St Leger (soldier), also MP for Grimsby and Governor of Saint Lucia (1731-1786) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... The former House of Lords chamber in the Irish Parliament Building, today in use as a function room by the Bank of Ireland. ... The Irish House of Commons by Francis Wheatley (1780) The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, that existed from mediæval times until 1800. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Combatants Normans: Leinster,  England,  Fleming,  Welsh, Irish Kingdoms: Ulster, Munster Connaught  Norsemen Commanders Dermot MacMurrough, King Henry II, Strongbow, Raymond Carew, Richard Fitz Godbert Rhys ap Gruffydd, Maurice Fitz Gerald, Robert Fitz Stephen, Rory OConnor Askuluv Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ...

Contents

Background

The authority of the Lordship of Ireland's government was seldom extended throughout the island of Ireland at any time during its existence but was restricted to the Pale around Dublin, and some provincial towns, including Cork, Limerick, Waterford, Wexford and their hinterlands. It owed its origins to the decision of a Leinster dynast, Diarmait Mac Murchada (Diarmuid MacMorrough), to bring in a Norman knight based in Wales, Richard de Clare (alias 'Strongbow'), to aid him in his battle to regain his throne, after being overthrown by a confederation led by the new Irish High King (the previous incumbent had protected MacMurrough). Henry II of England, who reigned over England and ruled over parts of France, invaded Ireland to control Strongbow, whom he feared was becoming a threat to the stability of his own kingdom on its western fringes (there had been earlier fears that Saxon refugees might use either Ireland or Flanders as a base for a counter-offensive after 1066); ironically, much of the later Plantagenet consolidation of South Wales was in furtherance of holding open routes to Ireland. A pale is a territory or jurisdiction (possibly non-territorial) under a given authority, or the limits of such a jurisdiction. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 37. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference R574572 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 20. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... Dermot MacMorrough, is considered the most noted traitor of Irish history, also commonly known as Dermot naNGhall (Dermot of the foreigners) was the King of the eastern Irish province of Leinster who invited King Henry II of England to invade Ireland to assist him in regaining his throne of Leinster... Richard fits Gilbert de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke (c. ... The term Strongbow may refer to two different affairs: Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, a Norman earl also known by the nickname Strongbow Strongbow Cider, a brand of cider Beleg Cúthalion (meaning, literally, Strongbow), a companion of Túrin Turambar in JRR Tolkiens Quenta Silmarillion. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... This article is about the country. ...


Laudabiliter 1155

Another reason King Henry invaded Ireland was because Pope Adrian IV, the only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair, had issued a papal bull Laudabiliter (1155) authorizing the English monarch to take possession of Ireland. Religious practices in Ireland and organisation had evolved divergently from those of areas of Europe influenced more directly by the Holy See, although many of these differences had been eliminated or greatly lessened by the time the bull was issued in 1155. Further, the former Irish church had never sent its dues ('tithes') to Rome. Despite this, many historians argue that Henry's primary motivation for invading Ireland was to control Strongbow and other Norman lords. Civility and inclusion had a cost. Adrian IV (also known as Hadrian IV), born Nicholas Breakspear ( 1100 - September 1, 1159) was pope from 1154 to 1159. ... In 1155, Pope Adrian IV issued a papal bull Laudabiliter giving the English King Henry II lordship over Ireland. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries, that is among “Celtic”/“British” peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, etc. ...


The pope asserted the right to grant sovereignty over islands to different monarchs on the basis of a document, later found to be a forgery, called the Donation of Constantine. If forged, its effect was anyway confirmed by Pope Alexander III and then by the Irish bishops at the Synod of Cashel in 1172. The papal bull gave the Norman-English kings the title "Lord of Ireland". A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ... Cashel (Irish: An Caisleán) is a town in County Tipperary, Republic of Ireland, located south of the midlands of Ireland. ... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ...


John, Lord in 1185-1199

Having captured a small part of Ireland on the east coast, Henry used the land to solve a dispute dividing his family. For while he had divided his territories between his sons, one son, nicknamed "John Lackland", was left without lands to rule, hence the nickname. Henry granted John his Irish lands, becoming Lord of Ireland (Dominus Hiberniae) in 1185, with the territory becoming the Lordship of Ireland. Events April 25 - Genpei War - Naval battle of Dan-no-ura leads to Minamoto victory in Japan Templars settle in London and begin the building of New Temple Church End of the Heian Period and beginning of the Kamakura period in Japan. ...


Fate, however, intervened in the form of the deaths of John/Jean's older brothers. As a result, he became King John of England, and the Lordship of Ireland, instead of being a separate country governed separately by a junior Norman prince, became a territorial possession of the Norman-English Crown. This article is about the King of England. ...


Progress and decline

The Lordship thrived in the 1200s, a time of warm climate and better harvests. Some new elements of Irish life were introduced. Some counties were created by shiring and townlands with ancient boundaries adopted the prefix 'bally-' from the Norman 'ville'. Walled towns and castles became a feature of the landscape. But little of this engagement with mainstream European life was of benefit to those the Normans called the 'mere Irish'. 'Mere' derived from the Latin merus, meaning pure.


The Lordship suffered invasion by Edward Bruce in 1315-18 which destroyed much of the economy. The earldom of Ulster ended in 1333 and the Black Death of 1348-50 impacted more on the town-dwelling Normans than on the remaining Gaelic clans. Historians refer to a Gaelic revival between 1350 and 1500, by which time the area ruled for the Crown - the 'Pale' - had shrunk to a small area around Dublin. // Edward Bruce (Edubard a Briuis as he was known in medieval Gaelic), (c. ... It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... Gaelic as an adjective means pertaining to the Gaels, whether to their language or their culture. ...


Between 1500 and 1541 a mixed situation arose. Most clans remained loyal most of the time, using a Gaelic-style system of alliances centred around the Lord Deputy who was usually the earl of Kildare. However a rebellion by Kildare's heir Silken Thomas in 1535 led on to a less sympathetic system of rule by mainly English-born administrators. The rebellion and Henry VIII's seizure of the Irish monasteries around 1540 led on to his plan to create a new kingdom based on the existing parliament. The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the Lordship of Ireland (1171—1541), the Kingdom of... Earl of Kildare is an Irish peerage title. ... Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare (1513–1537), also known as Silken Thomas, was a figure in Irish History. ...


Lordship to Kingdom, 1541

English monarchs continued to use the title "Lord of Ireland" to refer to their position of conquered lands on the island of Ireland. The title was changed by the Crown of Ireland Act passed by the Irish Parliament in 1541, when on Henry VIII's demand, he was granted a new title, King of Ireland, with the state renamed the Kingdom of Ireland. Henry VIII changed his title because the Lordship of Ireland had been granted to the Norman monarchy by the Papacy and Henry was unpopular with the Catholic Church, which meant that the title could be seen as dubious or be withdrawn by the Holy See. So because of the King of England's split with Rome he had to change his Irish title. Henry VIII also wanted Ireland to be become a full kingdom to encourage a greater sense of loyalty amongst his Irish subjects, some of whom took part in his policy of Surrender and regrant. The Crown of Ireland Act 1542 was an act of the Parliament of Ireland (33 Hen 8 c. ... This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541... In the history of Ireland, surrender and regrant was the legal mechanism by which Ireland was converted from a power structure rooted in clan and kin loyalties to a semi-feudal system under the nominal control of the crown of England during the Tudor re-conquest of Ireland. ...


Parliaments and great Councils 1318 - 1369

  • 1310 Kilkenny
  • 1320 Dublin
  • 1324 Dublin
  • 1327 Dublin
  • 1328 Kilkenny
  • 1329 Dublin
  • 1330 Kilkenny
  • 1331 Kilkenny
  • 1331 Dublin
  • 1341 Dublin
  • 1346 Kilkenny
  • 1350 Kilkenny
  • 1351 Kilkenny
  • 1351 Dublin
  • 1353 Dublin
  • 1357 Kilkenny
  • 1359 Kilkenny
  • 1359 Waterford
  • 1360 Kilkenny
  • 1366 Kilkenny
  • 1369 Dublin

See also

The title of Lord of Ireland was created for King Henry II of England in 1171. ...

References

  • Norman Davies, The Isles: A History (Palgrave-Macmillan, 1999) (ISBN 0-333-76370-X)
  • Robin Frame; English Lordship in Ireland 1318 - 1361 (Clarendon Press, 1982) ISBN 0-19-822673-X
Preceded by
High Kings of Ireland
Lordship of Ireland Succeeded by
Kingdom of Ireland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikinfo | Lordship of Ireland (455 words)
Ireland in the century prior to the Anglo-Norman invasion of 1169 is probably best described as a national kingdom lacking a settled monarchy, the kingship being disputed by three regional dynasties.
The Lordship of Ireland (1171-1541) was a nominally all-island Irish state created in the wake of the Norman invasion of the east coast of Ireland in 1169, an area that became known in the later middle ages as the 'pale' or 'Pale of Dublin' from its defences in imitation of the earlier-named 'Pale of Calais'.
As a result, he became King John of England, and the Lordship of Ireland, instead of being a separate area governed by a minor English prince, became a territorial possession of the English Crown.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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