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Encyclopedia > Lords Spiritual
United Kingdom

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United Kingdom
Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Politics of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland take place in the framework of a constitutional monarchy in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government. ...










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The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal. The Church of Scotland, which is Presbyterian, is not represented by spiritual peers. The Anglican Churches in Wales and Northern Ireland are no longer established churches and are therefore not represented either. The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom and in the British overseas territories. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... Tony Blair at PMQs Prime Ministers Questions (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada this convention... Her Majestys Government, or when the Sovereign is male, His Majestys Government, abbreviated HMG or HM Government, is the formal title used by the Government of the United Kingdom. ... In the Politics of the United Kingdom, the Cabinet is a formal body comprised of government officials chosen by the Prime Minister. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The office of Deputy Prime Minister is one that has only existed occasionally in the history of the United Kingdom. ... John Leslie Prescott MP (born 31 May 1938) is a British Labour Party politician, Deputy Prime Minister, First Secretary of State and Member of Parliament for the North East constituency of Hull East. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British cabinet minister responsible for all financial matters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Margaret Mary Beckett (née Jackson) (born 15 January 1943) is a British Labour Party politician who is currently Member of Parliament (MP) for Derby South and, since May 6, 2006, the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ... John Reid (born 8 May 1947) is a Scottish politician who is Home Secretary and Member of Parliament (MP) for the Scottish constituency of Airdrie and Shotts in the United Kingdom. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Lord Falconer of Thoroton Charles Leslie Falconer, Baron Falconer of Thoroton, PC, QC (born 19 November 1951) is a British barrister and Labour Party politician. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... The British civil service is the permanent bureaucracy that supports the Government Ministers responsible to the Sovereign and Parliament in administering the United Kingdom. ... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom, positions he has occupied since December 2005. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system—England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... The National Assembly for Wales (NAW or NAfW) (Welsh: ) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales. ... The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru, LlCC) is the executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The United Kingdom has five distinct types of elections: general, local, regional, European and mayoral. ... Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005. ... Under the provisions of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the next United Kingdom general election must be held on or before 3 June 2010. ... This is a list of political parties in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ... British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) conducting diplomacy, hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... In the United Kingdom Parliament the Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords due to appointment as Life Peers or inheriting the title as an Hereditary peer, although the hereditary rights to the house of lords was abolished in 1999. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS, known informally as The Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is the national church of Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... In English history, the Established Church is the Church of England, the church which is established by the Government, supported by it, and of which the monarch is the titular head; until 1920 it also held the same position in Wales. ...

Contents

Ranks and Titles

The Church of England comprises 44 dioceses; each diocese is led by a bishop. The diocesan bishops of Canterbury and York are Archbishops, who also have oversight over their respective Provinces. Two dioceses—the Diocese of Sodor and Man (the Isle of Man) and the Diocese of Gibraltar (Continental Europe) —lie outside Great Britain. Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... An ecclesiastical province is a unit of religious government existing in certain Christian churches. ... Sodor and Man is a diocese of the Church of England. ... The Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe (also called simply the Diocese in Europe) is geographically the largest diocese of the Church of England, covering Morocco, Europe (excluding the United Kingdom and Ireland but including Iceland), Turkey, and the entire Russian Federation. ...


The occupants of the five "great sees" — Canterbury, York, London, Durham and Winchester — are always spiritual peers and Lords of Parliament. The Bishop of Sodor and Man and the Bishop of Gibraltar (in Europe) may not sit in the House of Lords regardless of seniority as their dioceses lie outside Great Britain. The former, though, sits on the Isle of Man's Legislative Council ex officio. Of the remaining 37 bishops, the 21 most senior sit in the House of Lords. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ... The Legislative Council of the Isle of Man is the upper Branch of Tynwald, the Manx legislature. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ...


Theoretically, the power to elect Archbishops and Bishops is vested in the diocesan Cathedral's College of Canons. Practically, however, the choice of the Bishop or Archbishop is made prior to the election. The Prime Minister chooses from amongst a set of nominees proposed by the Crown Nominations Commission; the Sovereign then instructs the College of Canons to elect the nominated individual as a Bishop or Archbishop. See appointment of Church of England bishops. The Appointment of Church of England diocesan bishops follows a somewhat convoluted process, reflecting the churchs traditional tendency towards compromise and ad-hoc solutions, traditional ambiguity between heirarchy and democracy, and traditional role as a semi-autonomous state church. ...


Seniority is determined by length of service as an English diocesan bishop (that is to say, it is not lost by translation to another see).


Lords Spiritual as Peers

Authorities differ on whether the Lords Spiritual are peers. Some contend that archbishops and diocesan bishops are peers during their tenures in the House of Lords, while others argue that only the Lords Temporal are peers. Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage, for example, unequivocally states, "Diocesan Bishops of England in the Lords are — peers of the kingdom." On the other hand, the Encyclopedia Britannica of 1911 suggests, "the spiritual lords are not now regarded as peers."


Even during the early years of the Peerage, the position of bishops was unclear. During the reign of King Richard II, the Archbishop of Canterbury declared, "of right and by the custom of the realm of England it belongeth to the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time being as well as others his suffragans, brethren and fellow Bishops, Abbots and Priors and other prelates whatsoever, — to be present in person in all the King's Parliaments whatsoever as Peers of the Realm." The claim was neither agreed nor disagreed to, however, by Parliament. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born in Bordeaux and became his fathers successor when his elder brother died in infancy. ...


The Lords Spiritual at first declared themselves entirely outside the jurisdiction of secular authorities; the question of trial in the House of Lords did not arise. When papal authority was great, the King could do little but admit a lack of jurisdiction over the prelates. Later, however, when the power of the Pope in England was reduced, the Lords Spiritual came under the authority of the secular courts. The jurisdiction of the common courts was clearly established by the time of Henry VIII. Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


Despite their failure to be tried as temporal peers in the House of Lords, it remained unclear whether the Lords Spiritual were indeed peers. In 1688, the issue arose during the trial of the Seven Bishops—William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury; Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Baronet, Bishop of Winchester; Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells; John Lake, Bishop of Chester; William Lloyd, Bishop of Worcester; Francis Turner, Bishop of Ely and Thomas White, Bishop of Peterborough—by a common jury. The charge was that a petition sent by the Bishops constituted seditious libel; the Bishops argued that they had the right to petition the Sovereign at any time, while the prosecution charged that such a right was only permissible when Parliament was in session (which, at the time of the delivery of the petition, it was not). If the Bishops were only Lords of Parliament, and not peers, their right to petition would be vitiated while Parliament was dissolved. Peers, however, were and still are counsellors of the Sovereign whether Parliament is in session or not; therefore, if the Bishops were indeed peers, they would be free to send petitions. Since there was no doubt that the petition was actually sent, while the Court still ruled the Bishops not guilty, it appears that it was taken for granted that the Bishops were counsellors of the Crown. // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... William Sancroft (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk on January 30, 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634. ... Bishop Thomas Ken Thomas Ken (July 1637 – 19 March 1711), English churchman, was the most eminent of the English non-juring bishops, and one of the fathers of modern English hymnology // Ken was born at Little Berkhampstead, Herts, the son of Thomas Ken of Furnivals Inn, who belonged to... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... The right to petition is the freedom of individuals (and sometimes groups and corporations) to petition their government for a correction or repair of some form of injustice without fear of punishment for the same. ...


Nevertheless, the Standing Orders of the House of Lords provide, "Bishops to whom a writ of summons has been issued are not Peers but are Lords of Parliament."


The number of Lords Spiritual

Early in England's history, Lords Spiritual—including lesser clergymen such as abbots—outnumbered Lords Temporal. Between 1536 and 1540, however, Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries, thereby removing the seats of the abbots. For the first time, Lords Spiritual formed a minority in the House of Lords. Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... dissolution see Dissolution. ...


In addition to the 21 older dioceses (including four in Wales), Henry created six new ones of which five survived (see Historical development of Church of England dioceses); and then for nearly three centuries no new sees were created. The number of lords spiritual remained at 26 all this while. This page traces the history of the dioceses and cathedrals of the Church of England. ...


When in the 19th century the dioceses of the church began gradually to come under review again, an increase in the bench of bishops was not considered politcally expedient, and so steps were undertaken to prevent it. In 1836, the first new bishopric was founded, that of Ripon; but it balanced out by the merger of the Bishoprics of Bristol and Gloucester. (They were later divided again.) The creation of the Bishopric of Manchester was also planned but delayed until St Asaph and Bangor could be merged. They never were; but in 1844, the Bishopric of Manchester Act went ahead anyway with an alternative means to maintain the 26-bishop limit in the House of Lords: the seniority-based proviso which has been maintained to this day. This is a chronological list of the Bishops of Ripon: c 878 Eadheath New creation 1836 Charles Thomas Congley 1857 Richard Bickersteth 1884 William Boyd Carpenter 1912 Thomas Wortley Drury 1920 Thomas Banks Strong 1926 Edward Arthur Burroughs 1935 Geoffrey Charles Leicester Lont 1946 George Armitage Close 1959 John Richard... The Bishop of Bristol heads the Church of England Diocese of Bristol in the Province of Canterbury, in England. ... The Bishop of Gloucester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Gloucester in the Province of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of Manchester Categories: Bishops ...


For a time, these English and Welsh bishops were supplemented by four Bishops of the Church of Ireland sitting as representative peers on the part of Ireland. Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ...


In 1920, with the independence of the Church in Wales from the Church of England and its disestablishment, the Welsh bishops stopped being eligible for inclusion. Flag of the Church in Wales The Church in Wales (Welsh: Yr Eglwys Yng Nghymru) is a member Church of the Anglican Communion, consisting of six dioceses in Wales. ... See also civil religion. ...


The 26 Lords Spiritual currently represent just under four percent of the total membership of the House of Lords.


The presence of religious leaders in the British legislature is strongly opposed by secularist organisations such as the British Humanist Association and the National Secular Society who have consistently campaigned for their removal. This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ... The British Humanist Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes Humanism. ... The National Secular Society is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes secularism. ...


See also

You see thsi a pmkjamskjamsukukauisjooilak As of February 2004, the spiritual peers, in order of seniority, are as follows: with seniority ex officio The Archbishop of Canterbury - Rowan Williams The Archbishop of York - John Sentamu The Bishop of London - Richard Chartres The Bishop of Durham - Nicholas Thomas Wright The Bishop of Winchester - Michael Scott-Joynt... A Lord Bishop in the United Kingdom is a bishop of the Church of England who is also a member, a Lord Spiritual of the House of Lords. ...


References

  • Davies, Michael. (2003) Companion to the Standing Orders and guide to the Proceedings of the House of Lords, 19th ed.
  • Owen, Peter. (2002) "Choosing Diocesan Bishops in the Church of England."

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lord Spiritual - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (918 words)
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom, also called Spiritual Peers, consist of the 26 clergymen of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
The Lords Spiritual at first declared themselves entirely outside the jurisdiction of secular authorities; the question of trial in the House of Lords did not arise.
Despite their failure to be tried as temporal peers in the House of Lords, it remained unclear whether or not the Lords Spiritual were indeed peers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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