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Encyclopedia > Looting

Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob)[citation needed], sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting.[3] The term is also used in a broader (some would argue metaphorical) sense, to describe egregious instances of theft and embezzlement, such as the "plundering" of private or public assets by corrupt or overly greedy corporate executives or government authorities. The proceeds of all these activities can be described as loot, plunder, or pillage. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of the combination of a natural hazard (a physical event e. ... Categories: Stub | Riots ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ...


Looting originally referred primarily to the plundering of villages and cities not only by victorious troops during warfare, but also by civilian members of the community (for example, see War and Peace,[4] which describes widespread looting by Moscow's citizens before Napoleon's troops enter the town, and looting by French troops elsewhere; also note the looting of art treasures by the Nazis during WWII[5]). Piracy is form of looting organized by ships on the high seas outside the control of a sovereign government. With the enactment of the Hague Convention of 1907 and the Geneva Convention of 1949, it is a crime to take or destroy real or personal property during an occupation unless it is "absolutely necessary". War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Voyna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Voyna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869 in Russki Vestnik, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The sack of Jerusalem, from the inside wall of the Arch of Titus, Rome Looted art is a term used most commonly to refer to artwork looted by the Nazis during World War II[1][2][3] in Europe; however, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum does not reduce the... National Socialism redirects here. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... The longtime status of Netherlands as a largely neutral nation in international conflicts and the corresponding ascendance of The Hague as a primary location for diplomatic and international conferences has led to several negotiated conventions over the years being termed the Hague Convention: The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


During a disaster, police and military authorities are sometimes unable to prevent looting when they are overwhelmed by humanitarian or combat concerns, or cannot be summoned due to damaged communications infrastructure. Especially during natural disasters, some people find themselves forced to take what is not theirs in order to survive. How to respond to this is often a dilemma for the authorities.[6] In other cases, looting may be tolerated or even encouraged by authorities for political or other reasons.

Contents

Reasons behind looting during disasters

Looting is often opportunistic, the apparent lapse in authority enabling willing persons to thieve with impunity. Looting also cascades through a group of people as one person believes that his contribution to the crime is lessened because someone else is looting. People may also believe that if the goods are not stolen, then they will simply be wasted, and see their act as a lesser of two evils. Finally, a looter may believe that if he doesn't steal the property, it will simply be stolen by someone else and there will therefore be no benefit from his obedience. Looters are usually locals of the site of the disaster, and as such, may have lost a lot of their own property. This further encourages them to steal as it is reducing the negative impact of the disaster.


In extreme circumstances, looting may be the only way for a person to procure necessities for themselves and their loved ones. Many see this as an act of survival, rather than taking advantage of unfortunate events. Looting can be carried out by many individuals for essentials for survivals, as well as those who exploit the emergency to get free luxuries. In some circumstances, the maintaining of essential services requires "looting": for example, during the Hurricane Katrina disaster, police were required to "loot" gasoline out of "abandoned" cars in order to continue to operate their squad cars, and doctors had to obtain medical supplies from abandoned drugstores under armed police guard:[7] Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ...


Measures against looting

In many countries, even in Western democracies that otherwise ban the death penalty, extraordinary measures may be taken against looters, during times of crisis. Looters may be summarily shot by the police, army, or property owners. Extraordinary measures, combined with an impressive show of force, help to discourage looting and to disperse crowds that would otherwise find a normal show of force non-threatening. This is also common police practice in discouraging potential riots, which are often associated with looting, from escalating. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Summary Justice refers to the informal punishment of suspected offenders without recourse to a formal trial under the legal system. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The shooting of looters may also prevent further damage to the economy. One perspective is that this also shows the relative value of economy vs. "human life" in some societies.


Looting around the world

  • In 1664 the Maratha leader Shivaji sacked and looted Surat. Surat was under sack for nearly three weeks, in which the army looted all possible wealth from Mughal and Portuguese trading centers.
  • During the American Civil War, the New York Draft Riots (July 13-17, 1863) began as protests against President Abraham Lincoln's Enrollment Act of Conscription drafting men to fight in the ongoing war. Considered by some to be the worst civil unrest in American history, the riots included 50,000 participants and lasted several days, claiming hundreds of lives and destroying millions of dollars in property. The violent demonstration could not be contained by the civil police force, and required the intervention of regiments of the New York State Militia, who marched back to New York from the battlefield of Gettysburg, to restore civil order.
  • After the United States occupied Iraq, the absence of Iraqi police and the reluctance of the US to act as a police force enabled looters to raid homes and businesses, especially in Baghdad, most notably the Iraqi National Museum. During the looting, many hospitals were stripped of nearly all supplies. However, upon investigation many of the looting claims were in fact exaggerated. Most notably the Iraqi National Museum in which many curators had stored important artifacts in the museum vault and then flooded the entrance.[8] Looting also occurred on a grand scale at a number of archaeological sites across Iraq. Sites were allegedly being destroyed and objects removed numbering in the tens or hundreds of thousands.[citation needed]

Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... March 16 - Valentinian III is murdered by former soldiers of Aëtius in revenge for Valentinians killing of Aëtius the previous year. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The New York Draft Riots (July 13 to July 16, 1863; known at the time as Draft Week[1]) were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George Gordon Meade Robert Edward Lee Strength 93,921 71,699 Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing) 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing) The Battle of... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... Nazi plunder stored in a church at Elligen, Germany, 1945 Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized spoliation of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany. ... Yamashitas Gold is the name given to loot worth tens of billions of dollars stolen in Southeast Asia by Japanese forces during World War II and hidden in caves, tunnels and underground complexes in The Philippines. ... Rodney King Rodney Glen King (born April 2, 1965 in Sacramento, California) is an African-American taxi driver who became famous after his violent arrest by officers of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) was videotaped by a bystander, George Holliday. ... The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King uprising or the Rodney King riots, were sparked on April 29, 1992 when a predominately white jury acquitted four police officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King, after he fled from police. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , State California County Los Angeles County Settled 1781 Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ...

Looting as an act of warfare

Trophy Art Bibliography[9] is a database concerning the international literature on the fate of cultural treasures displaced as trophies by the Red Army from Germany to the USSR as a result of World War II.


In the Persian Gulf War there was massive looting by Iraq in Kuwait.[10] See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ...


Viking warriors were famous for their raids on their neighbors in Europe. The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ...


2006 East Timor has seen widespread examples of people looting.[citation needed]


Political and media controversy about looting

For an interesting article relating to looting and the British army/imperialism, see; Empire and authority: Curzon, collisions, character and the Raj, 1899–1905. Michael Carrington. A Ph.D (British Library).


The media in Hurricane Katrina have been accused of portraying identical acts as justifiable "finding" or deplorable "looting" depending on the race of the perpetrator.[11] However the reports have been defended as simply factual and coincidental based on an interpretation of "looting" as personally removing goods from a business versus "finding" defined as collecting goods floating in the street.[12]


See also

The original Amber Room (Russian Янтарная комната, German: ) in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. ... Looting in a gaming context, specifically in MMOGs, is the process by which a player character obtains items such as in-game currency, spells, equipment or weapons from the corpse of a creature or possibly the corpse of another player in a PVP situation. ... Nazi plunder stored in a church at Elligen, Germany, 1945 Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized spoliation of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany. ... The Pirate loot problem is a lateral thinking puzzle that involves logic and strategic thinking to solve. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2941733.stm
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/262848.stm
  3. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1722584.stm
  4. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2600
  5. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/arts/2291481.stm
  6. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/136582.stm
  7. ^ http://counterpunch.org/henderson09012005.html
  8. ^ http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/iraq/update.shtml
  9. ^ http://www.ib.hu-berlin.de/~pbruhn/b-kunst.htm
  10. ^ http://www.kuwait.kw/diwan/emain/Story_Of_Kuwait/Occupation/Iraqi_regime_Crimes/theft.html
  11. ^ http://counterpunch.org/floyd09012005.html
  12. ^ http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2005/09/01/photo_controversy/

Sources

  • Abudu, Margaret, et al., "Black Ghetto Violence: A Case Study Inquiry into the Spatial Pattern of Four Los Angeles Riot Event-Types," 44 Social Problems 483 (1997)
  • Curvin, Robert and Bruce Porter, Blackout Looting (1979)
  • Dynes, Russell & Enrico L. Quarantelli, "What Looting in Civil Disturbances Really Means," in Modern Criminals 177 (James F. Short, Jr. ed. 1970)
  • Green, Stuart P., "Looting, Law, and Lawlessness," 81 Tulane Law Review 1129 (2007)
  • Mac Ginty, "Looting in the Context of Violent Conflict: A Conceptualisation and Typology," 25 Third World Quarterly 857 (2004)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Looting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (964 words)
Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob), sacking, or plundering is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war [1], natural disaster [2], rioting [3], or terrorist attack [4].
Piracy is form of looting organized by ships on the high seas outside the control of a sovereign government.
Looting also cascades through a group of people as one person believes that his contribution to the crime is lessened because someone else is looting.
Looting (gaming) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (215 words)
Looting in a gaming context, specifically in MMOGs, is the process by which a player character obtains items such as in-game currency, spells, equipment or weapons from the corpse of a creature or possibly the corpse of another player in a PVP situation (cf.
Looting may also be referred to in leet speak as lewting.
A term related to looting is "ninja." A ninja, in gaming, may be a person who loots a corpse out of turn or without permission from group or raid members.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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