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Encyclopedia > Longyearbyen
Longyearbyen
Longyearbyen

Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard, Norway and its capital. It has about 1,700 inhabitants, most of them Norwegians and some Russians. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Longyearbyen ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Svalbard Longyearbyen ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ...

Contents


Geography

Longyearbyen is located at 78°13′N 15°33′E. The Governor of Svalbard resides there. Due to its location far north of the polar circle, it is polar night from end-October to mid-February and polar day from mid-April to mid-August. Longyearbyen has an arctic tundra climate (see Geography of Norway). The polar night is the night lasting more than 24 hours, usually inside the polar circles. ... The midnight sun at Nordkapp, Norway The midnight sun is a phenomenon, occurring in latitudes north of the arctic circle and south of the antarctic circle, where the sun is visible during at least 24 hours. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ... Norway is located in Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea in southwest, the North Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Barents Sea to the northeast, and Sweden to the east. ...


History and present day facilities

Main road in Longyearbyen
Main road in Longyearbyen

The settlement was founded in 1906 by John Munroe Longyear, main owner of the Arctic Coal Company of Boston. "Byen" is Norwegian for "the city". It was destroyed by the Germans in 1943 and rebuilt after World War II, with the old foundations still visible in some places. Image File history File links Longyearbyen1. ... Image File history File links Longyearbyen1. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...


Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer in Longyearbyen. The daily life circled only around the mining business. Today, the community offers a wide range of activities and facilities. There is a swimming hall, a climbing wall, a big sports hall, a grocery store, three pubs, three hotels, one church, several tourists shops, a cinema (Sundays) and one night club. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the extraction of coal from the Earth for use as fuel. ... Two Scouts climb an outdoor climbing wall at Haliburton Scout Reserve, Ontario, Canada A climbing wall is an artificially constructed wall with grips for hands and feet, used for climbing. ...


Mining and research

Mining is still a major part of the community employing about half the residents. However, research activities and tourism are growing steadily each year due to its excellent infrastructure. The research includes ionospheric and magnetospheric facilities such as the EISCAT radar, the Auroral station and a magnetometer belonging to the IMAGE chain. More than 3 million tourists visited the Taj Mahal in Agra, India in 2004. ... EISCAT is an acronym for the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association. ... A magnetometer is a scientific instrument used to measure the strength of magnetic fields. ...


In 1993, the University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS) was opened. It is a cooperation of all four Norwegian universities which provides lectures in geophysics, arctic biology, geology and arctic technology as well as bachelor, master and PhD positions. In all it has about 300 students per year but with the erection of the new Research Centre an increase of this number is intended. Students of UNIS usually live in Nybyen, an arrangement of 6 renovated mining barracks. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it. ...


Tourism

Longyearbyen in summer
Longyearbyen in summer

Most of the tourists come in the spring and summer. The spring is very popular since Spitsbergen is one of the few places in Norway where you can drive a snowmobile in the terrain without special permission. However, due to strict environmental laws not all of the main island Spitsbergen is accessible. From February until November several tour operators provide a wide range of guided trips. Image File history File links Longyearbyen2. ... Image File history File links Longyearbyen2. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North. ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park, note the snowdust in the air (NPS Photo) A snowmobile (or snow scooter, often referred to by enthusiasts as a sled and in the Canadian north and Alaska as a snowmachine) is a land vehicle propelled by one or two rubber tracks, or... An environment is a complex of surrounding circumstances, conditions, or influences in which a thing is situated or is developed, or in which a person or organism lives, modifying and determining its life or character. ... Map of Svalbard, showing Spitsbergen in the North. ...


This is the world's most northern settlement which is easily reached, as there is an airport just outside the town, Svalbard Airport. The airport served 9,000 passengers in 2004. There are regular flights to and from Tromsø and Oslo, Norway. // City life Tromsø July 2003. ... Svalbard Airport (IATA: LYR, ICAO: ENSB) is an airport in Svalbard. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... County Troms District Municipality NO-1902 Administrative centre Tromsø Mayor (2004) Herman Kristoffersen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 18 2,566 km² 2,519 km² 0. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ...


External links

  • Longyearbyen travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Webcam in Longyearbyen
  • News from Svalbard (In Norwegian)
  • The University Centre on Svalbard
  • The University Centre on Svalbard Alumni/Student site
  • Spitsbergen Travel Tour Operator
  • Wildlife Service Tour Operator
  • The Governor (Sysselmannen)
  • Svalbard Airport:Facts and pictures from Avinor
  • Island railways north of Europe

  Results from FactBites:
 
Longyearbyen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (428 words)
Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on Svalbard and its capital.
Longyearbyen has an arctic tundra climate (see Geography of Norway).
Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer in Longyearbyen.
Longyearbyen - Wikitravel (1351 words)
Longyearbyen, pronounced "LUNG-yer-bin", is the largest settlement on Svalbard.
Longyearbyen is named after American entrepreneur John Munro Longyear (1860-1922), who as head of the Arctic Coal Company founded the town and the neighbouring coal mine, the first one on Svalbard.
The center of town lies near the coast on the east side of the river, with the district of Skjæringa across the river, the district of Nybyen 2 km (1.2 mile) to the south and the airport 3 km (1.9 mile) to the west.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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