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Encyclopedia > Longwave

The longwave radio broadcasting band is the range of frequencies lying between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz (corresponding to wavelengths between 1000 and 2000 metres). A kilohertz (kHz) is a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 hertz (1,000 cycles per second). ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... The metre or meter is a measure of length. ...


This range is included within the low-frequency (LF) band, although the LF band covers a wider range than that used for longwave transmissions. Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ...

Contents

Band propagation characteristics

Longwave signals have the property of following the curvature of the earth, making them ideal for continuous, continental communications. Unlike shortwave radio, longwave signals do not reflect or refract using the ionosphere, so there are fewer and less severe interference-caused fadeouts. Instead, the D-layer of the ionosphere and the surface of the earth serve as a waveguide directing the signal[citation needed]. Communication is a process that allows people to exchange information by one of several methods. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... This article refers to refraction in waves. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. ... In communications, interference is anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a message; as it travels along a channel, between a source and a receiver. ... In radio communications, fade describes the loss of signal strength at the receiver. ... Look up waveguide in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Historical significance

Essentially all radio transmitters before 1924 were longwave transmitters[citation needed]. Propagation of shorter wavelengths was not understood until the shortwave experiments by amateur radio operators in 1923 and by Marconi in 1924. Spark-gap transmitters were used prior to World War I, until the development of powerful Radio alternators by General Electric just prior to the war. Vacuum tubes began to be used to generate radio frequencies in the mid-1920s. Antenna tower of Crystal Palace transmitter, London A transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an electronic device which with the aid of an antenna propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television, or other telecommunications. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD display and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called Ham radio, is a hobby enjoyed by about six million people[1] throughout the world. ... A typical spark transmitter circuit. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... GE redirects here. ...


After 1924, use of longwave radio for long distance communication began to decline, as much less expensive shortwave transmitters began to carry increasingly heavy volumes of long distance communication. A period of explosive growth of shortwave communications began in 1927, leading to rapid decline in longwave radio usage.


Broadcasting

In Europe, North Africa, and Russia, (ITU Regions 1 and 3) longwave radio frequencies in the band 148.5 to 283.5 kHz are used for domestic and international broadcasting. World map showing the location of Europe. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, generally divided by the formidable barrier of the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ...


Carrier frequencies are multiples of 9 kHz ranging from 153 to 279 kHz. There are two exceptions in Germany, where two stations are offset by 3 kHz either side of 180 kHz.


Historically LW stations operated on frequencies as high as 413 KHz (although the highest carrier frequency currently in use for LW broadcasting is 279 KHz) several countries transmitted radio programming over power lines or telephone lines using LW frequencies. These systems were known variously as Linjesender, Telefonrundspruch or Wire Broadcasting however these systems were phased out with the introduction of ISDN and later ADSL and it is believed that there are no longer any in operation[citation needed]. A Linjesender was a low power longwave transmitter used for broadcasting in Norway. ... ISDN is also short for isosorbide dinitrate Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of circuit switched telephone network system, designed to allow digital (as opposed to analog) transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires, resulting in better quality and higher speeds, than available with analog... Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a form of DSL, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional modem can provide. ...


Some stations derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock. It can be therefore used as frequency standard. Chip-scale atomic clock unveiled by NIST An Atomic Clock is a type of clock that uses an atomic resonance frequency standard to feed its counter. ... In telecommunication, a frequency standard is a stable oscillator used for frequency calibration or reference. ...


ITU Region 2 note

In the Americas (ITU Region 2), there is no longwave broadcast band. In North America during the 1970s the longwave frequencies 167, 179 and 191 KHz were used for a short-lived network of civil defence emergency broadcasting stations with stations at Ault, Colorado and Cambridge, Kansas[citation needed]. Nowadays the 160-190 kHz range is used there for Part 15 Lowfers. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Public Emergency Radio of the United States was a defunct communications system, which included radio stations and transmission network, conceived during the 1970s for use in the case of national emergency. ... In the U.S., Part 15 is an often-quoted section of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules and regulations, regarding unlicensed transmissions. ... LowFER (Low-Frequency Experimental Radio) is a license-free form of amateur radio practicised in the United States and Canada on frequencies between 160 kHz and 190 kHz. ...


The 190-435 kHz and 510-530 kHz bands are used for navigational beacons, and 500 kHz is the maritime distress (emergency) frequency. A non-directional beacon (NDB) is a radio broadcast station in a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. ...


List of longwave broadcasting transmitters

List of the most important longwave broadcasting transmitters (Source: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langwelle).

Frequency Station name Country Location Aerial type Power Remarks
153 kHz Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 kW Night: 250 kW
Radio Romania Flag of Romania Romania Braşov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts with a height of 250 metres 1200 kW  
NRK Finnmark Flag of Norway Norway Ingoy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 362 m height 100 kW  
162 kHz France Inter Flag of France France Allouis Two guyed steel lattice masts, height 350 m, fed on the top 2000 kW  
171 kHz Radio Medi Flag of Morocco Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres tall 2000 kW  
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad 150/75 kW  
177 kHz Deutschlandradio Kultur Flag of Germany Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 kW Since August 29th, 2005 in DRM-Mode
183 kHz Europe 1 Flag of Germany Germany Felsberg Directional aerial, 4 insulated guyed steel lattice masts, heights: 282 m, 280 m, 276 m and 270 m, 2 234 metre tall guyed steel lattice masts, which are insulated against ground as backup antenna 2000 kW French Program
189 kHz RÚV Flag of Iceland Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 412m 300 kW RÚV national programs 1 and 2 Rás 1 and Rás 2
RAI Flag of Italy Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 kW Inactive since August 2004
198 kHz BBC Radio 4 Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom Droitwich T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres 500 kW Relays BBC World Service after the end of its own programmes.
BBC Radio 4 Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom Burghead Guyed steel lattice mast 50 kW  
BBC Radio 4 Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom Westerglen Guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 m 50 kW  
Polskie Program 1 Flag of Poland Poland Raszyn Guyed insulated mast, 335 m high 500 kW Only active during the daytime
207 kHz RÚV Flag of Iceland Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 220m 100 kW RÚV national programs 1 and 2 Rás 1 and Rás 2
Deutschlandfunk Flag of Germany Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 kW Night: 250 kW
216 kHz Radio Monte Carlo Flag of Monaco Monaco Roumoules Directional aerial, 3 300 metre high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metre high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial 1200 kW Transmitter site exterritorial, exclave of Monaco
225 kHz Polskie Program 1 Flag of Poland Poland Solec Kujawski 2 guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 m and 289 m 1000 kW Earlier transmitter site Konstantynow
234 kHz RTL Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, 3 guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 m high, with vertical cage aerials 2000 kW Spare transmitter site Junglinster
243 kHz Danmarks Radio Flag of Denmark Denmark Kalundborg Alexanderson aerial, carried from 2 118 Meter high free-standing steel lattice towers 300 kW Stop 15 february 2007
252 kHz RTA Algier Flag of Algeria Algeria Tipaza 1500 kW French programme; during night-time half transmitter-power
RTÉ Radio 1 Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland Clarkestown Guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 m 500 kW Earlier used by Atlantic 252 and TeamTalk 252, decreases power at night to 100kW, one website reported the callsign of this station to be EIRE
261 kHz Transmitter Burg Flag of Germany Germany Burg Cage aerial on 324 m high guyed steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground, omnidirectional radiation 200 kW Inactive at the moment, formerly used by Radio Wolga and Radioropa Info
Radio Rossii Flag of Russia Russia Taldom Central mast, 275 metre tall, surrounded by 5 guyed masts on a circle around 2500 kW Most powerful transmitter in the world
Radio Horizont Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215m high 75 kW
270 kHz ČRO 1 - Radiožurnál Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic Topolna Two grounded guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials, height 257 m, directional radiation with maximum of radiation in East-West direction 500 kW  
279 kHz Musicmann279 Flag of Isle of Man Isle of Man ± 5 km off Ramsey Crossed field antenna 500 kW Tests originally planned to begin in early 2005 pending a summer 2005 launch; as of 2006, considerable uncertainty as to actual launch date
Belaruskaje Radyjo 1 (BR1) Flag of Belarus Belarus Sasnovy 500 kW  
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting stations

Modern logo of Deutschlandfunk. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... The Bod Transmitter (also known as the BraÅŸov Transmitter) is the name of the central longwave radio broadcasting station of Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... The Longwave transmitter Ingoy is a longwave transmitter of the Norway broadcasting cmpany for the frequency 153 kHz with a power of 100 kilowatts. ... France Inter is the major French public radio network. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Nador transmitter is the main trasmission facility for longwave and shortwave of Radio Medi, a privately owned broadcasting company of Morocco, situated approximately 18 kilometres south of Nador and a few kilometres south of Selouane at 35°229N and 2°557W. The longwave transmitter of Nador... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Bolshakovo (Russian: ; until 1938—Groß Skaisgirren, from 1938 to 1946—Kreuzingen) is a settlement located in the southern part of Slavsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, 90 km from Kaliningrad. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... The RIAS building, now the headquarters of Deutschlandradio Kultur. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Sender Zehlendorf is a transmission facility, existing since 1936. ... Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... Europe 1, formerly known as Europe n° 1, is a privately owned radio station created in 1955. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Longwave transmitter Europe 1 is the oldest privately owned radio station in Germany, situated at Felsberg-Berus, Germany. ... Ríkisútvarpið (IPA: ) or RÚV (English: The National Icelandic Broadcasting Service) is Icelands main public-service broadcaster. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... The Longwave radio mast Hellissandur (also called Gufuskálar ) is a 412 metre high guyed radio mast for longwave transmissions in the vicinity of Hellissandur on the peninsula Snæfellsnes of Iceland at 64°5424″N, 23°5518″W,( ). This mast, which is the tallest structure in Western... RAI is an acronym for Radio Audizioni Italiane (translation - Italian Radio Hearings). It is the premier television network of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Droitwich Transmitting Station, Wychbold The Droitwich transmitting station is a large broadcasting facility for longwave and mediumwave transmissions, established in 1934 close to the village of Wychbold, near Droitwich, Worcestershire, England (grid reference SO929663). ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Burghead transmitting station is a broadcasting facility near Burghead (grid reference NJ125685) in Scotland for long- and medium-wave radio transmission that started service on 12th October 1936. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The four masts at the Westerglen transmitting station The Westerglen transmitting station is a facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting established in 1932 at Westerglen Farm, 3 km south west of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, Scotland (grid reference NS868773). ... Polish Radio and Television (Polish: Polskie Radio i Telewizja) is a public-service broadcaster in Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... The longwave transmitter Raszyn is a longwave broadcasting transmitter near Raszyn, Poland. ... Ríkisútvarpið (IPA: ) or RÚV (English: The National Icelandic Broadcasting Service) is Icelands main public-service broadcaster. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Eiðar longwave transmitter is a facility of the Icelandic Broadcasting Company used for longwave broadcasting on 207 kHz with a power of 100 kW. Eiðar longwave transmitter situated at Eiðar near Egilsstaðir uses as antennaa an omnidirectional aerial in form of a steel lattice mast radiator... Modern logo of Deutschlandfunk. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Aholming transmitter is a facility for broadcasting the program of Deutschlandfunk on 207 kHz with a power of 500 kW at day and 250 kW at night between Aholming and Ottmaring in Bavaria. ... Radio Monte Carlo (RMC) is the name of two radio stations which broadcast in French and Italian in France, Monaco and Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... The Transmitter Roumoules is the broadcasting facility for long-, medium and shortwave of RMC near Roumoules, France. ... Polish Radio and Television (Polish: Polskie Radio i Telewizja) is a public-service broadcaster in Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... The Longwave transmitter Solec Kujawski is the new longwave broadcasting facility of the Polish broadcasting company for the 225 kHz frequency. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it only existed from 1974 to 1991. ... RTL is an abbreviation used in several contexts. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... The Beidweiler Longwave Transmitter is a high-power broadcasting transmitter for the French-speaking programme of RTL radio on the longwave frequency 234 kHz. ... The longwave transmitter Junglinster is a longwave broadcasting facility of RTL near Junglinster, Luxemburg, which went into service in 1932. ... Danmarks Radio (normally referred to as just DR) is Denmarks national broadcasting corporation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... The Transmitter Kalundborg is a transmission facility for long- and mediumwave near Kalundborg in Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... RTÉ Radio 1 is the principal radio channel of Irish public-service broadcaster Radio Telefís Éireann and is the direct descendant of Dublin radio station 2RN, which began broadcasting on a regular basis on 1 January 1926. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... The longwave transmitter Clarkestown is a longwave transmitter near Clarkestown, County Meath, Ireland(see http://tx. ... ... TEAMtalk 252 was a short-lived UK national commercial sports radio station, based partially in the Republic of Ireland and partially in Leeds, which broadcast to the UK and Ireland between 11 March 2002 until 31 July 2002 on the longwave frequency (252 kHz/1190 metres) formerly used by the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The AM transmitter in Burg, Germany is a huge facility for longwave and mediumwave broadcasting. ... Radio Volga was the name of a broadcasting station for the Russian armed forces in the former GDR. Radio Volga would send castle until 1968 of king Wusterhausen, starting from 1968 the transmitter with Magdeburg was used. ... Radioropa Info was the designation of the only German-language private broadcasting station in the long-wave range. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Taldom transmitter is a large facility for longwave and shortwave broadcasting near Taldom, Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Vakarel Transmitter is a large broadcasting facility for long- and mediumwave near Vakarel, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Topolna transmitter (Czech: RKS Topolna) is the central longwave broadcasting facility of Czech situated westward of the village Topona at Burava river. ... A Cage aerial is an antenna, which consists of several parallel running wires, which are radialsymmetrically arranged around a tower or a mast. ... MusicMann 279 is the provisional name of a proposed longwave radio station broadcasting from the Isle of Man to the UK, Ireland, and parts of mainland Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_isle_of_man. ... Ramsey (Rhumsaa) is a town in the Isle of Man. ... A Crossed field antenna is a new type of antenna for long and mediumwave broadcasting, which is claimed to have the same efficiency as a conventional antenna but only one-tenth the overall height. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5160x750, 83 KB) Height diagram of antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting station. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5160x750, 83 KB) Height diagram of antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting station. ...

See also

Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long... Groundwave is the propagation of radio waves close to the surface of the Earth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ionosphere. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of chiefly spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ... The Light Programme was a BBC radio station broadcasting mainstream light entertainment and music. ... A radio clock A radio clock is a clock that is synchronized by a time code bit stream transmitted by a radio transmitter connected to a time standard such as an atomic clock. ... The Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (ORTF) was the national agency charged, between 1964 and 1974, with providing public radio and television in France. ... The Warsaw radio mast in Konstantynów The Warsaw radio mast a few months after collapse Warsaw Radio Mast from far away The Warsaw radio mast was the tallest structure ever built; however, it existed only from 1973 to 1991. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Global Navigation Satellite System. ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Shipping Forecast is a regular feature of BBC Radio 4 (part of the BBC) and is provided by the UK Meteorological Office (part of MoD) on behalf of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (part of DfT). ... This is a list of wave topics, by Wikipedia page. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 1 km and 10 km (103 and 104 m). ... NIST logo The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly known as The National Bureau of Standards) is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration. ... Fail Safe is an episode from Season 5 of the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1. ... WGU-20, also known as the last radio station, was a unique radio station was operated by the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (now the Federal Emergency Management Agency) in the mid to late 1970s. ...

External links


e Audio broadcasting
Terrestrial radio modulation: AM | FM | COFDM
Frequency allocations: LW | MW (MF) | SW (HF) | VHF
Hidden signals: AMSS | DirectBand | RBDS
Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) CODECs: AAC | Musicam
Terrestrial DAB: DAB+ | DRM | HD Radio
Earth Orbital DAB: Sirius | Worldspace | XM
Related topics: Audio processing | History of radio | Overmodulation
Radio spectrum
ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF
3 Hz 30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz
30 Hz 300 Hz 3 kHz 30 kHz 300 kHz 3 MHz 30 MHz 300 MHz 3 GHz 30 GHz 300 GHz


Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Look up AM, A.M., Am, am, a. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... Orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM, also called orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) is a technique for the modulation of digital information onto an analog carrier electromagnetic (e. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... A solid-state, analog shortwave receiver Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) [1] and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than the long... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ... DirectBandâ„¢ is a North American wireless datacast network owned and operated by Microsoft. ... Radio Data System, or RDS, is a standard for sending small amounts of digital information using conventional FM radio broadcasts. ... A codec is a device or program capable of performing encoding and decoding on a digital data stream or signal. ... Look up AAC in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MP2, also known as Musicam, is a short form of MPEG Audio Layer II, and it is also used as a file extension for files containing audio data of this type. ... Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB), also known as Eureka 147, is a technology for broadcasting of audio using digital radio transmission. ... Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for AM broadcast, particularly shortwave. ... HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ... Sirius Satellite Radio NASDAQ: SIRI is one of two satellite radio (SDARS) services operating in the United States and Canada, along with XM Satellite Radio. ... WorldSpaces AfriStar control center in Washington, D.C. WorldSpace is the worlds first digital satellite radio network. ... “XM” redirects here. ... Audio signal processing, sometimes referred to as audio processing, is the processing of a representation of auditory signals, or sound. ... // For the controversy about who invented radio, see Invention of radio. ... Overmodulation is the condition that prevails in telecommunication when the instantaneous level of the modulating signal exceeds the value necessary to produce 100% modulation of the carrier. ... Radio frequency, or RF, refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna. ... Extremely low frequency (ELF) is the band of radio frequencies from 3 to 30 Hz. ... Super Low Frequency (SLF) is the frequency range between 30 hertz and 300 hertz. ... Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) is the frequency range between 300 hertz and 3000 hertz. ... Very low frequency or VLF refers to radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kHz. ... Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... High frequency (HF) radio frequencies are between 3 and 30 MHz. ... Very high frequency (VHF) is the radio frequency range from 30 MHz (wavelength 10 m) to 300 MHz (wavelength 1 m). ... This article is about the radio frequency. ... Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... Extremely high frequency is the highest radio frequency band. ...


 
 

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