FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Longbow" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Longbow
Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow, 45 lbf / 200 N draw force.

A longbow is a type of bow that is tall (roughly equal to the height of a person who uses it), is not significantly recurved and has relatively narrow limbs, that are circular or D-shaped in cross section. It will normally allow its user a fairly long draw, to the ear or further. Organizations which run archery competitions have set out formal definitions for the various classes; many definitions of the longbow (see links section) would exclude some medieval examples, materials, and techniques of use. By most modern definitions, the English longbow is made so that its thickness is at least 5/8 of its width, and is widest at the handle. Longbows have been used for hunting and warfare, by many cultures around the world, a famous example being the English longbow, during the Middle Ages. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2020x530, 581 KB) Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow (45 lbf at 28 inches). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2020x530, 581 KB) Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory longbow (45 lbf at 28 inches). ... The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

Contents

History

Traditional longbows are self bows, made from a single natural piece of wood. They have been used for thousands of years, for hunting and warfare by, among others, Nubians, Kurds, Arabs[1], Native American tribes such as the Cherokee, South American tribes like the Bari, African tribes such as the Bassa, and Europeans since Mesolithic times. As a hunting weapon, longbows are simple, reliable and capable of taking game as large as African elephants. As a weapon of war the longbow has been instrumental to several cultures. World wide the average power for bows of all designs is about 50 pounds (220 newtons) at 28 inches (70 cm) of draw which is suitable for most hunting applications. Bows for warfare tend to be much more powerful, with the most powerful bows being the English longbow and the African elephant bow, both of which topped the 200-pound (900 N) mark. Many men in medieval England were capable of shooting bows from 150–200 pounds (670–900 N)—deformed skeletons of archers have been studied, revealing spur like growths on their bones where the over-developed muscles pulled. However, these men did train dayly from a very young age and their lives depended on being able to use such powerful bows.[2] There are modern day examples of men who are quite capable of shooting these bows so we know it is possible. Mark Stretton currently holds the world record for shooting a 200 pound (900 N) longbow. Self bow A self bow is a bow made from a single piece of wood. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Native Americans redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cherokee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Bassa are a people of Liberia, living in Grand Bassa, Rivercess, and Montserrado counties, who speak a Kru language. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Distribution of Loxodonta africana (2007) Species Loxodonta adaurora (extinct) Loxodonta africana Loxodonta cyclotis African elephants are the two species of elephants in the genus Loxodonta, one of the two existing genera in Elephantidae. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


In ancient Japan, very distinctive long bamboo and wood laminated bows, known as yumi, became important to mounted samurai warfare. Modern Japanese archery (called kyūdō or kyujutsu) still uses this style of bow. Modern yumi can be made of fibreglass or carbon-fibre, as well as of the traditional wood/bamboo laminate. Yumi are recurved bows, and have the unusual characteristic of being off-center. That is, the lower arm of the bow is shorter than the upper arm; this is useful when the bow is used from horseback, so that the archer can turn without the bottom of the bow hitting the horse. For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... // Laminated bow is a description applied to a method of construction of bows in which different materials are laminated together to form the bow stave itself. ... Yumi (弓, ゆみ) is the Japanese term for bows (which includes the longbow, Daikyu and the shortbow, hankyu) used in the practice of Kyudo (弓道, Japanese archery). ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... A full draw, called kai. KyÅ«dō ), literally meaning way of the bow, is the Japanese art of archery. ...


In the Middle Ages the Welsh and the English were famous for their very heavy, long-ranged English longbows, used to great effect in the civil wars of the period and against the French in the Hundred Years' War (with notable success at the battles of Crécy (1346), Poitiers (1356) and Agincourt (1415)). Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Combatants Kingdom of England, Allied knights from Germany and Denmark France, Genoese Mercenaries, the Kingdoms of Navarre, Bohemia and the Balearic Islands Commanders Edward III of England Edward, the Black Prince Philip VI of France Strength about 12,000 30,000 to 40,000 Casualties 150-1,000 killed and... Combatants Kingdom of England Gascony France Commanders Edward, the Black Prince Captal de Buch John II of France Strength 9,000 12,000 Casualties Minimal 2,500 killed or wounded The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Kingdom of England and France on September 19, 1356, resulting in the... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ...


Although firearms supplanted bows in warfare, wooden or fibreglass laminated longbows continue to be used by traditional archers and some tribal societies, for recreation and hunting. A longbow has practical advantages compared to a modern recurve or compound bow; it is usually lighter, quicker to prepare for shooting, and shoots more quietly. However, other things being equal, the modern bow will shoot a faster arrow more accurately than the longbow. Firearms redirects here. ... There is a disputed proposal to merge this article with glass-reinforced plastic. ... // Laminated bow is a description applied to a method of construction of bows in which different materials are laminated together to form the bow stave itself. ... Modern recurve bow // A recurve bow is a form of bow defined by the side-view profile; in contrast to the simple longbow, a recurve bow has tips that curve away from the archer when the bow is aimed. ... A Browning Compound Bow A compound bow is a modern bow that uses a levering system of cables and usually cams and pulleys to draw the limbs back. ...


Design and construction

Because the longbow can be made from a single piece of wood, it can be crafted relatively easily and quickly. Amateur bowyers today can craft a longbow in about ten to twenty hours, while highly skilled bowyers, such as those who produced medieval English Longbows, can craft wooden longbows in just a few hours. A bowyer is a person who makes bows for archery. ...

Top: Lemonwood, purpleheart and hickory composite bow. Bottom: Yew selfbow.

One of the simpler longbow designs is known as the self bow. By definition, a self bow is made from a single piece of wood. Truly traditional English longbows are self bows, made from yew wood. The bowstave is cut from the radius of the tree so that the sapwood (on the outside of the tree) becomes the back and the belly is heartwood. Yew sapwood is good only in tension, while the heartwood is good in compression. However, one must make compromises when making a yew longbow, as it is difficult to find perfect unblemished yew. The demand for yew bowstaves was such that by the late 1500s, mature yew trees were almost extinct in northern Europe[3]. In other desirable woods such as Osage orange and Mulberry the sapwood is almost useless and is normally removed entirely. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 996 KB) Comparison of self (bottom) and composite (top) longbows. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 996 KB) Comparison of self (bottom) and composite (top) longbows. ... A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ... Self bow A self bow is a bow made from a single piece of wood. ... Binomial name L. Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. ... Binomial name (Raf. ... For other uses, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ...


Longbows, because of their narrow limbs and rounded cross-section (which does not spread out stress within the wood as evenly as a flatbow’s rectangular cross section), need to be either less powerful, longer or of more elastic wood than an equivalent flatbow. In Europe the latter approach was used, with yew being the wood of choice, because of its high compressive strength, light weight and elasticity. Yew is the only widespread European timber that will make good self longbows, and has been the main wood used in European bows since Neolithic times. Commoner and cheaper hard woods, like elm, oak, ash, hazel or maple are good for flatbows. A narrow longbow with high draw-weight can be made from these woods, but it is likely to take a permanent bend (known as "set" or "following the string") and would likely be outshot by an equivalent made of yew. An American Flat bow, similar to the longbow but based on native American bows A flatbow is a bow with non-recurved, flat, relatively wide limbs that are rectangular in cross-section. ... Species See Elm species, varieties, cultivars and hybrids Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees making up the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found throughout the Northern Hemisphere from Siberia to Indonesia, Mexico to Japan. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... This article is about the tree; for other meanings of hazel, see Hazel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... An American Flat bow, similar to the longbow but based on native American bows A flatbow is a bow with non-recurved, flat, relatively wide limbs that are rectangular in cross-section. ...


Wooden laminated longbows can be made by gluing together two or more different pieces of wood. Usually this is done to take advantage of the inherent properties of different woods: some woods can better withstand compression while others are better at withstanding tension. Examples include hickory and lemonwood or bamboo and yew longbows: hickory or bamboo is used on the back of the bow (the part facing away from the archer when shooting) and so is in tension, while the belly (the part facing the archer when shooting) is made of lemonwood or yew and undergoes compression (see bending for a further explanation of stresses in a bending beam). Traditionally made Japanese yumi are also laminated long bows, made from strips of wood: the core of the bow is bamboo, the back and belly are bamboo or hardwood and hardwood strips are laminated to the bows sides to prevent twisting. // Laminated bow is a description applied to a method of construction of bows in which different materials are laminated together to form the bow stave itself. ... Species See text Comparison of Carya nuts Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall, Andrews, SC Hickory is a tree of the genus Carya, including 17-19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Figure 1. ... Yumi (弓, ゆみ) is the Japanese term for bows (which includes the longbow, Daikyu and the shortbow, hankyu) used in the practice of Kyudo (弓道, Japanese archery). ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ...


Today, good laminated longbows may be made of wood or can be purchased commercially. Any wooden bow must have gentle treatment and be protected from excessive damp or dryness. Wooden bows may shoot as well as fibreglass, but they are more easily dented or broken by abuse. Bows made of modern materials can be left strung for longer amounts of time than wood bows. Wooden bows should be unstrung immediately after use to avoid large amounts of set.


See also

This article is about the weapon. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ...

Bow construction techniques

A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ...

References

  1. ^ Herodotus 7, 69 http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hh/hh7060.htm
  2. ^ (The Age of Chivalry (1963)).
  3. ^ Yew: A History. Hageneder F. Sutton Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-0750945974
  • (1992) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 1. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-085-3.
  • (1992) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 2. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-086-1.
  • (1994) The Traditional Bowyer's Bible Volume 3. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-087-X.
  • Bryant, Arthur (1963) The Age of Chivalry.
  • Gray, David (2002) Bows of the World. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-478-6
  • "The Great Warbow: From Hastings to the Mary Rose", by Dr. Matthew Strickland[1] and Robert Hardy, Pub Sutton, 2005, ISBN 0-7509-3167-1.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • The (UK) National Field Archery Association's definition of a longbow
  • The International Field Archery's definition
  • The English Field Archery Association's definition

  Results from FactBites:
 
Longbow Golf Club (250 words)
expanded acreage and totally revamped golf practice facility, Longbow, more than ever is a "must-play." "It is truly unique and exiting to be given the opportunity to enhance a golf course (Longbow Golf Club) that you are already very proud of," said Ken Kavanaugh, the original course architect who directed the redesign.
The NEW Longbow Golf Club located outside of Scottsdale, AZ in North Mesa is the home course of former Dallas Cowboys Quarterback, Arena & College Football Hall of Fame member: Danny White, #11.
Arizona's Longbow Golf Club's distinctive new golf clubhouse, embraces an "Arizona Contemporary" architectural style, composed of materials such as native stone, raw steel and stucco.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m