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Encyclopedia > Long terminal repeat

In molecular genetics, long terminal repeats (LTRs) are found in retroviral DNA or RNA flanking functional genes. Molecular genetics is the field of biology which studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level. ... Genera Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Subfamily: Spumaretrovirinae Spumavirus A retrovirus is any virus belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid consisting of a string of covalently-bound nucleotides. ...

For example:


LTR - Long terminal repeats
PBS - Primer binding site
PSI - packaging site
GAG, POL, ENV - structural proteins
Psi has multiple meanings: Psi (letter) (Ψ, ψ) of the Greek alphabet Psi (Cyrillic) (Ѱ, ѱ), letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, adopted from Greek Psi (parapsychology) Psi (instant messaging client), a popular Jabber client program J/ψ particle, a subatomic particle Wavefunction in Quantum Mechanics, ψ In mathematics, Ψ is used to denote the angle between... For other uses, see Gag (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... env is a shell utility for Unix-like operating systems (including Linux). ...

The LTRs are partially transcribed into an RNA intermediate, followed by reverse transcription into complementary DNA (cDNA) and ultimately dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) with full LTRs. The LTRs then mediate integration of the retroviral DNA via an LTR specific transposase called integrase into another region of the hosts chromosome. This is the basic mechanism used by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used by all retroviruses and retrotransposons that transcribes the genetic information from the virus or retrotransposon from RNA into DNA, which can integrate into the host genome. ... In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a mature mRNA template. ... Transposase is an enzyme that binds to single-stranded DNA and can incorporate it into genomic DNA. Class I transposons encode a transposase which allows them to enable transposons to be cut from genomic DNA and be inserted at another location. ... Integrase is a protein produced by a virus that enables genetic material that is helpful to the virus, proviral DNA, to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell. ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...



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