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Encyclopedia > Long house

In archaeology and anthropology, a long house or longhouse is a type of long, narrow, single room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1690 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Long house Native American long house User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/uel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1690 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Long house Native American long house User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/uel Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... The Museum of Anthropology. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public university with its main campus located at Point Grey, in the University Endowment Lands adjacent to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and another smaller campus known as UBC Okanagan located in Kelowna, British Columbia. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word , human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... European redirects here. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Many were built from timber and often represent the earliest form of permanent structure in many cultures. Types include the Neolithic long house of Europe, the Medieval Dartmoor longhouse and the Native American long house. The Neolithic long house was a long, narrow timber dwelling built by the first farmers in Europe around 7,000 years ago. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Dartmoor longhouse is a type of traditional home, found on the high ground of Dartmoor, in the south west of the United Kingdom. ... Later day Iroquois longhouse housing several hundred people Interior of a longhouse with Chief Powhatan (detail of John Smith map, 1612) Longhouses were built by native peoples in various parts of North America, sometimes reaching over 100 meters long (330 ft) but generally around 5 to 7 meters wide (16...

Contents

Europe

In archaeology there are two European longhouse types that are now extinct.

  • The Neolithic long house type was introduced with the first farmers of central and western Europe around 5000 BCE—7000 years ago.
  • The Germanic cattle farmer longhouses emerged along the southwestern North Sea coast in the third or fourth century BC and might be the ancestors of several medieval house types such as the Scandinavian langhus, the English, Welsh and Scottish longhouse variants and the German and Dutch Fachhallenhaus.

The medieval longhouse types of Europe of which some examples have survived are among others: The Neolithic long house was a long, narrow timber dwelling built by the first farmers in Europe around 7,000 years ago. ...

  • The Scandinavian or Viking Langhus.
  • The southwest England variants in Dartmoor and Wales
  • The northwest England type in Cumbria
  • The scottish Longhouse, "Black house" ortaighean dubha
  • The frisian Langhuis
  • The French longère or maison longue (with different versions from different origins)

The Dartmoor longhouse is a type of traditional home, found on the high ground of Dartmoor, in the south west of the United Kingdom. ... For the novel by the same name, see Black house (novel). ...

North America

The Native American long house emerged in the northeast and along the west and northwest coast of North America. Later day Iroquois longhouse housing several hundred people Interior of a longhouse with Chief Powhatan (detail of John Smith map, 1612) Longhouses were built by native peoples in various parts of North America, sometimes reaching over 100 meters long (330 ft) but generally around 5 to 7 meters wide (16...


Southeast Asia: Borneo longhouse

Many of the inhabitants of the Southeast Asian island of Borneo (now Kalimantan), the Dayak, live traditionally in buildings known as a longhouse, Rumah panjang in Malay, rumah panjai in Iban. Common to most of these is that they are built raised off the ground on stilts and are divided into a more or less public area along one side and a row of private living quarters lined along the other side. This seems to have been the way of building best accustomed to life in the jungle in the past, as otherwise hardly related people have come to build their dwellings in similar ways. One may observe similarities to South American jungle villages also living in large single structures. The design is elegant: being raised, flooding presents little inconvenience. The entry could double as a canoe dock. Being raised, cooling air could circulate as well as have the living area above ground where any breeze is more likely. Livestock could shelter below at night when their security might be a concern. Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle refers usually to a dense forest in a hot climate. ...


In modern times many of the older longhouses have been replaced with buildings using more modern materials but of similar design. In areas where flooding is not a problem, beneath the longhouse between the stilts, which was traditionally used for a work place for tasks such as threshing, has been converted into living accommodation or has been closed in to provide more security.


The layout of a traditional longhouse could be described thus:


Along the whole length of the building runs a wall placed near the middle. The one side would seem like a corridor or hall from one end to the other, while the other side is blocked from public view by the wall.


Behind this wall lay the private units, bilik, each with a single door for each family. These are usually divided from each other by walls of their own and contain the living and sleeping spaces. The kitchens, dapor, sometimes reside within this space but are quite often situated in rooms of their own, added to the back of a bilik or even in a building standing a little away from the longhouse and accessed by a small bridge due to the fear of fire, as well as reducing smoke and insects attracted to cooking from gathering in living quarters..


The corridor itself is divided into three parts. The space in front of the door, the tempuan, belongs to each bilik unit and is used privately. This is where rice can be pounded or other domestic work can be done. A public corridor, a ruai, basically used like a village road, runs the whole length in the middle of the open hall. Along the outer wall is the space where guests can sleep, the pantai. On this side a large veranda, a tanju, is built in front of the building where the rice (padi) is dried and other outdoor activities can take place. Under the roof is a sort of attic, the sadau, that runs along the middle of the house under the peak of the roof. Here the padi, other food, and other things can be stored. Sometimes the sadau has a sort of gallery from which the life in the ruai can be observed. The pigs and chicken live underneath the house between the stilts.


The houses built by the different tribes and ethnic groups can differ from each other. Houses described as above may be used by the Iban Sea Dayak and Melanau Sea Dayak. Similar houses are built by the Bidayuh, Land Dayak, however with wider verandas and extra buildings for the unmarried adults and visitors. The buildings of the Kayan, Kenyah, Murut, and Kelabit used to have fewer walls between individual bilik units. The Punan seem to be the last ethnic group that adopted this type of house building. A Modern Iban Longhouse in Kapit Division The Ibans were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks and are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Bidayuh (formerly known as Land D(a)yak) is one of the main indigenous ethnic groups now settled in areas of southwest Sarawak and the adjacent areas of west Kalimantan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Murut are an indigenous ethnic group inhabiting northern inland regions of Borneo. ... The Kelabit, who have close ties to the Lun Bawang, are an indigenous race of the Sarawak highlands--the remotest and highest of Borneos mountains. ... Punan, also known as Punan Bah is a distinct ethnic from the Penan. ...


A lot of place names in Sarawak still have the word "Long" in their name and most of these still are or once were longhouses. Some villages like Long Semado in Sarawak even have airfields of their own. State motto: United, Industrious, Dedicated (Malay: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti ) Capital Kuching Governor T.Y.T Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Muhammad Salahuddin Chief Minister Y.A.B. Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib Bin Mahmud / Pehin Sri Dr. Hj. ...


A traditional house type on the island of Siberut, part of the Mentawai Islands some 130 kilometers (81 mi) to the west off the coast of Sumatra (Sumatera), Indonesia is also described as a longhouse. Some five to ten families may live in each, but they are organised differently on the inside. Sumatra Siberut is one of the Mentawai Islands, lying west of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ...


Image:CyrptinHanoi.jpg Image File history File links CyrptinHanoi. ...


See also

Igloo An igloo (Inuktitut iglu / ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ... Nez Perce tipi A tipi (also teepee, tepee) is a conical tent originally made of skins or birch bark and popularized by the American Indians of the Great Plains. ... Daepyeong is the name of a complex prehistoric archaeological site located in the Nam River valley on the outskirts of Jinju in Daepyeong-myeon, western South Gyeongsang Province, Korea. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or 조선, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The Dualchas Building Design group is an architecture practice based on the Isle of Skye in the Highlands of Scotland. ...

Notes and references

    For the Longhouses in Sarawak on Borneo these books were used as sources among others:

    • Morrison, Hedda. [1962] (Fifth impression 1974). Life in a Longhouse

    - Borneo Literature Bureau Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. Printed in Honk Kong by Dai Nippon Printing Co.(Int.) Ltd. - with translations to Malay, Iban and Chinese (Pendiau Dirumah Panjai - Kehidupan Di-Rumah Panjang). Short introduction text followed by the photo section (ca. 170) with quite detailed descriptions to each photo in the four languages.

    • Dickson, M.G. [1962] (Third edition (revised) 1968).Sarawak and its People

    - Borneo Literature Bureau. Printed in Honk Kong by Dai Nippon Printing Co.(Int.) Ltd. Basic school book keeping the language simple and explaining things so children unaware of the world outside of their village can easily understand. Yet, as school books often are, very rich in information. On page 100 is a drawing of a longhouse (cut open) with a detailed description. Some of the photos are from Hedda Morrison - see her book "Life in a Longhouse"


    Bibliography

    Further reading

    • Population listing of some of the ethnic groups of Sarawak, Malaysia.
    • Borneo (Kalimantan) Kenyah-Kayan traditional art.
    • Robert J. Barrett (file dated 6 May 2004), "Space, repetition and collective interlocution: Psychiatric interviews in a Borneo longhouse" (pdf format). Communication & Medicine 1(1) (2004), pp. 25–34.
      Dense study of schizophrenia, but includes twe pages of "2. Longhouse architecture: Ruai, bilik and sadau", with a plan view and elevation view; and detailed references.
    • Penom, a longhouse with sketches of the longhouse layout.
    • Royal Ontario Museum longhouse village View a North American longhouse village, Ontario, Canada.
      • Exhibitions & Galleries: World Culture Galleries: Gallery of Canada: First Peoples
      • Collections & Research Online image collection.

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Long house at AllExperts (958 words)
    In archaeology and anthropology, a long house or longhouse is a type of long, narrow single room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America.
    Similar houses are built by the "Land Dayak" however with wider verandas and extra buildings for the unmarried and visitors.
    A traditional house type on the island of Siberut, part of the Mentawai Islands some 130 kilometers to the west of the coast of Sumatra is also described as Longhouse.
    Official Website for Mesa Verde National Park (271 words)
    Long House and Wetherill Mesa are only open between Memorial Day weekend and Labor Day (the last Sunday in May through the first Monday in September).
    Long House is located on Wetherill Mesa in the western portion of Mesa Verde National Park.
    Long House was excavated between 1959 and 1961 as part of the Wetherill Mesa Archeological Project.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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