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Encyclopedia > Long bone

The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at the ends of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with a hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone(GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The diaphysis is the main or mid section (shaft) of a long bone. ... For other uses of the word bone, see bone (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Cartilage is type of dense connective tissue. ... Section of fetal bone of cat. ... The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide, and grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. ... Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ...


The long bones include the femurs, tibias, and fibulas of the legs, the humeri, radii, and ulnas of the arms, and the phalanges of the fingers and toes. The long bones of the leg comprise nearly half of adult height. The other primary skeletal component of height is the spine and skull. The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... The radius is the bone of the forearm that extends from the outside of your limb to your phlangx (lateral) of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. ... The ulna (Elbow Bone) [Figs. ... The phalanges in a human hand Illustration of the phalalnges The name Phalanges is commonly given to the bones that form fingers and toes. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...


The outside of the bone consists of a layer of connective tissue called the periosteum. Additionally, the outer shell of the long bone is compact bone, then a deeper layer of cancellous bone (spongey bone) which contains red bone marrow. The interior part of the long bone is the medullary cavity with the inner core of the bone cavity being composed of (in adults) of yellow marrow. They are found more in women. The periosteum is an envelope of fibrous connective tissue that is wrapped around the bone in all places except at joints (which are protected by cartilage). ... Cortical bone is one of two main types of bone. ... Cancellous bone (or trabecular bone, or spongy bone) is a spongy type of bone with a very high surface area, found at the ends of long bones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The medullary cavity is the central cavity of bone shafts where yellow marrow (adipose tissue) is stored. ...


There are five general classifications of bones: (1) Long bones, (2) Short bones, (3) Flat bones, (4) Irregular bones, and (5) Sesamoid bones. Where a part of the skeleton is intended for strength and compactness combined with limited movement, it is constructed of a number of short bones, as in the carpus and tarsus. ... Flat Bones. ... The irregular bones are such as, from their peculiar form, cannot be grouped as long bone, short bone, or flat bone. ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ...


Reference

  • Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary, 27th Edition

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2335 words)
Most bones of the limbs (including the three bones of the fingers) are long bones, except for the kneecap (patella), and the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal and metatarsal bones of the wrist and ankle.
The bones of the wrist and ankle are short bones, as are the sesamoid bones.
The bones of the spine and hips are irregular bones.
The University of Iowa Office of the State Archaeologist -- Bone Tools (1121 words)
Long bones of large animals can be cracked and broken into sharp splinters suitable for immediate use as picks or scrapers or for further modification into awls and other tools.
Saw-tooth-edged tools were commonly made from the long bones of large animals, particularly the metatarsals (long foot bones) of bison and elk.
The ribs of bison and elk as well as the long bones of deer were sometimes drilled with holes for use in straightening arrow shafts.
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