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Encyclopedia > Long Parliament

The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops' Wars. It receives its name from the fact that by a unique Act of Parliament could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members,[1] and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum in 1660.[2] It sat from 1640 until 1649, when it was purged by the New Model Army of those who were not sympathetic to the Army's concerns. Those members left after the Army's purge, became known as the Rump Parliament. During the Protectorate the Rump was replaced by other Parliamentary assemblies, only to be recalled after Oliver Cromwell's death in 1659 by the Army in the hope of restoring credibility to the Army's rule. When this failed, General George Monck allowed the members barred in 1649 to retake their seats so that they could pass the necessary legislation to initiate the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament. This cleared the way for a new Parliament, known as the Convention Parliament, to be elected. List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Ireland, and King of Scots from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... The Bishops Wars, a series of armed encounters and defiances between England and Scotland in 1639 and 1640, were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) from 1642 until 1651. ... The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... The New Model Army became the best known of the various Parliamentarian armies in the English Civil War. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... The Protectorate in English history refers specifically to the English government of 1653 to 1659 under the direct control of Oliver Cromwell, who assumed the title of Lord Protector of the newly declared Commonwealth of England (later the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland) after the English Civil War. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ...

Contents

1640–1648

The sole reason Charles assembled Parliament was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him.


The Parliament was initially influenced by John Pym and his supporters. In August 1641, it enacted legislation depriving Charles I of the powers that he had assumed since his accession. The reforms were designed to negate the possibility of Charles ruling absolutely again. The parliament also freed those imprisoned by the Star Chamber. A Triennial Act was passed, requiring that no more than three years should elapse between sessions of Parliament and the Dissolution Act which required the Long Parliament's consent to its own dissolution. Parliament was also responsible for the impeachment and subsequent execution of the king's advisers, Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Star Chamber was an English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster that began sessions in 1487 and ended them in 1641 when the court itself was abolished. ... The Triennial Act, of 1641, was a piece of legislation passed by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that the Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years. ... The Dissolution Act was an act that the long parliment started stating that only with the parliaments consent could the parliament be dissolved. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... William Laud (October 7, 1573 – January 10, 1645) was Archbishop of Canterbury and a fervent supporter of Charles I of England whom he encouraged to believe in the Divine Right of Kings. ... Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (April 13, 1593 - May 12, 1641) was an English statesman, a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. ...


The Irish Rebellion which started in October 1641 brought the control of the army back into the discussions between King and Parliament. Led by John Pym, Parliament presented the King with the Grand Remonstrance which was passed in the Commons by 11 votes (159 - 148) on 22 November 1641. It listed over 150 perceived "misdeeds" of Charles' reign including the Church (under the influence of foreign papists) and royal advisers (also "have[ing] engaged themselves to further the interests of some foreign powers") the second half of the Remonstrance proposed solutions to the "misdeeds" including church reform and Parliamentary influence over the appointment of royal ministers. December 1641 Parliament asserted that it wanted control over the appointment of the commanders of the Army and Navy in the Militia Bill . The king rejected the Grand Remonstrance and refused to give royal assent to the Militia Bill. The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ... The Grand Remonstrance was a list of 204 grievances, mostly religious, by the English Parliament against King Charles I of England during the Long Parliaments reign during the English Civil War. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... the militia bill was a suggestion by the long parliament ,in hopes that they would be able to control the army. ...


The King believed that Puritans (or Dissenters) encouraged by five vociferous members of the House of Commons, John Pym, John Hampden, Denzil Holles, Sir Arthur Haselrig and William Strode along with Lord Mandeville (the future Earl of Manchester) who sat in the House of Lords, had encouraged the Scots to invade England in the recent Bishops' Wars and that they were intent on turning the London mob against him. When rumours reached the court that they were also planning to impeach the Queen for alleged involvement in Catholic plots Charles decided to arrest them for treason. The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before... Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles (October 31, 1599 - February 17, 1680) was an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the five members of parliament whom King Charles I of England attempted to arrest in 1642. ... Sir Arthur Haselrig, 2nd Baron(died January 7, 1661), English parliamentarian, is best remembered as one of the five members of parliament whom King Charles I of England attempted to arrest in 1642, an event that helped precipitate the English Civil War. ... William Strode (1598-1645), English parliamentarian, second son of Sir William Strode, of Newnham, Devonshire (a member of an ancient family long established in that county, which became extinct in 1897), and of Mary, daughter of Thomas Southcote of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire. ... Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester (1602 - May 5, 1671), eldest son of the 1st earl by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. ...


The Speaker of the House during the Long Parliament was William Lenthall. On January 4, 1642 the king entered the House of Commons to seize the five members. Having taken the speaker's chair and looked round in vain to discover the offending members commenting "I see the birds have flown", Charles turned to Lenthall standing below, and demanded of him whether any of those persons were in the House, whether he saw any of them and where they were. Lenthall fell on his knees and replied: "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."[3] In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... William Lenthall (1591 – September 3, 1662), was an English politician of the Civil War period, Speaker of the House of Commons. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ...


After his failure to capture five members and the fearing for his life Charles left London for Oxford. Most of the royalist members of Parliament left to join him there where they formed the Oxford Parliament. Without its royalist members, the Long Parliament continued to sit during the Civil War and beyond because of the Dissolution Act. The Oxford Parliament assembled for the first time 22 January 1644 and adjourned for the last time on 10 March 1645 King Charles I was advised by Edward Hyde and others not to dissolve the Long Parliament as this would violate the statute of 1641 which says that Parliament cannot... The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) from 1642 until 1651. ...


In March 1642 with the King absent from London and the war clouds gathering, Parliament decreed that its own Parliamentary Ordinances were valid laws without royal assent. The Militia Ordinance was passed on 5 March by Parliament which gave Parliament control of the local militia called Trained Bands. Control of the London Trained Bands was the most strategically critical because they could protect the radical members of Parliament from armed intervention against them by any soldiers which Charles had near the capital. In response to the Militia Ordnance, Charles revived the Commissions of Array as a means of summoning an army instead. March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... A Commission of Array was a commission given by English royalty to officers or gentry in a given territory to muster and array the inhabitants, or see them in a condition for war. ...

This needs a section from April 1642 through 6 December 1648

December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ...

Time line

February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... Events January 4 - Charles I attempts to arrest five leading members of the Long Parliament, but they escape. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... The first Self-denying Ordinance was a bill moved on 9 December 1644 to deprive members of Parliament from holding command in the army or the navy of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ...

1649–1653 Rump Parliament

Main article Rump Parliament

Divisions emerged between various factions, culminating in Pride's Purge on December 7, 1648, when, under the orders of Oliver Cromwell, Colonel Pride physically barred about half of the members of Parliament from taking their seats. Many of the excluded members were Presbyterians. In the wake of the ejections, the remnant, the Rump Parliament, arranged for the trial and execution of Charles I. It was also responsible for the setting up of the Commonwealth of England in 1649. The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 17 - Englands Long Parliament passes the Vote of No Address, breaking off negotiations with King Charles I and thereby setting the scene for the second phase of the English Civil War. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see Thomas Pride (VC). ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO ( English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Republic  - Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell [of Commonwealth]    - by Rump_Parliament AD May 19, 1649  Area    - Total 130,395 km²   50,346 sq mi  Currency Pound sterling... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


Oliver Cromwell forcibly disbanded the Rump in 1653 when it seemed they might disband his expensive army of 50,000 men. It was followed by the Barebones Parliament and then the First, Second and Third Protectorate Parliament Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... The Barebones Parliament came into being on July 4, 1653. ... The First Protectorate Parliament was summoned by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Instrument of Government. ... The Second Protectorate Parliament sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658 with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House. ... The Third Protectorate Parliament sat for one session from 27 January until 22 April 1659 with Chaloner Chute and Thomas Bampfield as the Speakers of the House. ...


1659 recall and 1660 restoration

The Rump was recalled after Richard Cromwell failed miserably as Lord Protector in 1659. Richard Cromwell (October 4, 1626- July 12, 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and was Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from September 3, 1658 until May 25, 1659. ... Lord Protector is a particular British English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... // Events May 25 - Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning a second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth. ...


On February 21, 1660 General George Monck reinstated the members 'secluded' by Pride, so that they could prepare legislation for the Convention Parliament. The Long Parliament dissolved itself on March 16, 1660.[2][4] February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in leap years). ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ...


Succession

The Long Parliament was preceded by the Short Parliament. It was purged by Pride to become the Rump Parliament and was restored by Monck and succeeded by the Convention Parliament. The Short Parliament (April-May, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ...


Notable members of the Long Parliament

Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... Sir Simonds dEwes (December 18th 1602, Milden, Suffolk, England - April 18th 1650) was an antiquary and politician. ... George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol (<22 February 1612 - 20 May 1677), eldest son of the 1st earl. ... John Hampden as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book John Hampden (circa 1595—1643) was an English politician, the eldest son of William Hampden, of Hampden House, Great Hampden in Buckinghamshire, a descendant of a very ancient family of that county, said to have been established there before... Sir Robert Harley (1579–1656) was an English statesman who served as Master of the Mint for Charles I and later supported the parliamentarians during the English Civil War. ... Sir Arthur Haselrig, 2nd Baron(died January 7, 1661), English parliamentarian, is best remembered as one of the five members of parliament whom King Charles I of England attempted to arrest in 1642, an event that helped precipitate the English Civil War. ... Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles (October 31, 1599 - February 17, 1680) was an English statesman and writer, best known as one of the five members of parliament whom King Charles I of England attempted to arrest in 1642. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (February 18, 1609–December 9, 1674) was an English historian and statesman. ... William Lenthall (1591 – September 3, 1662), was an English politician of the Civil War period, Speaker of the House of Commons. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... The Most Noble Sir William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford KG PC (August 1616–September 7, 1700) was a British peer and soldier, the son of Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford. ... Oliver St John (c. ... William Strode (1598-1645), English parliamentarian, second son of Sir William Strode, of Newnham, Devonshire (a member of an ancient family long established in that county, which became extinct in 1897), and of Mary, daughter of Thomas Southcote of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire. ... Sir Henry Vane (1613 - June 14, 1662), son of Henry Vane the Elder, served as a statesman and Member of Parliament in a career spanning England and Massachusetts. ...

See also

List of Parliaments of England is a list of the sittings of the Parliament of England, from the reign of Edward IV to 1707 with some earlier named parliaments. ...

Further Reading

February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 21 - Abel Tasman discovers Tonga February 6 - Abel Tasman discovers the Fiji islands. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Full text of the Act against Dissolving the Long Parliament without its own Consent 11 May 1641
  2. ^ a b House of Commons Journal Volume 7: Dissolving Parliament 16 March 1660 (New Style)
  3. ^ By the time of the Restoration Lenthall seems to have forgotten his previous resolve when he consented to appear as a witness against the regicide Thomas Scot, for words spoken in the House of Commons while he was the Speaker.
  4. ^ According to contemporary royalist legal theory, the Long Parliament was regarded as having been automatically dissolved form the moment of Charles I's execution on 30 January 1649 (New Style). This view was confirmed by a court ruling during the treason trial of Henry Vane the Younger.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Long Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1039 words)
Parliament was also responsible for the impeachment and subsequent execution of the king's advisers, Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.
The Speaker of the House during the Long Parliament was William Lenthall.
The Long Parliament was preceded by the Short Parliament, was purged by Pride to become the Rump Parliament was restored by Monck and succeded by the Convention Parliament.
Rump Parliament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1485 words)
The Rump Parliament was the remnant of the Long Parliament, following Pride's Purge on 6 December 1648.
The Long Parliament was recreated from the Rump on 21 February 1660 when General George Monck reinstated the members 'secluded' by Pride.
The Speaker throughout the Rump Parliament's existence was the Speaker of the Long Parliament, William Lenthall.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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