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Encyclopedia > London Stock Exchange
London Stock Exchange
LSE logo
Type Public (LSE: LSE)
Founded 1801
Headquarters London, England, UK
Key people Clara Furse, CEO
Christopher S. Gibson-Smith, Chairman
Industry Financial
Products Stocks
Website londonstockexchange.com
The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building
Paternoster Square. The LSE occupies the building that takes up much of the right side of this picture.
Paternoster Square. The LSE occupies the building that takes up much of the right side of this picture.
Former LSE premises in Threadneedle Street
Former LSE premises in Threadneedle Street

The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange located in London, England. Founded in 1801, it is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world, with many overseas listings as well as UK companies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Clara Furse is the Chief Executive of the London Stock Exchange. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. ... A stock exchange, share market or bourse is a corporation or mutual organization which provides facilities for stock brokers and traders, to trade company stocks and other securities. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 377 KB) The Source, installed by artists Greyworld into the main atrium of the new London Stock Exchange in July 2004. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 377 KB) The Source, installed by artists Greyworld into the main atrium of the new London Stock Exchange in July 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1400 KB) Paternoster Square, City of London, England - the new home of the London Stock Exchange and next door to St Pauls Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1400 KB) Paternoster Square, City of London, England - the new home of the London Stock Exchange and next door to St Pauls Cathedral. ... London Stock Exchange (1972-2004) Tower Photo taken by BB98uk back in the early 90s from the back of the Bank Of England. ... London Stock Exchange (1972-2004) Tower Photo taken by BB98uk back in the early 90s from the back of the Bank Of England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


Its current premises are situated in Paternoster Square close to St Paul's Cathedral. Paternoster Square, redeveloped in 2003, is an area of London next to St Pauls Cathedral. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...

Contents

History

The trade in shares in London began with the need to finance two voyages: The Muscovy Company's attempt to reach China via the White Sea north of Russia, and the East India Company voyage to India and the east. Unable to finance these costly journeys privately, the companies raised the money by selling shares to merchants, giving them a right to a portion of any profits eventually made. Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) The Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Map of the White Sea Two satellite photos of the White Sea The White Sea (Russian: ) is an inlet of the Barents Sea on the North Western coast of Russia. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


The idea soon caught on (one of the earliest was the Earl of Bedford's scheme to drain the fens). It is estimated that by 1695 there were 140 joint-stock companies. The trade in shares was centered around the City's Change Alley in two coffee shops: Garraway's and Jonathan's. The broker John Castaing published the prices of stocks and commodities called The Course of the Exchange and other things in these coffee-shops. In 1697 a law was passed to "restrain the number and ill-practice of brokers and stockjobbers" following a number of insider trading and market-rigging incidents. It required all brokers to be licensed and to take an oath promising to act lawfully. The titles of Earl or Duke of Bedford were created several times in the peerage of England. ... Jan. ... John Rocques Map, 1747 Exchange Alley or Change Alley is a narrow alleyway connecting shops and coffeehouses in an old neighborhood of the City of London, England, bounded by Lombard Street, Cornhill and Birchin Lane. ... Jonathans Coffee-House in Change Alley is famous as the original site of the London Stock Exchange. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Insider trading is the trading of a corporations stock or other securities (e. ...


The Change Alley exchange thrived. However, it was to suffer a set-back in 1720. Much excitement was caused by the South Sea Company, stoked by brokers, the company's owner John Blunt and the government. Having set up the unprofitable company nine years previously the government hoped to wipe out the large debts accumulated by offering shares to the public. Shares in the company, which had started at £128 each at the start of the year, were soon fetching as much as £1,050 by June. The bubble inevitably burst, with share prices plunging to £175, then £124. The incident caused outcry, forcing the government to pass legislation to prevent another bubble, and it took a long time for the stock exchange to recover. // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Hogarthian image of the South Sea Bubble by Edward Matthew Ward, Tate Gallery More well known than The South Sea Company is perhaps the South Sea Bubble (1711 - September 1720) which is the name given to the economic bubble that occurred through overheated speculation in the company shares during 1720. ...


Jonathan's burnt down in 1748, and this, plus dissatisfaction with the overcrowding in the Alley, made the brokers build a New Jonathan's on Threadneedle Street, as well as charging an entrance fee. The building was soon renamed the Stock Exchange, only to renamed again as the Stock Subscription Room in 1801, with new membership regulations. However, this too proved unsatisfactory, and the exchange moved to the newly built Capel Court in the same year. The exchange had recovered by the 1820s, bolstered by the growth of the railways, canals, mining and insurance industries (there were, however, problems with stags and dividend payments). Regional stock exchages were formed across the UK. Bonds (or gilt-edged securities) also began to be traded. Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... Threadneedle Street Threadneedle Street is a road in the City of London, leading from an intersection with Poultry, Cornhill, King William Street and Lombard Street, to Bishopsgate. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... In finance, a bond is a debt security, in which the authorized issuer owes the holders a debt and is obliged to repay the principal and interest (the coupon) at a later date, termed maturity. ...


The former Stock Exchange Tower, based in Threadneedle Street/Old Broad Street was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1972 and housed the Trading Floor where traders would traditionally meet to conduct business. This became largely redundant with the advent of the Big Bang on 27 October 1986, which deregulated many of the Stock Exchange's activities. It eliminated fixed commissions on security trades and allowed securities firms to act as brokers and dealers. It also enabled an increased use of computerised systems that allowed dealing rooms to take precedence over face to face trading. The Stock Exchange Tower is a skyscraper located in the City of London at 125 Old Broad Street. ... Threadneedle Street Threadneedle Street is a road in the City of London, leading from an intersection with Poultry, Cornhill, King William Street and Lombard Street, to Bishopsgate. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The phrase big bang, used in reference to the sudden deregulation of financial markets, was coined to describe the Thatcher governments 1986 abolition of the distinction between stockjobbers and stockbrokers on the London Stock Exchange. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


On July 20, 1990 a bomb planted by the IRA exploded in the men's toilets behind the visitors' gallery. The area had already been evacuated and nobody was injured.[2] The long term trend towards electronic trading had been reducing the Exchange's status as a visitor attraction and although the gallery reopened it was closed permanently in 1992. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish name: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (PIRA; more commonly referred to as the IRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA) is an Irish Republican, left wing[2] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


In July 2004 the London Stock Exchange moved from Threadneedle Street to Paternoster Square (EC4) close to St Paul's Cathedral, still within the "Square Mile" (the City of London). It was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II once again, accompanied by The Duke of Edinburgh, on 27 July 2004. The new building contains a specially commissioned dynamic sculpture called "The Source", by artists Greyworld. Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Threadneedle Street Threadneedle Street is a road in the City of London, leading from an intersection with Poultry, Cornhill, King William Street and Lombard Street, to Bishopsgate. ... Paternoster Square, redeveloped in 2003, is an area of London next to St Pauls Cathedral. ... Map of central postal districts The EC (Eastern Central) postcode area, also known as the London EC postcode area,[1] is a group of postcode districts in central London, England. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state United Kingdom Constituent country England Region Greater London Status sui generis, City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor John Stuttard  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - City  1. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Sleeping Beauty character (actually spelled Phillip), see Sleeping Beauty (1959 film). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Pursuit of LSE by prospective merger partners

In December of 2005, the London Stock Exchange rejected a £1.6 billion takeover offer from Macquarie Bank. The LSE described the offer as "derisory", a sentiment echoed by shareholders in the exchange. Shortly after Macquarie withdrew its offer, the LSE received a an unsolicited approach from NASDAQ valuing the company at £2.4 billion. This too it duly rejected. NASDAQ later pulled its bid, and less than two weeks later on April 11, 2006, struck a deal with LSE's largest shareholder, Ameriprise Financial's Threadneedle Asset Management unit, to acquire all of that firm's stake, consisting of 35.4 million shares, at £11.75 per share.[3] NASDAQ also purchased 2.69 million additional shares, resulting in a total stake of 15%. While the seller of those shares was undisclosed, it occurred simultaneously with a sale by Scottish Widows of 2.69 million shares.[4] The move was seen as an effort to force LSE to the negotiating table, as well as to limit the LSE's strategic flexibility.[5] Macquarie Bank Limited is an Australian merchant bank and financial services group, providing a broad range of products and services to investors, corporations and government. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ameriprise Financial, Inc. ... Scottish Widows is an investment company located in Edinburgh, Scotland, now a subsidiary of the Lloyds TSB Group. ...


Subsequent purchases increased NASDAQ's stake to 25.1%, holding off competing bids for several months.[6][7][8] United Kingdom financial rules required that NASDAQ wait for a period of time before renewing its effort. On November 20, 2006, within a month or two of the expiration of this period, NASDAQ increased its stake to 28.75% and launched a hostile offer at the minimum permitted bid of £12.43 per share, which was the highest NASDAQ had paid on the open market for its existing shares.[9] The LSE immediately rejected this bid, stating that it "substantially undervalues" the company.[10]. November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


NASDAQ revised its offer (characterized as an "unsolicited" bid, rather than a "hostile takeover attempt") on December 12, 2006, indicating that it would be able to complete the deal with 50% (plus one share) of LSE's stock, rather than the 90% it had been seeking. The U.S. exchange did not, however, raise its bid. Many hedge funds had accumulated large positions within the LSE, and many managers of those funds, as well as Furse, indicated that the bid was still not satisfactory. NASDAQ's bid was made more difficult because it had described its offer as "final", which, under British bidding rules, restricted their ability to raise its offer except under certain circumstances. A takeover in business refers to one company (the acquirer, or bidder) purchasing another (the target). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the end, NASDAQ's offer was roundly rejected by LSE shareholders. Having received acceptances of only 0.41 per cent of rest of the register by the deadline on 10 February 2007, Nasdaq's offer duly lapsed[1]. Responding to the news, Chris Gibson-Smith, the LSE's chairman, said: "The Exchange’s strategy has produced outstanding results for shareholders by facilitating a structural shift in volume growth in an increasingly international market at the centre of the world’s equity flows. The Exchange intends to build on its exceptionally valuable brand by progressing various competitive, collaborative and strategic opportunities, thereby reinforcing its uniquely powerful position in a fast evolving global sector."[2] is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Alliances

Agreed Takeover of Borsa Italiana

On the 23rd June 2007 the LSE agreed to take over the Milan-based Borsa Italiana for 1.6bn euros (£1.1bn; $2bn). The combination will diversify the LSE's product offering and customer base. The Borsa Italiana S.p. ...


On 8 August, shareholders in the London Stock Exchange approved the transaction. 155,767,201 shares were voted in favour of the merger with Borsa Italiana. This represented 100 per cent of votes cast and 78 per cent of issued share capital. The merger is now expected to complete in October following regulatory approvals and listing of the new shares.


The all-share deal will dilute the stakes of existing LSE shareholders, with Borsa Italiana shareholders receiving new shares representing 28 per cent of the enlarged register. Nasdaq's stake of nearly 30 percent in the LSE, which Nasdaq built up during a failed takeover attempt in 2006-7, will fall to around 22 percent following the deal with Borsa Italiana[11].


The enlarged group is expected to be eligible for inclusion in the FTSE100 index.


Structure

The LSE is broken down into the Main Market and Alternative Investments Market (AIM), as well as EDX London (which handles derivatives). The independent FTSE Group maintains a series of indices for measuring the LSE, including the FTSE 100 Index, FTSE 250 Index, and FTSE 350 Index. The Alternative Investments Market (AIM) is a sub-market of the London Stock Exchange, allowing smaller companies to float shares with a more flexible regulatory system than is applicable to the Main Market. ... EDX London Ltd is a derivatives exchange managed by the London Stock Exchange. ... FTSE Group (Footsie) is a British indices and associated data services provider. ... The FTSE 100 Index (or just the FTSE, pronounced footsie) is a share index of the 100 most highly capitalised companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. ... The FTSE 250 Index is a capitalisation weighted index of 250 companies on the London Stock Exchange. ... The FTSE 350 Index index is a market capitalisation weighted stock market index incorporating the largest 350 companies by capitalisation which have their primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. ...


Levels

  • Listed companies 2,749.[12]

See also

A market maker is a person or a firm which quotes a buy and sell price in a financial instrument or commodity hoping to make a profit on the turn or the bid/offer spread. ... AIM or the Alternative Investment Market is a stock market in London trading in smaller capital, newer and more adventurous companies than the London Stock Exchange. ...

References

  1. ^ A piece of trivia: Upon occasion, financial companies will decide to use this motto. They only know the English "My word is my bond"; and, due to the difficulty of locating the original Latin motto (from which the English version is taken), produce a fake coat of arms for their business embellished with the Latin motto verbum meum pactum. At first sight, this seems O.K. -- for this Latin motto also means "My word is my bond" -- but, sadly for them, whilst dictum meum pactum very definitely means "The words that come out of my mouth are my bond", the contrasting motto verbum meum pactum, in this context, means "The words that I write on a page are my bond"; and, as a consequence, they are warning their customers that "Nothing that I say can be trusted".
  2. ^ "On This Day: July 20, 1990: IRA bombs Stock Exchange", BBC News. 
  3. ^ Patrick, M., Lucchetti, A., Reilly, D., Taylor, E.. "Nasdaq Acquires 15% of LSE", The Wall Street Journal, 2006-04-11. 
  4. ^ "Scottish Widows says has sold 2.7 mln LSE shares at 1,175 pence", Forbes, 2006-04-12. 
  5. ^ Ortega, E.. "Nasdaq Buys 15 Percent Stake in LSE for $782 Million", Bloomberg News, 2006-04-11. 
  6. ^ MacDonald, A., Lucchetti, A.. "In LSE Stakes, Nasdaq Advances, Euronext Falls", The Wall Street Journal, 2006-05-04. 
  7. ^ Lucchetti, A., MacDonald, A.. "Nasdaq Lifts Its LSE Stake to 24%", The Wall Street Journal, 2006-05-11. 
  8. ^ "Nasdaq raises LSE stake, making rival bids harder." Goldsmith, B. and Elliott, M. Reuters. May 19, 2006.
  9. ^ Lucchetti, A., MacDonald, A.. "Nasdaq Makes Bid to Buy Rest of London Stock Exchange", The Wall Street Journal, 2006-11-20. 
  10. ^ "LSE rejects £2.7bn Nasdaq offer", BBC News, 2006-11-20. 
  11. ^ http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/articleinvesting.aspx?type=mergersNews&storyID=2007-06-25T072946Z_01_L25318616_RTRIDST_0_BORSA-ITALIANA-LSE-UPDATE-1.XML
  12. ^ http://www.londonstockexchange.com/en-gb/pricesnews/statistics/listcompanies/

BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bloomberg Television is a cable television network that broadcasts business and financial news 24 hours a day. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pron. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 51°30′55″N, 0°06′00″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



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  Results from FactBites:
 
London Stock Exchange - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (396 words)
Founded in 1801, it is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world, with many overseas listings as well as UK companies.
The former Stock Exchange Tower, based in Threadneedle Street/Old Broad Street was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1972 and housed the Trading Floor where traders would traditionally meet to conduct business.
In July 2004 the London Stock Exchange moved from Threadneedle Street to Paternoster Square (EC4) close to St Paul's Cathedral, still within the "Square Mile" (the City of London).
Encyclopedia: London Stock Exchange (1161 words)
London EC4 is the London postal district covering the area of central London on the north bank of the River Thames, Roughly between The City of Westminster and London Bridge.
The Duke of Edinburgh The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (Philip Mountbatten, formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) (born 10 June 1921) is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
The response of the Stock Exchange to this challenge was delayed until 1986, however, not because of the rigidity of the governance structure, but because of the Thatcher government's attack on the privileges of the Stock Exchange brought before the Restrictive Practices Court.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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