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Encyclopedia > London School Board
The monogram of the School Board for London, which originally adorned all schools built by the board. This example is from an elementary school built at Droop Street, Paddington, 1877.
The monogram of the School Board for London, which originally adorned all schools built by the board. This example is from an elementary school built at Droop Street, Paddington, 1877.

The School Board for London (often abbreviated to the SBL and known colloquially as the London School Board) was an institution of local government and the first directly elected body covering the whole of London. Image File history File linksMetadata Lsblogo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lsblogo. ... A street in Paddington including a pub, a restaurant targeted at tourists and Paddington Station in the background. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Elementary Education Act 1870 was the first to provide for education for the whole population of England and Wales. It created elected school boards, which had power to build and run schools where there were insufficient voluntary school places; they could also compel attendance. In most places, the school boards were based on borough districts or civil parishes, but in London the board covered the whole area of the Metropolitan Board of Works -- the area today known as Inner London. Elementary Education Act 1870 commonly known as Forsters Education Act established guidelines which, on paper, granted the right to schooling to any male between the ages of 5 and 13. ... School boards were also set up in England and Wales under the Education Act 1870 following campaigning by Joseph Chamberlain and the National Education League for elementary education free from Anglican doctrine. ... Borough status in the United Kingdom is granted by royal charter to local government districts in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ...


Between 1870 and 1904, the SBL was the single largest educational provider in London and the infrastructure and policies it developed were an important influence on London schooling long after the body was abolished. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

School board members

The offices of the School Board on the Victoria Embankment (1872-76 by Bodley and Garner). These were something of a landmark until their demolition in 1929
The offices of the School Board on the Victoria Embankment (1872-76 by Bodley and Garner). These were something of a landmark until their demolition in 1929

The SBL was elected from ten divisions, based around London's constituencies. Four divisions, representing the City, Southwark, Chelsea and Greenwich returned four members. The divisions of Lambeth, Tower Hamlets, Hackney and Westminster returned five members each. Finally, Finsbury and Marylebone returned six and seven members respectively. The Lambeth division, covering the largest area, was eventually sub-divided into two smaller divisions, Lambeth East and Lambeth West. Image File history File links Schoolboardoffices. ... Image File history File links Schoolboardoffices. ... Victoria Embankment, London The Victoria Embankment, previously the Thames Embankment is a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London in the cities of Westminster and London. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... The City of London is a geographically-small city within Greater London, England. ... The Borough or Southwark is an area of the London Borough of Southwark situated 1. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ... Greenwich is a town, now part of the south eastern urban sprawl of London, England, on the south bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... Lambeth is a place in the London Borough of Lambeth. ... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London. ... The Metropolitan Borough of Hackney was a metropolitan borough of the County of London from 1899 to 1965. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Finsbury is a place in the south of the London Borough of Islington. ... Marylebone (sometimes written St. ...


The electoral system of the SBL contained several innovations. Firstly, the board's election of 1870 was polled by secret ballot, being the first large-scale election to use this approach in Britain. Secondly, the cumulative voting system gave electors a number of votes equal to the number of seats in the division in which they were voting. The elector could use up as many of their votes on a single candidate as they wished, which meant that minority interests often found representation. 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ...


The SBL, at the time of its creation had one of the broadest mandates of any elected body in Britain. Unusually, women were permitted to vote on the same terms as men for the school boards and also to stand for election. A number of women were elected to the board, including Elizabeth Garrett, who topped the poll at the first board election in 1870. Dr. Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, MD (9 June 1836 – 17 December 1917) was an English physician and feminist, the first woman to gain a medical qualification in Britain. ...


One measure of the SBL's importance can be seen in the number of notable figures who stood for election to the board. The board attracted a number of the leading figures of the day, including the scientist Thomas Huxley, Helen Taylor, step-daughter of John Stuart Mill, and Lord Lawrence, who served as the SBL's first chairman. The board was also responsible for launching a number of political careers, including those of Charles Reed, Benjamin Waugh, and the Conservative cabinet minister, William Henry Smith. Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... John Stuart Mill (20th May 1806 – 8th May 1873), a British philosopher and political economist, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... John Laird Mair Lawrence, 1st Baron Lawrence (4 March 1811 - 27 June 1879) was a British statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1864 to 1869. ... Sir Charles Reed (1819–1881) was a British politician who served as Member of Parliament for Hackney and St Ives), Chairman of the London School Board, Director and Trustee of the original Abney Park Cemetery Company, Chairman of the Bunhill Fields Preservation Committee, and ran a successful commercial printing and... The Reverend Benjamin Waugh (February 20, 1839 — March 11, 1908) was a Victorian social reformer and campaigner who founded the UK charity, the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) in the late 19th century, and also wrote various hymns. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and is the second oldest extant political party in the world. ... The Rt Hon. ...


Work of the school board

The original intention of the board was to provide a sufficient number of school places for the poorest children in London, which were originally estimated at little more than 100,000.[1] The policy adopted by the SBL was to provide London with modern, high-quality schools, whilst compelling parents, by law, to educate their children. Although education would not be compulsory on a national level until 1880, the board passed a by-law in 1871 that compelled parents to have their children schooled between the ages of five and thirteen. Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... A Bylaw (sometimes also seen as By-Law or ByLaw) is a rule governing the internal management of an organization, such as a business corporation. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The SBL was largely successful in their aims and often struggled to keep up with the demand for their services. For instance, by the end of the 1880s, the board was providing school places for more than 350,000 children.[2] This growth was frequently attributed to the quality of school premises, which were often far superior to those of private or charity schools. The board was responsible for constructing over four hundred schools across London, many of which are still in use. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ...


Abolition of the board

Although the school boards had been largely successful in increasing the number of children attending school in Britain, they were perceived as bureaucratic and expensive. As a response to this, the boards were abolished by the Education Act of 1902, which replaced them with Local Education Authorities. 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ...


In London, the London County Council had been created in 1889 to replace the Metropolitan Board of Works and in 1904 the responsibility for education in London was transferred to the LCC. The LCC itself was abolished in 1965, with education for the former School Board area passing to the Inner London Education Authority, a committee of the Greater London Council. The ILEA was abolished in 1990, with the inner London borough councils becoming education authorities. London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was the education authority for the 12 inner London boroughs, from 1965 until its abolition in 1990. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ...


References

  1. ^ School Board for London], The Work of Three Years, December 1870 – November 1873 (London: SBL, 1873), 3.
  2. ^ School Board for London, Report of the School Board for London (London: SBL, 1887), 4.

See also

Birmingham School Board Icknield Street School The tower of Icknield Street School The Oozells Street School - Ikon Gallery Typical exposed roof ironwork. ...


Further reading

  • Education in Britain 1750-1914, W B Stephens, 1998, ISBN 0-333-60512-8
  • Educational Documents, England and Wales 1816 to the present day, J Stuart MacLure, 1965, 1979, ISBN 0-416-72810-3 370.942

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