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Encyclopedia > London Philharmonic Orchestra
London Philharmonic Orchestra

Background information
Also known as LPO; London Session Orchestra
Origin Flag of the United Kingdom London, England, United Kingdom
Genre(s) Classical
Occupation(s) Symphony orchestra
Years active 1932-present
Associated
acts
LPO Choir
Website www.lpo.co.uk
Members
Principal Conductor
Kurt Masur
Principal Guest Conductor
Vladimir Jurowski
Composer in Residence
Mark-Anthony Turnage
Former members
Founder
Sir Thomas Beecham

The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), based in London, is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. It is based in the Royal Festival Hall. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... Vladimir Jurowski (born 1972 in Moscow, Russia) is a Russian conductor. ... Mark-Anthony Turnage (born June 10, 1960) is an English composer of classical music. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Royal Festival Hall is a concert, dance and talks venue within the South Bank Centre in London, England. ...

Contents

History

Early years

The orchestra was formed in 1932 by Sir Thomas Beecham, and played its first concert on October 7, 1932 at the Queen's Hall, London. Its founding associate conductor was Malcolm Sargent[1]. During the early years, the orchestra was led by Paul Beard and David McCallum, and included leading players such as Anthony Pini, Reginald Kell, Léon Goossens, Gwydion Brooke, Geoffrey Gilbert, Bernard Walton and James Bradshaw.[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Queens Hall was a classical music concert hall in Central London, opened in 1893 but is best known for being where The Promenade Concerts were founded in 1895. ... Sir (Harold) Malcolm (Watts) Sargent (April 29, 1895 – October 3, 1967) was a British conductor, organist and composer. ... David McCallum, Sr. ... Reginald Kell (born York, England 1906, died 5 Aug 1981, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA) was a British clarinettist. ... Léon Goosens (1897-1988) was a British oboist. ... Gwydion Brooke (1912-2005) was the principal bassoonist of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and a member of its “Royal Family” of wind instrumentalists, along with Jack Brymer (clarinet), Dennis Brain (horn), Richard Walton (trumpet), Terence MacDonagh (oboe), and Gerald Jackson (flute). ... Geoffrey Gilbert (1914-1989) was a celebrated English flautist. ...


At one of the orchestra's early concerts in November 1932 the sixteen-year old Yehudi Menuhin played a programme of violin concertos; those by Bach and Mozart were conducted by Beecham, and Elgar's concerto was conducted by the composer.[3] Yehudi Menuhin album cover Yehudi Menuhin, Baron Menuhin, OM, KBE (April 22, 1916 – March 12, 1999) was a Jewish-born, American violinist and conductor who spent most of his performing career in the United Kingdom and eventually became a British citizen. ... For other people named Bach and other meanings of the word, see Bach (disambiguation). ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet, OM, GCVO (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English Romantic composer. ...


In the 1930s the LPO was the orchestra for the international opera seasons at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, of which Beecham was artistic director.[4] The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster. ...


Beecham conducted the orchestra in a series of 78-rpm recordings for Columbia Records, including a critically-acclaimed 1939 recording of Brahms' second symphony, which was later reissued on LP and CD. Columbia Records is the oldest brand name in recorded sound, dating back to 1888, and was the first record company to produce pre-recorded records as opposed to blank cylinders. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of classical music. ...


War and post-war years

In 1939 the orchestra's sponsors withdrew their financial support and the orchestra became self-governing, with members of the orchestra themselves taking decisions on the organisation's affairs. During the Second World War it was particularly active in touring the country and bringing orchestral music to places where it was not usually available. Many of the players' instruments were lost in an air-raid on the Queen's Hall in May 1941, and an appeal was broadcast by the BBC, the response to which was enormous, with instruments donated by the public enabling the orchestra to continue.[5] Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


After the war, Beecham returned to the LPO for eighteen months, but left to found a new orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic. Guest conductors in this period included Victor de Sabata, Bruno Walter, Sergiu Celibidache and Wilhelm Furtwängler.[6] In 1949/50 the LPO gave 248 concerts, compared with 103 by the London Symphony Orchestra and 32 each by the Philharmonia and RPO.[7] The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) is an English orchestra based in London. ... Vittorio (Victor) De Sabata (April 10, 1892 – December 11, 1967) was an Italian conductor and composer. ... Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Sergiu Celibidache (June 28, 1912, Roman, Romania - August 14, 1996, Paris) was a Romanian conductor. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ... The Philharmonia Orchestra is an orchestra based in London. ...


After a period with no principal conductor the orchestra engaged the Dutch conductor, Eduard van Beinum in 1947. Foreign nationals, at that time, were allowed to work in Britain for only six months of the year; in his absences van Beinum’s place was taken by a roster of conductors including Jean Martinon. Van Beinum’s health obliged him to resign and he was succeeded by Sir Adrian Boult, who had retired from a similar position with the BBC Symphony Orchestra at the BBC’s then compulsory retiring age of 60 in 1950.[8] Eduard van Beinum (September 1, 1901, Arnhem - April 13, 1959, Amsterdam) was a Dutch conductor. ... Jean Martinon (January 10, 1910–March 1, 1976) was a French conductor and composer. ... Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH (April 8, 1889 – February 22, 1983) was an English conductor. ... The BBC Symphony Orchestra is the principal orchestra of the British Broadcasting Corporation and one of the leading orchestras in Britain. ...


The orchestra underwent a crisis between 1949 and 1952 because its managing director, Thomas Russell, who had been the leading force in keeping the orchestra going during the war years, came under pressure in the cold war years because of his communist beliefs. The London County Council withdrew its understanding that the LPO would be the resident orchestra at the new Royal Festival Hall, and eventually the orchestra voted to dismiss Russell.[9] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ...


Boult retired as principal conductor after heading the LPO’s tour of Russia in 1956. He remained closely associated with the orchestra, and was made its President in 1965. Most of his stereophonic recordings for EMI were made with the LPO.[10]


Through the late 1950s the LPO worked with conductors including Constantin Silvestri and Josef Krips. This was a bad period financially for the orchestra, and it was forced to abandon fixed contracts for its players with holiday and sick pay and pensions, and revert to payment by engagement.[11] Constantin Silvestri (May 13, 1913 – February 23, 1969) was a Romanian conductor. ... Josef Alois Krips (born 8 April 1902 in Vienna, died 13 October 1974 in Geneva) was an Austrian conductor and violinist. ...


In 1958 the LPO appointed William Steinberg as chief conductor. He was a noted orchestral trainer, and did much to restore playing standards to their former levels.[12] William Steinberg (originally Hans Wilhelm Steinberg) (August 1, 1899 – May 16, 1978) was a German Jewish conductor. ...


The 1960s and 70s

In 1962 the orchestra undertook its first tour of India, Australia and the Far East. The conductors were Sir Malcolm Sargent and John Pritchard. Pritchard was appointed the LPO’s chief conductor in 1962. He was also music director of the Glyndebourne Festival, and in 1964 the LPO replaced the RPO as Glyndebourne’s resident orchestra.[13] Sir John Michael Pritchard (February 5, 1921 - December 5, 1969) was an English conductor. ... Glyndebourne is a country house near Lewes in East Sussex, England. ...


In 1967 the LPO appointed Bernard Haitink as its principal conductor. He remained with the orchestra for twelve years, bringing a continuity that had been lacking since Beecham’s departure in 1939.[14] ...


During this period the orchestra gave fund raising concerts in which guests from outside the world of classical music appeared, including Danny Kaye and Duke Ellington. Others to appear with the LPO included Tony Bennett, Victor Borge, Jack Benny and John Dankworth.[15] Kaye entertaining U.S. troops at Sasebo, Japan, 25 Oct 1945 David Daniel Kaminsky, known as Danny Kaye (January 18, 1913 – March 3, 1987) was an American actor, singer and comedian. ... Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (April 29, 1899–May 24, 1974) was an American jazz composer, pianist, and band leader who has been one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. ... For other persons named Tony Bennett, see Tony Bennett (disambiguation). ... Musician/Comedian Victor Borge For the Cape Verdean politician, see Víctor Borges. ... Jack Benny (February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois – December 26, 1974 in Beverly Hills, California), born Benjamin Kubelsky, was an American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor. ... Sir John Dankworth CBE Born in London, England, in 1927, was brought up in a musical environment amongst a family of musicians. ...


In the 1970s the orchestra toured the USA, China, Western Europe. Russia and the USA for a second time. Guest conductors included Erich Leinsdorf, Carlo Maria Giulini and Sir Georg Solti, who became the LPO’s chief conductor in 1979.[16] Erich Leinsdorf (February 4, 1912 - September 11, 1993) was a conductor. ... Carlo Maria Giulini (May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor. ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced ) (21 October 1912 - 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ...


Golden Jubilee

In 1982 the orchestra celebrated its golden jubilee. A contemporaneous book listed the many famous musicians who had worked with the LPO in its fifty years. In addition to those mentioned above, others were conductors, Daniel Barenboim, Leonard Bernstein, Eugen Jochum, Erich Kleiber, Serge Koussevitzky, Pierre Monteux, André Previn and Leopold Stokowski, and soloists Janet Baker, Dennis Brain, Alfred Brendel, Pablo Casals, Clifford Curzon, Victoria de los Angeles, Jacqueline du Pré, Kirsten Flagstad, Beniamino Gigli, Emil Gilels, Jascha Heifetz, Wilhelm Kempff, Fritz Kreisler, Arturo Michelangeli, David Oistrakh, Luciano Pavarotti, Maurizio Pollini, Leontyne Price, Arthur Rubinstein, Elisabeth Schumann, Rudolf Serkin, Joan Sutherland, Richard Tauber and Eva Turner.[17] A Golden Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary of a monarchs reign. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Eugen Jochum (November 1, 1902 – March 26, 1987) was a conductor. ... Erich Kleiber (August 5, 1890 – January 27, 1956) was an Austrian-born conductor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pierre Monteux (April 4, 1875 – July 1, 1964) was an orchestra conductor. ... André Previn (born April 6, 1929)¹ is a prominent pianist, orchestral conductor, and composer. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... Janet Baker as Mary Stuart The British mezzo-soprano Janet Baker (born August 21, 1933) is a well-known opera, concert, and lieder singer. ... Dennis Brain (1921 – 1957) was a British virtuoso horn player and was largely responsible for popularizing the horn as a solo classical instrument with the post-war British public. ... Alfred Brendel Alfred Brendel (born January 5, 1931) is an Austrian pianist, born in Czechoslovakia. ... Casals redirects here. ... Sir Clifford Michael Curzon (May 18, 1907 - September 1, 1982) was a celebrated English pianist. ... The Catalan singer Victoria de los Ángeles (November 1, 1923 – January 15, 2005) was a well-known soprano whose career spanned the early 1940s to the mid 1970s. ... Jacqueline Mary du Pré, O.B.E. (January 26, 1945 – October 19, 1987), was an English cellist, today acknowledged as one of the greatest exponents of the instrument. ... Kirsten Flagstad Kirsten MÃ¥lfrid Flagstad (July 12, 1895 – December 7, 1962) was a Norwegian opera singer. ... Beniamino Gigli (March 20, 1890 - November 30, 1957) was an Italian singer, widely regarded as one of the greatest operatic tenors of his time. ... Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (Russian: Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emili Gregorievič Gilelis; October 19, 1916 – October 14, 1985) was a Soviet pianist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wilhelm Kempff (November 25, 1895 – May 23, 1991) was a German pianist and composer. ... Fritz Kreisler (February 2, 1875 – January 29, 1962) was an Austrian violinist and composer, one of the most famous of his day. ... Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli (January 5, 1920–June 12, 1995) was an Italian classical pianist. ... David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (Russian: , David Fiodorovič Ojstrah; September 30 [O.S. September 17] 1908 – October 24, 1974) was a Jewish Soviet violinist who made many recordings and was the dedicatee of numerous violin works. ... Luciano Pavarotti Luciano Pavarotti (born October 12, 1935) is an Italian spinto tenor who is one of the best known vocal performers in contemporary times, in the world of opera and across multiple musical genres. ... Maurizio Pollini Maurizio Pollini (born January 5, 1942) is an Italian classical pianist. ... Legendary Leontyne Price by Jack Mitchell, 1981 Mary Violet Leontyne Price (born February 10, 1927) is an American opera singer (soprano). ... For the 19th century Russian pianist and composer, see Anton Rubinstein Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a Polish pianist who is widely considered as one of the greatest piano virtuosos of the 20th Century. ... Elisabeth Schumann (1888 - 1952) was a celebrated German soprano who sang in opera, operetta, oratorio and lieder and left a rich legacy of recordings. ... Rudolf Serkin (March 28, 1903 – May 8, 1991) was an Austrian pianist. ... Joan Sutherland as Haydns Euridice, Vienna 1967 Dame Joan Sutherland OM, AC, DBE (born November 7, 1926) is an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the bel canto revival of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Richard Tauber (16 May 1891 – 8 January 1948) was an Austrian tenor acclaimed as one of the greatest singers of the 20th century. ... Dame Eva Turner (Born in Werneth, Oldham, England, on 10 March 1892 - died on 16 June 1990) was a British soprano. ...


Present day

In 2007 Vladimir Jurowski became the LPO's music director. He conducted the orchestra in June 2007 during the concerts marking the re-opening of the refurbished Royal Festival Hall.[18]. As well as its residence at the Festival Hall, the LPO remains the main resident orchestra of the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. The current LPO chief executive and artistic director is Timothy Walker.[19] Vladimir Jurowski (born 1972 in Moscow, Russia) is a Russian conductor. ...


The LPO has recently begun to issue CDs under its own label.[20]


Non-classical work

As well as giving its classical concerts, the LPO has made several film soundtracks, including Lawrence of Arabia, Philadelphia, The Mission and The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, as well as some CD albums of the music from the Square Enix video game series Dragon Quest composed by Koichi Sugiyama, Symphonic Poem: Hope for Final Fantasy XII and the soundtrack for Xenosaga Episode I composed by Yasunori Mitsuda. They can also be heard in the 1993 television production of Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, conducted by Simon Rattle, as well as the 1989 EMI recording of the opera. The orchestra also occasionally plays on popular music records like Nightwish's Once and Dark Passion Play, for example. In the mid-1990s the LPO even released tribute albums to rock bands like Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, and The Who with covers of the bands' songs, including an infamous rendition of “Kashmir", and a version of "Baba O'Riley", which was featured in the movie Slackers. The LPO was also featured in the black metal band Dimmu Borgir's album titled Death Cult Armageddon. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Lawrence of Arabia is an award-winning 1962 film based on the life of T. E. Lawrence. ... Philadelphia is an Academy Award-winning 1993 drama film revolving around the HIV/AIDS epidemic, written by Ron Nyswaner and directed by Jonathan Demme. ... The Mission is a 1986 British film about the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in eighteenth century South America. ... The Lord of the Rings film trilogy comprises three live action fantasy epic films; The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001), The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003). ... SQUARE ENIX (Japanese: スクウェア・エニックス) is a Japanese producer of popular video games and manga. ... Namcos Pac-Man was a hit, and became a universal phenomenon. ... Dragon Quest logo Dragon Quest ), published as Dragon Warrior in North America until the 2005 release of Dragon Quest VIII: Journey of the Cursed King, is a series of role-playing games produced by Enix (now Square Enix). ... Koichi Sugiyama (すぎやまこういち Sugiyama Kōichi; born April 11, 1931) is a Japanese music composer. ... Final Fantasy XII ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square Enix for the Sony PlayStation 2 video game console, and the twelfth installment in the Final Fantasy video game series. ... Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht (Episode I) is a Computer role-playing game for the PlayStation 2 and the first title in the Xenosaga series. ... Yasunori Mitsuda (光田 康典 Mitsuda Yasunori, born January 21, 1972) is a Japanese composer, sound programmer and musician best known for his work in video game music, specifically Xenogears, Xenosaga Episode I: Der Wille zur Macht, Mario Party and Chrono Trigger. ... George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... Simon Rattle recording Porgy and Bess with the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road in 1988, aged 33. ... Popular music is music belonging to any of a number of musical styles that are accessible to the general public and are disseminated by one or more of the mass media. ... Nightwish is a Finnish symphonic power metal band formed in 1996 in the town of Kitee. ... Once is the fifth album by Nightwish, released June 7, 2004 by Nuclear Blast Records. ... Singles from Dark Passion Play Released: May 25, 2007 Released: August 22, 2007 Released: Release date unknown Dark Passion Play is the upcoming sixth studio album from Finnish symphonic power metal band Nightwish. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde progressive rock music. ... Led Zeppelin were an English rock band that formed in September 1968. ... The Who are an English rock band that first formed in 1964 and grew to be considered one of the greatest[1] and most influential[2] bands in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Baba ORiley is a song written by Pete Townshend, lead guitarist of the British rock band The Who. ... Slackers is a 2002 movie starring Devon Sawa, Jaime King, and Jason Schwartzman. ... Dimmu Borgir (pronounced Dim-moo-bore-gear ) is a symphonic black metal band from Norway. ... Death Cult Armageddon is the sixth album release from symphonic black metal band Dimmu Borgir. ...


Principal Conductors

As of May 2007, the principal conductor is Kurt Masur, who began his tenure in 2000. Vladimir Jurowski became the LPO's principal guest conductor in March 2003. The orchestra has announced that Masur will be replaced by Jurowski in the position of principal conductor at the beginning of the 2007-2008 season.[21] Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vladimir Jurowski (born 1972 in Moscow, Russia) is a Russian conductor. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Thomas Beecham (April 29, 1879 - March 8, 1961) was a British conductor. ... Eduard van Beinum (September 1, 1901, Arnhem - April 13, 1959, Amsterdam) was a Dutch conductor. ... Sir Adrian Cedric Boult CH (April 8, 1889 – February 22, 1983) was an English conductor. ... William Steinberg (originally Hans Wilhelm Steinberg) (August 1, 1899 – May 16, 1978) was a German Jewish conductor. ... Sir John Michael Pritchard CBE (February 5, 1921 – December 5, 1989) was an English conductor. ... ... Sir Georg Solti, KBE (pronounced ) (21 October 1912 - 5 September 1997) was a world-renowned Hungarian-British orchestral and operatic conductor. ... Klaus Tennstedt (June 6, 1926 - January 11, 1998) was a German conductor. ... Franz Welser-Möst, Photo by: Roger Mastroianni courtesy of IMG Artists Franz Welser-Möst (16 August 1960), born Franz Möst, is the seventh and current Music Director of The Cleveland Orchestra. ... Kurt Masur Conducting Mendelssohns Scottish Symphony Kurt Masur (born July 18, 1927) is a German conductor. ... Vladimir Jurowski (born 1972 in Moscow, Russia) is a Russian conductor. ...

References

  1. ^ Aldous, p 69
  2. ^ Notes to EMI/WRC set SHB 201-204
  3. ^ Moore: no page reference can be given, as this book, though 112 pages long, has no page numbers
  4. ^ Moore
  5. ^ Moore
  6. ^ Moore
  7. ^ Hill, Ralph (ed) (1951). Music 1951. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books. OCLC 26147349
  8. ^ Moore
  9. ^ Moore
  10. ^ Moore
  11. ^ Moore
  12. ^ Moore
  13. ^ Moore
  14. ^ Moore
  15. ^ Moore
  16. ^ Moore
  17. ^ Moore
  18. ^ The Guardian, 15 June 2007
  19. ^ Erica Jeal. "Lord of the dings", The Guardian, 31 March 2003. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  20. ^ Charlotte Higgins. "London Philharmonic launches own label", The Guardian, 24 Mar 2005. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 
  21. ^ Vladimir Jurowski. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  • Aldous, Richard (2001). Tunes of glory: the life of Malcolm Sargent. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0091801311. 
  • Moore, Jerrold Northrop (1982). Philharmonic: Jubilee 1932-1982. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0091473004. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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