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Encyclopedia > London Congestion Charge
The white-on-red C marks all entrances to the congestion charge zone.
The white-on-red C marks all entrances to the congestion charge zone.

The London congestion charge is a fee for some motorists entering the Central London area. As of 2006 it is the largest city to have adopted a congestion charge model. The organisation responsible for the charge is Transport for London (TfL), with Capita Group operating the scheme under contract. A payment of £8 is required each day when a chargeable vehicle enters the congestion charge zone between 7am and 6pm with a penalty payment required for non payment. The zone came into operation on 17 February 2003 and was extended into parts of West London on 19 February 2007. The aims of the charge are to discourage the use of private cars, reduce congestion, and provide investment in public transport. London congestion charge sign near Old St roundabout, my photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... Capita is a British company headquartered in London which specialises in business process outsourcing, having clients in central and local government, and in the private sector. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Satellite image of the inner part of West London Ayad Dibis is the best in West London. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The scheme was the first on a large scale in the United Kingdom and has been controversial with reported effects not only on traffic levels, but business activity and the local environment. Worldwide several cities have used the London scheme as a model for possible schemes.

Contents

History

Signs indicate the boundary of the congestion charge area.
Signs indicate the boundary of the congestion charge area.

Many toll roads and bridges exist in Great Britain such as the Severn crossing, Dartford Crossing and Forth Road Bridge. Previously toll roads run by turnpike trusts had been common from the late 1600s to 1800s. General road tolls have also been advocated by many others in the past, such as the 18th century economist Adam Smith.[1] Has border, otherwise like previous File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Has border, otherwise like previous File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Severn crossing is generally used to refer to two river crossings over the River Severn between England and Wales. ... , The Queen Elizabeth II Bridge The Dartford Crossing joins Dartford and Thurrock across the River Thames, to the east of London. ... The Forth Road Bridge is a suspension bridge in east central Scotland. ... The Hyde Park Toll Gate, London. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ...


Schemes similar to the current congestion charge have been under consideration by the British Government since the early 1960s. The Smeed Report of 1964 first assessed the practicality of road pricing in a British city.[2][3] During the early years of the Greater London Council the first plans were drawn up for a system of cordon charging or supplementary licensing for use in the central area. A formal study was undertaken into the merits of the scheme, and in 1973 concluded that it would improve traffic and environmental conditions in the centre. However, the newly elected Labour council rejected the study's findings in favour of greater investment in public transport. A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ...


The idea nevertheless persisted and gained renewed support in the mid-1990s. The London Congestion Research Programme concluded in July 1995 that the city's economy would benefit from such a scheme.[4] The power to introduce a form of congestion charge was given to any future mayor in the Greater London Authority Act 1999.[5] Having won the first mayoral election in 2000, Ken Livingstone opted to exercise these powers as promised in his independent manifesto[6][7] , and carried out a series of consultations with interested parties. The basic scheme was agreed in February 2002, and charging commenced, with some concessions accepted, on 17 February 2003. By law all surpluses raised must be reinvested into London's transport infrastructure and it was anticipated that this would be around £200m.[8][7] The initial cost of setting up the scheme was £161.7m,[8] with an annual operating cost of about £115m anticipated.[9] Total revenues have been £677.4m with the surplus over operating costs being £189.7m.[8] On introduction, the scheme was the largest ever undertaken by a capital city.[10] The Greater London Authority Act 1999 (1999 c. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The symbol £ represents the pound currency which Britain uses. ...


After the introduction of the charge, there were a number of suggestions for its future. Soon after charging commenced, Livingstone announced that he would carry out a formal review of the charge's success or failure six months after its introduction — brought forward from one year, following the smooth start. On 25 February 2003 Livingstone stated, "I can't conceive of any circumstances in the foreseeable future where we would want to change the charge, although perhaps ten years down the line it may be necessary" referring to the amount that drivers have to pay, indicating that £5 was sufficient to bring about the reduction in traffic that he had hoped for.[11] By November 2004, Livingstone directly contradicted his earlier stance and said in an interview with BBC London, "I have always said that during this term [his second term in office] it will go up to at least £6."[12] By the end of the month, Livingstone changed his position again, saying in an announcement that in fact the rise would be to £8 for private vehicles and £7 for commercial traffic. Business groups such as London First said following the announcement that they were "totally unsatisfactory and unacceptable".[13][14] The rise to £8 was announced formally on 1 April 2005, along with discounts for drivers buying month or year-long tickets.[15][16] On 10 May 2006, in a live TV debate, Livingstone supported a rise in the charge to £10 by 2008.[17] is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Western Extension

Soon after the introduction of the charge, newspapers began to speculate that the extension of the congestion charging zone would form part of Livingstone's manifesto for re-election as mayor (under the Labour Party banner) in 2004. In February 2004, TfL issued a consultation document[18] on the expansion of the zone to the west, including a map of the enlarged zone[19] that would cover the rest (western portion) of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is a London borough in the west side of central London. ...


In August 2004, following Livingstone's re-election in the June 2004 mayoral election, the results of the consultation were published. A substantial majority of respondents did not want the extension,[20] however Livingstone said he was going ahead and that the consultation was a charade.[21] Following on in May 2005 TfL announced a further consultation period with specific proposals about the extensions. These included a plan to reduce the operating hours of the charge by half-an-hour to "boost trade at London's theatres, restaurants and cinemas".[22][23] At the end of September 2005, London Mayor Ken Livingstone confirmed the western expansion of the congestion charge, to come into effect on 19 February 2007 despite the majority of residents opposing it in the two consultations.[24][25] The anticipated start up costs were £125m with operating costs of £33m; expected gross revenues are expected to be £80m resulting in nett revenues of £50m.[26] It is expected that this extension will increase congestion in the zone by around 5% as the 60,000 residents in the new zone will be entitled to the discounts available.[27] The latest election to the post of Mayor of London took place on June 10, 2004. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the tax agency in the UK of the same name , see HM Revenue and Customs. ... Bottom line redirects here. ...


Since the introduction of the western extension Transport for London has made a number of bus route changes to take advantage of the presumed higher traffic speeds and a greater demand for public transport. One new route (route 452) has been introduced and three others (routes 31, 46 and 430) have been extended. In addition the frequency of buses on other routes through the zone extension have been increased.[28] Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... // The route 452 began on the 2nd December 2006, and is operated by Travel London at Battersea Garage (QB). ... London Buses route 31 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, United Kingdom. ... London Buses route 46 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, United Kingdom. ... London Buses route 430 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, United Kingdom. ...


Coverage

Original

Until 18 February 2007 the congestion charge applied to drivers within the London Inner Ring Road.
Until 18 February 2007 the congestion charge applied to drivers within the London Inner Ring Road.

The original boundary of the zone is sometimes referred to as the London Inner Ring Road. Starting at the northernmost point and moving clockwise, the major roads defining the boundary are Pentonville Road, City Road, Old Street, Commercial Street, Mansell Street, Tower Bridge Road, New Kent Road, Elephant and Castle, Vauxhall Bridge Road, Park Lane, Edgware Road, Marylebone Road and Euston Road (other roads fill the small gaps between these roads). The zone therefore includes the whole of the City of London, the city's financial district, and the West End, the city's primary commercial and entertainment centre.[29] There are also 136,000 residents living within the zone (of a total population of around 7,000,000 in Greater London), though the zone is primarily thought of (and zoned) as commercial rather than residential. There is little heavy industry within the zone. Signs have been erected and symbols painted on the road to help drivers define the congestion charge area.[30] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1282x998, 1099 KB) Created by . ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1282x998, 1099 KB) Created by . ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The London Inner Ring Road is the name commonly given to a collection of major roads that encircle the centremost part of London, United Kingdom. ... The London Inner Ring Road is the name commonly given to a collection of major roads that encircle the centremost part of London, United Kingdom. ... Pentonville Road is road in central London that runs west to east from Kings Cross to City Road. ... City Road is a road in central London, usually referred to by Londoners as the City Road. At its western extremity it starts at the Angel, Islington, as the continuation of Pentonville Road and continues roughly south-east till it passes Moorfields Eye Hospital, when it bears closer to south... Old Street is a road in central London that runs west to east from Clerkenwell to Shoreditch. ... Commercial Street is road in central London that runs north to south from Shoreditch to Aldgate. ... Mansell Street is a short road in London, just to the east of the City of London, that runs from Aldgate southwards to Tower Bridge Road. ... Tower Bridge Road is a road in Bermondsey in the London Borough of Southwark, UK, that runs north to south, and connects the Bricklayers Arms roundabout and flyover at its southern end to Tower Bridge and across the River Thames at its northern. ... New Kent Road is a short road in south London, created in 1751 when the Turnpike Trust upgraded a local footpath. ... The Elephant and Castle, commonly shortened to the Elephant, is a major road intersection in inner south London, and is also used as a name for the surrounding district. ... Vauxhall Bridge Road is a road in central London. ... Park Lane is a major road in Central London, England. ... Edgware Road is a road in London. ... Marylebone Road, London, looking west towards the junction with Baker Street Marylebone Road (IPA pronunciation: ) is an important thoroughfare in central London. ... Euston Road is an important thoroughfare in central London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The interior of Covent Garden Market in the West End The West End of London is an area of Central London, England, containing many of the citys major tourist attractions, businesses, and administrative headquarters. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


Current Area

The boundary of the enlarged zone, as of 19 February 2007, starts at the northern end of Vauxhall Bridge and (travelling in a clockwise direction) heads along the northern bank of the River Thames as Grosvenor Road, the Chelsea Embankment and Cheyne Walk. From here, it heads north, along the eastern edges of the Kensington and Earl's Court one-way systems (classified as part of the A3220), encompassing Edith Grove, Redcliffe Gardens, Earl's Court Road, Pembroke Road, Warwick Gardens and part of the Addison Road, before continuing to the A40 Westway as the Holland Road and the West Cross Route. [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Chelsea Embankment is part of the Thames Embankment, a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in central London. ... Cheyne Walk (pronounced Chaynee) is the most historic street in Chelsea, a bit of picturesque old London. Most of the houses were built in the early eighteenth century. ... For other uses, see Kensington (disambiguation). ... Earls Court is a place in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in London, England. ... The numbering zones for A-roads in Great Britain List of A roads beginning with 3 in Great Britain starting west of the A3 and south of the A4. ... The A40 is a trunk road in England and Wales, connecting London to Fishguard. ... For other uses of Westway, see Westway Westway, or The Westway is the main route from central London to the northwestern suburbs and beyond. ... Holland Road is a road in London, which connects Kensington High Street with the Holland Park roundabout. ... The West Cross Route is a short, 0. ...


The boundary then includes parts of North Kensington, but the actual boundary is defined by the West London Line railway track, which runs between Latimer Road (inside the zone) and Wood Lane (outside the zone), until Scrubs Lane, before turning east, following the Great Western Main Line out of Paddington towards Ladbroke Grove. Here, the boundary follows the Grand Union Canal and rejoins the existing zone at Edgware Road after skirting Paddington, by way of the Bishop's Bridge Road, Eastbourne Terrace, Praed Street and Sussex Gardens.[31] North Kensington is an area of west London lying north of Notting Hill Gate and south of Harrow Road. ... The West London Line is a short overground railway linking Clapham Junction in the south to Willesden Junction in the north. ... Wood Lane is a street in London. ... Maidenhead Railway Bridge The Great Western Main Line is a main line railway in England that runs westwards from London Paddington station to Temple Meads station in Bristol. ... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ... Ladbroke Grove is a road in West London, and is also the name given to the immediate area surrounding the road. ... The canal at Braunston The Grand Union Canal is a canal in England and part of the British canal system. ... Edgware Road is a road in London. ... For other places with the same name, see Paddington (disambiguation). ... Praed Street (pronounced prayd, rhymes with laid) is a street in Londons Paddington district (now part of the City of Westminster, most notable for the fact that Paddington Station is situated on it. ...


TfL have defined some free through routes, where drivers do not have to pay the charge. The main route is defined by the western boundary of the original zone Vauxhall Bridge Road, Grosvenor Place, Park Lane and Edgware Road, with some additions around Victoria. The Westway is the other exempt route.[32] Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... Vauxhall Bridge Road is a road in central London. ... Grosvenor Place may refer to: Grosvenor Place (Sydney), an office building in the CBD Grosvenor Place (London), an area in the City of Westminster Category: ... Park Lane could refer to: Park Lane, a road in London, England Park Lane, a mall in Halifax, Nova Scotia Mercury Park Lane, a car produced by the Ford Motor Company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Edgware Road is a road in London. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of Westway, see Westway Westway, or The Westway is the main route from central London to the northwestern suburbs and beyond. ...


Operation

Payment and exemptions

Closed-circuit cameras and vans police the zone, capturing live video. Vans can be identified by a sticker on the back door (inset).
Closed-circuit cameras and vans police the zone, capturing live video. Vans can be identified by a sticker on the back door (inset).

The congestion charge came into force on 17 February 2003.[33] Capita are responsible for processing payments and fines and has signed a contract with TfL until 2009.[34] Initially set at £5, then raised on 4 July 2005 to £8,[35] the daily charge must be paid by the registered keeper of a vehicle that enters, leaves or moves around within the congestion charge zone between 7 a.m. and 6 p.m. (previously 6.30 p.m.), Monday to Friday, excluding public holidays in England and a period over Christmas.[36] Drivers may pay the charge on the Web, by SMS text message, in shops equipped with a PayPoint, or by phone.[37] The charge may be paid the day after at an increased cost of £10. Failure to pay the charge results in a fine of £100, reduced to £50 if paid within 14 days, but increased to £150 if unpaid after 28 days.[38] London congestion charge mobile unit, large File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... London congestion charge mobile unit, large File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is the list of holidays by country. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... “SMS” redirects here. ... PayPoint is a broad term which can be used for different places where somebody can pay for numerous services. ...


Some vehicles such as buses, minibuses (over a certain size), taxis, emergency service vehicles (i.e., ambulances, fire engines and police vehicles), motorcycles, alternative fuel vehicles and bicycles are exempt from the charge although some of the exemptions are 100% discounts that still require registration.[39][40] In the case of hybrid vehicles, the registration fee of £10 exceeds the congestion charge for one day.[41] Residents of the zone are eligible for a 90% discount if they pay the charge for a week or more at once (note that there are administration charges for claiming the discount, presently the minimum administration charge is 10GBP).[42] “Autobus” redirects here. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... The definition of alternative fuel varies according to the context of its usage. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ...


TfL can and does suspend the congestion charge either in a small local area to cope with incidents and if directed so by a police officer.[43] The congestion charge was suspended on 7 July and 8 July 2005, in response to the terrorist attacks on London Transport.[44] Police officers in South Australia A police officer (or policeman/policewoman) is a warranted worker of a police force. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings (also called the 7/7 bombings) were a series of coordinated terrorist bomb blasts that hit Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ...


While private drivers are obliged to pay the charge either the day before, on the day or the following day, whether they are seen to enter the zone or not, the same does not apply to fleets of business vehicles. A business can register a group of cars with TfL, and is charged £7 per visit for all vehicles in the fleet detected by the cameras. In May 2005 businessman Miguel Camacho set up fivepounds.co.uk, whose sole function was to sign up private drivers to their "fleet", thus offering the convenience of not having to pay the charge pro-actively, avoiding fines in the case of a forgotten journey and also potentially getting a "free journey" if undetected by the cameras. Transport for London, 36% of whose charge revenue comes from fines, moved quickly to quash the loophole, by demanding that fleet operators provide V5 logbooks for each vehicle in their fleet. Fivepounds went out of business on 26 February 2006.[45] is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Drivers of foreign-registered cars are not exempt from the charge but the current lack of an international legal framework for the assessment and collection of traffic fines makes enforcement and recovery difficult.[46] In 2005 it was revealed that several London embassies were not paying the charge as they believed it to be a tax, which they are protected from paying under the Vienna Convention.[47] Although some embassies have agreed to pay the charge,[48] the US embassy currently owes £1,600,000 (approximately $3,000,000) in fines for non-payment, they do however, pay tolls in Oslo and Singapore. Transport for London argues that the charge is a toll, not a tax.[49] A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is an international treaty on diplomatic intercourse and the privileges and immunities of a diplomatic mission. ...


On November 2007 it was revealed that owners of luxury cars - such as a two-seater Aston Martin DB7 - were registering their vehicles as minicabs in order to escape paying the Congestion Charge. Such vehicles are exempt from the Congestion Charge. [50]


Technology

The scheme makes use of CCTV cameras which record vehicles entering and exiting the zone. They can record number plates with a 90% accuracy rate through Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technology[51][52] There are also a number of mobile camera units which may be deployed anywhere in the zone. The majority of vehicles within the zone are captured on camera. The cameras take two still pictures in colour and black and white and use infra red technology to identify the number plates on cars. These identified numbers are checked against the list of payees overnight by computer. In those cases when a number plate has not been recognised then they are checked by humans.[51] Those that have paid but have not been seen in the central zone are not refunded, and those that have not paid and are seen are fined. The registered owner of such a vehicle is looked up in a database provided by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), based in Swansea.[53] The cameras can be fooled by tail gating or switching lanes at the correct time.[51] This article refers to a surveillance system. ... The system must be able to deal with different styles of licence plates Automatic number plate recognition (ANPR; see also other names below) is a mass surveillance method that uses optical character recognition on images to read the licence plates on vehicles. ... A payment is the transfer of wealth from one party (such as a person or company) to another. ... This article is about modern humans. ... The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (the DVLA) is an agency of the Department for Transport in the United Kingdom. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... For socializing before a sporting event, see Tailgate party. ...


TfL ran a six month trial of Tag and Beacon from February 2006 to replace the camera based system. This uses an electronic card affixed to the windscreen of a vehicle and can be used to produce "smart tolls" where charges can be varied dependent on time and direction of travel. This system automatically deducts the charge so that the 50,000 drivers a year who forget to pay the fine would not be penalised. TfL have suggested that this scheme could be introduced from 2009[54][52] The windshield or windscreen of an aircraft, automobile, or motorcycle, is the front window. ...


Effects

At Old Street, street markings and a sign (inset) with the white-on-red C alert drivers to the charge.

London congestion charging at Old Street, large photo, by Nevilley File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... London congestion charging at Old Street, large photo, by Nevilley File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Traffic levels

Before the charge's introduction, there were fears of a very chaotic few days as the charge bedded down. Indeed Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London and key proponent of the charge, himself predicted a "difficult few days"[33] and a "bloody day".[55] In fact, the first two days saw a dramatic reduction in inner city traffic. On the first day 190,000 vehicles moved into or within the zone during charging hours, a decrease of around 25% on normal traffic levels. Excluding 45,000 exempt vehicles, the decrease was more than 30%. Anecdotal evidence suggests journey times were decreased by as much as half. Just over 100,000 motorists paid the charge personally, 15–20,000 were fleet vehicles paying under fleet arrangements, and it is believed around 10,000 liable motorists did not pay the due charge.[56] An extra 300 buses (out of a total of around 20,000) were introduced on the same day.[57] Bus and London Underground managers reported that buses and tubes were little, if at all, busier than normal.[55] Initially it was suggested that the reduction in traffic was caused by the half-term school holidays, but this has proved not to be the case. Reports consistently indicate that, over the first month or so of operation, traffic was down at least 15% on pre-charge levels (the first week had a decrease of 20%).[58] Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) is an English politician who became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... Anecdotal evidence is an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote, or hearsay. ... The London Underground is an underground railway system - also known as a rapid transit system - that serves a large part of Greater London, United Kingdom and some neighbouring areas. ...


On 23 October 2003 TfL published a report surveying the first six months of the charge. The main findings of the report were that on average the number of cars entering the central zone was 60,000 fewer than the previous year, representing a drop in non-exempt vehicles of 30%. Around 50–60% of this reduction was attributed to transfers to public transport, 20–30% to journeys avoiding the zone, and the remainder to car-sharing, reduced number of journeys, more travelling outside the hours of operation, and increased use of motorbikes and cycles. Journey times were found to have been reduced by 15%. Variation in journey time for a particular route repeated on many occasions also decreased. The report said that the charge was responsible for only a small fraction of the drop in retail sales.[59][60] The report also stated that around 100,000 penalty fines are issued in each month. Around 2,000 are appealed against. The larger than anticipated reduction in traffic numbers meant that TfL revenue would be only £68 million — well below the £200 million per year expected by TfL's first projections in 2001. In practice, once the extensive roadworks undertaken in London during 2001-2002 were lifted in November of that year, TfL found traffic levels had dropped noticeably, and the profit projection was lowered to £130 million per year. Once the charge came live in February 2003, traffic levels dipped again, hence the much lower revenue than expected. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A further report published by TfL in October 2004 stated that only seven of the 13 government aims for London transport would be met by 2010. The target on reducing congestion for Greater London will not be met, the report said.[61] In 2006 the latest report from TfL stated that congestion was down around 26% in comparison with the pre charge period and traffic delays had also been reduced. It also says that the charge appears to have no impact, either positive or negative, on road safety — the slow trend towards fewer accidents has continued.[62] In comparison, during an experimental Stockholm congestion charge there has seen on average a 25% reduction in congestion.[63] Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


Business

Reports have shops and businesses being heavily impacted by the cost of the charge, both in terms of lost sales and increased delivery costs as recognised by the London Chamber of Commerce.[64] In August 2003, the John Lewis Partnership announced that in the first six months of the charge's operation, sales at their Oxford Street store fell by 7.3% whilst sales at other stores in the Greater London area but outside the congestion charge zone rose by 1.7%.[65] However London First's own report indicated that business was broadly supportive.[66] Subsequently another report stated that there had been a reduction in some employment in the charging zone.[67] TfL criticised the reports as unrepresentative and that its own statistics reported no effect on business.[67] For the former (1856-1991) unrelated UK department store, see Lewiss. ... Oxford Street, with Centre Point in the background Oxford Street in 1875, looking west from the junction with Duke Street. ...


A report in May 2005 stated that the number of shoppers had declined by 7% year-on-year in March, 8% in April and 11% in the first two weeks of May. TfL countered that an economic downturn, the SARS outbreak and threat of terrorism were likely factors. At the same time a London Chamber of Commerce report indicated that 25% of businesses were planning on relocation following the charges introduction.[68] However an independent report 6 months after the charge was implemented suggested that businesses were now supporting the charge. London First commissioned the study which reported that 49% of businesses felt the scheme was working and only 16% that it was failing.[69] The Fourth Annual Review by TfL in 2004 indicated that business activity within the charge zone had been higher in both productivity and profitability and that the charge had a "broadly neutral impact" on the London wide economy.[62] A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... The following is a timeline of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Profitability is a technical analysis term used to compare performances of different trading systems or different investments within one system. ...


It has been estimated that due to the West London extension in February 2007, 6,000 people will eventually lose their jobs.[70]


Environment

Transport for London have recorded falling particulate levels within the original congestion charge area and along the Inner Ring Road boundary zone. Nitrous Oxide (NOx) fell 13.4% between 2002 & 2003 along with similar falls for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Particulate Matter (PM10).[71] The full details are in the following table - the 2003/2004 figures are TfL estimates. For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ...

Charging zone Inner Ring Road
NOx PM10 CO2 NOx PM10 CO2
Overall traffic emissions change 2003 versus 2002 -13.4 -15.5 -16.4 -6.9 -6.8 -5.4
Overall traffic emissions change 2004 versus 2003 -5.2 -6.9 -0.9 -5.6 -6.3 -0.8
Source: Transport for London

Reaction

The congestion charge has been heavily criticised by some opponents. They argue that the public transport network has insufficient spare capacity to cater for travellers deterred from using their cars in the area by the charge. Further, it is said the scheme will hit poorer sections of society more than the rich, as the charge to enter the zone is a flat £8 for all, regardless of vehicle size.[72] The charge has proved controversial in Outer London, where it has encouraged commuters who previously drove into Central London to instead park at suburban railway or underground stations. This has led to the widespread imposition of controlled parking zones in these areas, at the expense of local residents.[73] Bangkok Skytrain. ...


Steven Norris, the Conservative Party candidate for mayor in 2004, has been a fierce critic of the charge, branding it the 'Kengestion' charge, and pledged to scrap it if he became mayor in June 2004. He had also pledged that, if elected, he would grant an amnesty to anyone with an outstanding fine for non-payment of the charge on 11 June 2004. In an interview with London's Evening Standard newspaper on February 5, 2004, Conservative leader Michael Howard backed his candidate's view by saying "[the charge] has undoubtedly had a damaging effect on business in London."[74] Liberal Democrat candidate, Simon Hughes however supported the basic principles of the scheme. Amongst some of the changes he proposed included changing the end time from 6:30 p.m. to 5 p.m.; automatically giving all vehicles five free days a year so as not to affect occasional visitors.[75] Steve Norris Steve Norris is a British Conservative politician. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rt Hon. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Simon Hughes. ...


In 2005 the Liberal Democrats claimed that Capita had been fined £4.5 million for missing the targets set for the congestion charge, that was equivalent to £7,400 for every day that the charge had existed.[76] The London Assembly Budget Committee 2003 report on the company criticised the contract with Capita as not providing value for money.[77] It was reported in July 2003 that TfL agreed to bail-out Capita by paying them £31 million because they were making no profits from the project, and that their most critical problem was the 103,000 outstanding penalty notices not paid.[78] Capita was also the company that won the 'Most Invasive Company' award in the Privacy International 2003 Big Brother Awards.[79] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Privacy International (PI) has been instrumental in establishing the modern international privacy movement. ...


Capita have employed subcontractors including Mastek, based in Mumbai, India, who are responsible for much of the IT infrastructure. Due to the wide spread around the globe of sub-contractors and because some data protection regulations vary from country to country, the scheme has prompted concerns about privacy from technology specialists.[80] , “Bombay” redirects here. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...

Congestion charge CCTV cameras on Vauxhall Bridge Road

Towards the end of 2006, the Mayor proposed the introduction of a variable congestion charge. Similarly to vehicle excise duty (VED), it would be based on emissions of carbon dioxide in grams/km. This would reduce or eliminate the charge for small and fuel-efficient vehicles, and increase it to up to £25 a day for large, inefficient vehicles such as SUVs, large saloons and compact MPVs with a Band G VED rating, that is, emissions of > 225 g/km of CO2. Electric zero-emissions vehicles are already exempt from the charge.[31][81] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1095, 107 KB) Top of CCTV tower near Pimlico tube station in London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1530x1095, 107 KB) Top of CCTV tower near Pimlico tube station in London. ... A UK vehicle licence (tax disc) In the United Kingdom, Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) (often known as road tax, although it is not hypothecated for spending on roads, and before 1936 as road fund licence) is an annual tax on the use of motor vehicles on the public roads. ... A sport utility vehicle (SUV) or off-roader is a vehicle that combines the load-hauling and passenger-carrying capacity of a large station wagon or minivan with features designed for off-road driving. ... ... Renault Mégane Scénic, the first car to be marketed as a compact MPV Opel Zafira, a seven-seater compact MPV A compact MPV is a car classification used in Europe to describe multi-purpose vehicle versions of small family cars (sometimes also referred to as compact cars), fitting...


Outside London

The first congestion charge in the UK was a much smaller £2 million scheme which has been running in Durham since 2002,[82] however the London scheme was the first large-scale implementation.[83] Following implementation the Institute for Public Policy Research, a left-wing think tank, to call for similar schemes to be rolled out across the country.[84] However, in November 2003, Secretary of State for Transport Alistair Darling said that despite apparent initial interest from many city councils, including those of Leeds, Cardiff, Manchester, Birmingham and Bristol, no city apart from Edinburgh had yet approached the Government for assistance in introducing a charge. Edinburgh City Council It seems unlikely that Edinburgh will introduce a scheme any time soon, after a postal referendum showed that almost 75% of voters in Edinburgh opposed congestion charging.[85] Unlike in London, where Ken Livingstone had sufficient devolved powers to introduce the charge on his own authority, other cities would require the confirmation of the Secretary of State for Transport under the Transport Act 2000. Manchester has proposed a peak time congestion charge scheme which could be implemented in 2011/2012 (see Manchester Congestion Charge).[86][87] In the East Midlands the three major cities of Nottingham, Derby and Leicester are examining the feasibility for a congestion charge.[88] The government has proposed a nationwide scheme or road tolls.[89] Durham (IPA: locally, in RP) is a small city and main settlement of the City of Durham district of County Durham in North East England. ... The Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank in the United Kingdom, with close links to the ruling Labour Party. ... This article is about the institution. ... The Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... This article is about the English city. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Edinburgh (pronounced ), Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic, is the second-largest city in Scotland and its capital city. ... In 2005 the Labour run City of Edinburgh local authority held a referendum to seek approval for a road tolls scheme that they wished to introduce for those driving into the city of Edinburgh, as well as those who drove into the city centre from within the city boundaries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Devolution. ... The Manchester Congestion Charge is a proposed scheme of road charging for the Greater Manchester area [1][2]. Unlike the current version of the London Congestion Charge, two cordons will be used, covering both Greater and inner Manchester[3]. It is proposed that vehicles entering the area bordered by the...


Many cities around the world already use or have used congestion charging zones including Malta,[90] Stockholm, Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and Singapore (the first scheme worldwide, starting in 1975.[91]) The Stockholm congestion tax or The Stockholm Trials (in Swedish: Trängselskatt i Stockholm or Stockholmsförsöket) is a traffic congestion and environmental tax that will be imposed on most vehicles in Stockholm, Sweden during a trial period between January 3, 2006 and July 31, 2006. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...


See also

  • Electronic Road Pricing, an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by road pricing

ERP gantry at North Bridge Road The Electronic Road Pricing (Abbreviation: ERP; Chinese: 电子道路收费系统; Malay: Sistem Kadar Jalan Elektronik) scheme is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Her Majestys Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) is part of the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Transport For London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Congestion Charge Central London (714 words)
Congestion charge is way of ensuring that people who are using valuable and congested road space make a financial contribution.
Congestion charge encourages the use of other modes of transport and is also intended to ensure that, for those who have to use the roads, journey times are quicker.
At midnight, images of all the vehicles that have been in the congestion charge zone are checked against the vehicle registration numbers of vehicles that have paid their congestion charge for that day.
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