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Encyclopedia > London Bridge

Coordinates: 51°30′29″N, 0°05′16″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

London Bridge
London Bridge
The current London Bridge at dusk
Carries 5 lanes of A3
Crosses River Thames
Locale Inner London
Maintained by City Bridge Trust, City of London Corporation
Design prestressed concrete box girder bridge
Longest span 104 m (340 ft)
Total length 262 m (860 ft)
Width 32 m (107 ft)
Clearance below 8.9 m (29 ft)
Opening date 17 March 1973
Coordinates 51°30′29″N, 0°05′16″W

London Bridge is a bridge in London, England over the River Thames, between the City of London and Southwark. It is also between Cannon Street Railway Bridge and Tower Bridge. It also forms the western end of the Pool of London. London's original bridge made this one of the most famous bridge emplacements in the world. It was the only bridge over the Thames below Kingston until Westminster Bridge was opened in 1750. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 842 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The A3 is a trunk road in Southern England, connecting London to Portsmouth. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Traditional reinforced concrete is based on the use of steel reinforcement bars, rebar, inside poured concrete. ... A box girder bridge is a bridge commonly used for roadway flyovers and for modern elevated structures of light rail transport. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... London Bridge is a bridge over the River Thames in London, England London Bridge may also refer to: London Bridge (Virginia Beach), a neighborhood in Virginia Beach (Viriginia, United States) London Bridge station, a railway station in the London Borough of Southwark ((Greater) London, England, United Kingdom) London Bridge (Lake... This article is about the structure. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ... Cannon Street Railway Bridge Cannon Street Railway Bridge is a bridge in central London, crossing the River Thames. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... View of the Pool of London from London Bridge, 1841 Originally, the Pool of London was the stretch of the River Thames forming the south side of the City of London. ... Westminster Bridge and the Palace of Westminster, with a glimpse of Westminster Abbey behind the tower of Big Ben. ...


On the south side of the bridge is Southwark Cathedral and London Bridge station. On the north side is the Monument to the Great Fire of London and Monument tube station. Southwark Cathedral Southwark Cathedral or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. ... London Bridge station is a National Rail and London Underground station in the London Borough of Southwark, which occupies a large area on two levels, immediately south-east of London Bridge and 1. ... The Monument, London to commemorate the Great Fire of London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren The viewing platform The Monument seen from the ground The Monument to the Fire of London, more commonly known as The Monument, is a 61-metre (202-foot) tall stone Roman doric column in the... For the station called Monument on the Tyne and Wear Metro, see Monument Metro station Bank and Monument are interlinked stations, spanning the length of King William Street in the City of London. ...


The bridge carries part of the A3 road, which is maintained by the Greater London Authority,[1] although the bridge is owned and maintained by the City Bridge Trust, an independent charity overseen by the City of London Corporation. The A3 is a trunk road in Southern England, connecting London to Portsmouth. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) is the city-wide governing body for London, England. ... Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ...


Tower Bridge is often mistakenly referred to as London Bridge.[2] For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ...


The area between London Bridge and Tower Bridge on the south side of the Thames is managed by the London Bridge Business Improvement District (BID) Company.

Contents

History

An impressive bridge has existed at or near the present site over the period from the Roman occupation of the area, nearly 2,000 years. The first bridge across the Thames in the London area was built of wood by the Romans on the present site around 50 AD. This bridge was probably a military pontoon bridge. Around 55 AD, a piled bridge was built. The local Britons built a small trading settlement next to it, the town of Londinium. The settlement and the bridge were destroyed in a revolt led by Queen Boudicca in 60 AD. The victory was short lived, and soon afterwards, the Romans defeated the rebels, and set about building a new walled town. Some of the old Roman wall still exists in the area today. The new town and bridge was built around the position of the present bridge, providing access to the south coast ports via 'Stane Street' (the A3 route) and 'Watling Street' (the A2). The bridge fell into disrepair after the Romans left. As Londinium was also abandoned there was little need for a bridge at this point and in the Saxon period the river was a political boundary between hostile kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex. With the impact of the Viking invasions and the reconquest by the kings of Wessex and re-occupation by Alfred the Great of the Roman city the political conditions for a Saxon bridge crossing to be placed here arose. However, there is no archaeological evidence for a bridge before Aethelred's reign and his attempts to stem the Sweinian invasions of the 990s. In 1014, according to a much later skaldic tradition, the bridge was pulled down by the Norwegian prince Olaf, as he was aiding king Aethelred in what, if true, was a successful bid to divide the defending forces of the Danes who held the walled City of London plus Southwark, thereby regaining London for the Anglo-Saxon king. This episode might have inspired the well-known nursery rhyme "London Bridge is Falling Down," although the version of the song known today refers to the many bridges that were destroyed and rebuilt, and the trading done on the shops over it ("Silver and Gold") in the 14th century[3], so the song's origin is presumably of a much later date. The earliest contemporary written reference to a Saxon bridge is in 1016 to when it was by-passed by King Cnut's ships in his war to regain the throne from Edmund II 'Ironside'. The rebuilt Norman London Bridge was destroyed in 1091 by a storm that spawned a T8/F4 tornado, which also struck St. Mary-le-Bow, and is known as the London Tornado of 1091.[4] The repair or replacement of this was carried out by William II 'Rufus' through forced labour, along with the works at the new St Paul's Cathedral and the development of the Tower of London. It was destroyed yet again, this time by fire, in 1136. This article is about the structure. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Londinium may refer to: An ancient Roman name for London (see History of London) Londinium (movie) A song by Catatonia A fictional planet in the TV show Firefly, (see moons and planets in Firefly) Londinivm, a free MMORPG. Londinium (album), an album by the band Archive This is a disambiguation... Queen Boudicca ( mid-1st century CE). ... Ethelred II (Old English: Æþelred) (c. ... Olaf II Haraldsson (995 – July 29, 1030), king from 1015–1028, (known during his lifetime as the Stout or Thick (Olav Digre) and after his canonization as Saint Olaf), was born in the year in which Olaf Tryggvason came to Norway. ... Ethelred II (Old English: Æþelred) (c. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... London Bridge Is falling down is a well-known traditional nursery rhyme which is found in different versions all over the world. ... The TORRO tornado intensity scale (or T-Scale) is a scale measuring tornado intensity between T0 and T10. ... F-scale redirects here. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... St Mary-le-Bow Church, built 1671-80, one of Wrens City Churches built after the Great Fire of London St Mary-le-Bow is a historic church in the City of London, off Cheapside. ... The London Tornado of 1091 is reckoned by modern assessment of the reports as possibly a T8 tornado (roughly equal to an F4 tornado). ...


"Old" (Medieval) London Bridge

An engraving by Claes Van Visscher showing Old London Bridge in 1616, with Southwark Cathedral in the foreground. The spiked heads of executed criminals can be seen above the Southwark gatehouse.
An engraving by Claes Van Visscher showing Old London Bridge in 1616, with Southwark Cathedral in the foreground. The spiked heads of executed criminals can be seen above the Southwark gatehouse.

Following the 1136 destruction some rebuilding scheme was carried out, presumably along the same lines as those instituted by 'Rufus' during the reign of Stephen. On Henry II's accession some attempt to regularise its maintenance by the instituting of a national monastic guild to support this work - effectively by sale of indulgences. We have evidence that there were also unlicensed local guilds in London with the same purpose. In 1163 Peter de Colechurch was appointed as the 'Warden of the Brethren of the Bridge' and this seems to have combined all of the preceding ad hoc arrangements. Peter started a completely new timber bridge in 1173, almost certainly required by the popularity of the Thomas Becket cult and the associated pilgrimage from the bridge to Canterbury. He soon proposed to replace the timber bridge with a stone bridge. Construction was begun under de Colechurch's direction, in 1176. A chapel was built near the centre of the bridge (dedicated to the recently martyred and canonised Becket who, appropriately, had been born in the parish of St Mary Colechurch). St. Thomas Chapel was grander than many small town parish churches. It even had a river level entrance for fishermen and those who taxied passengers across the river. The new bridge took 33 years to complete and was not finished until 1209, during the reign of King John. Image File history File links London_Bridge_(1616)_by_Claes_Van_Visscher. ... Image File history File links London_Bridge_(1616)_by_Claes_Van_Visscher. ... Southwark Cathedral Southwark Cathedral or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. ... Events Completion of the Saint Denis Basilica in Paris Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise People of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod and depose him Births Amalric I of Jerusalem William of Newburgh, English historian (died 1198) Deaths November 15 - Margrave Leopold III... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... The Mortality Bill for the year 1665 , published by the Parish Clerk’s Company, shows 97 parishes within the City of London[1]. By September 6th the city lay in ruins[2], 86 churches having been destroyed[3]. By 1670 a Rebuilding Act had been passed and a committee set... This article is about the King of England. ...


John licensed the building of houses on the bridge, as a direct means of deriving revenue for its maintenance, and it was soon colonised by shops.


The medieval bridge had 20 small arches and a drawbridge with a defensive gatehouse at the southern end. Contemporary pictures show it crowded with buildings of up to seven stories in height. The narrowness of the arches meant that it acted as a partial barrage over the Thames, restricting water flow and thereby making the river more susceptible to freezing over in winter because of the slower currents. The current was further obstructed by the addition of waterwheels (designed by Peter Morice) under the two north arches to drive water pumps, and under the two south arches to power grain mills. This produced ferocious rapids between the piers or "starlings" of the bridge, as the difference between the water levels on each side could be as much as six feet (two metres).[5] Only the brave or foolhardy attempted to "shoot the bridge" – steer a boat between the starlings – and many were drowned trying to do so. As the saying went, the bridge was "for wise men to pass over, and for fools to pass under."[6] Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... Sluice gates on the River Thames A sluice is a water channel that is controlled at its head by a gate. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... Grain redirects here. ... For architectural piers, see Pier (architecture). ... The starlings on Tower Bridge can be clearly seen beneath the roadway. ...


The decision of King John to allow shops to be built on London Bridge slowed down the traffic crossing the river. The houses and shops took up space and when carts broke down or animals revolted, crossing the bridge could take up to an hour. For this reason people on foot often chose to use the dozens of river taxi boats that quickly ferried Londoners from shore to shore. This article is about the King of England. ...


Although the bridge itself was about twenty six feet wide, the buildings on the bridge took up about seven feet on each side of the street. Some of these buildings projected another seven feet out over the river. The road for traffic was thereby reduced to just twelve feet wide. This meant that horses, carts, wagons, and pedestrians all shared a passage way just six feet wide, one lane going north and one south. There were a few places where houses and shops were not built, which allowed people to get out of the traffic and enjoy a glimpse of the river and the shorelines of London.


Nearly two hundred places of business lined both sides of the narrow street. Ale and beer were not sold on the London bridge because these beverages required cellars, which were not present. The merchants lived above their shops and sold goods from the street level floor. They used windows to show their goods and transact business. Over each shop hung a sign usually in the shape of the articles sold in order that the illiterate could recognize the nature of the business. These signs were posted high enough that a rider on a horse could pass beneath them — every inch of the small street had to be available to vehicular traffic. Many of the top floors of the houses and shops were built over the street and actually connected to the house or shop across the street, giving the street a tunnel look.


The gates to London Bridge were closed at curfew, and the bridge was regarded as a safe place to live or shop.[citation needed] Located within the jurisdiction of the City of London parish of St Magnus and the Southwark parish of St Olave, the Bridge community was almost a town unto itself. For other places with the same name, see Southwark (disambiguation). ...


In 1284, after many years of legal dispute, the City of London gained effective control and instituted the Bridge House Estates trust to maintain it from the older revenues and new endowments. The Bridge House stemmed from the site Peter de Colechurch's original 'house' ie maintenance depot and residence for his monastic 'brethren of the bridge', next to St Olave's church in Southwark, a site still marked by the street name 'Bridge Yard'.


Various arches of the bridge collapsed over the years, and houses on the bridge were burnt during Wat Tyler's Peasants' Revolt in 1381 and Jack Cade's rebellion in 1450, during which a pitched battle was fought on the bridge. This article is about the revolt leader Wat Tyler. ... Peasants revolt redirects here. ... Jack Cade (possibly named John Mortimer) was the leader of a popular revolt in the 1450 Kent rebellion which took place in the time of King Henry VI in England. ...

This pedestrian alcove is one of the surviving fragments of the old London Bridge that was demolished in 1831.
This pedestrian alcove is one of the surviving fragments of the old London Bridge that was demolished in 1831.

The northern gate, the New Stone Gate, was replaced by Nonesuch House in 1577. The southern gatehouse, the Stone Gateway, became the scene of one of London's most notorious sights: a display of the severed heads of traitors, impaled on pikes and dipped in tar to preserve them against the elements. The head of William Wallace was the first to appear on the gate, in 1305, starting a tradition that was to continue for another 355 years. Other famous heads on pikes included those of Jack Cade in 1450; Sir Thomas More in 1535; Bishop John Fisher, also in 1535; and Thomas Cromwell in 1540. A German visitor to London in 1598 counted over thirty heads on the bridge. The practice was finally stopped in 1660, following the Restoration of King Charles II. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x773, 217 KB) Summary Pedestrian alcove from Old London Bridge, Victoria Park, Tower Hamlets, London. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x773, 217 KB) Summary Pedestrian alcove from Old London Bridge, Victoria Park, Tower Hamlets, London. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... Jack Cade (possibly named John Mortimer) was the leader of a popular revolt in the 1450 Kent rebellion which took place in the time of King Henry VI in England. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... For other uses, see John Fisher (disambiguation). ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


The buildings on London Bridge created a major fire hazard and served to increase the load on its arches, both of which may have contributed to the several disasters on the bridge. In 1212, perhaps the greatest of the early fires of London broke out on both ends of the bridge simultaneously, trapping many in the middle and reportedly resulting in 3,000 people being killed. Another major fire broke out in 1633 with the northern third of the bridge being destroyed, although this prevented the bridge from being damaged by the Great Fire of London in 1666. By 1722, congestion was becoming so serious that the Lord Mayor decreed that "All carts, coaches and other carriages coming out of Southwark into this City do keep all along the west side of the said bridge: and all carts and coaches going out of the City do keep along the east side of the said bridge". This has been suggested as one possible origin for the practice of traffic in Britain driving on the left.[citation needed] [This article refers to London fires predating the fire of 1666. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ...


Finally, in 1758–62, the houses were removed along with the two centre arches, replaced with a single wider span to improve navigation on the river.


"New" (19th century) London Bridge

New London Bridge in the early 1890s
New London Bridge in the early 1890s

By the end of the 18th century, it was apparent that the old London Bridge – by then over 600 years old – needed to be replaced. It was narrow, decrepit, and blocked river traffic. In 1799, a competition for designs to replace the old bridge was held, prompting the engineer Thomas Telford to propose a bridge with a single iron arch spanning 600 ft (180 m). However, this design was never used, owing to uncertainty about its feasibility and the amount of land needed for its construction. The bridge was eventually replaced by a structure of five stone arches, designed by engineer John Rennie. The new bridge was built 100 feet (30 m) west (upstream) of the original site at a cost of £2,000,000 and was completed by Rennie's son (of the same name) over a seven-year period from 1824 to 1831. The old bridge continued in use as the new bridge was being built, and was demolished after the new bridge opened in 1831. The contractors were Jolliffe and Banks of Merstham, Surrey. A fragment from the old bridge is set into the tower arch inside the St Katherines Church, Merstham. London Bridge, stereopticon card photo from early 1890s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... London Bridge, stereopticon card photo from early 1890s This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thomas Telford (August 9, 1757 - September 2, 1834) was born in Westerkirk, Scotland. ... John Rennie (7 June 1761 in East Linton, Scotland - 4 October 1821) was a civil engineer, constructing many bridges, canals, and docks. ... GBP redirects here. ... John Rennie. ... Merstham is a village in the Reigate and Banstead borough of Surrey, England and is part of the London commuter belt. ... Merstham is a village in the Reigate and Banstead borough of Surrey, England and is part of the London commuter belt. ...


Rennie's bridge had a length of 928 feet (283 m) and a width of 49 feet (15 m). Haytor granite was used in the construction, transported via the unique Haytor Granite Tramway. The official opening took place on 1 August 1831; King William IV and Queen Adelaide attended a banquet in a pavilion erected on the bridge. The recently constructed HMS Beagle was the first ship to pass under it. It was widened in 1902–4 from 52 to 65 feet (16 to 20 m) in an attempt to combat London's chronic traffic congestion. A dozen of the granite "pillars" quarried & dressed for this widening, but unused, still lie near Swelltor Quarry on the disused railway track a couple of miles south of Princetown on Dartmoor. Unfortunately, this widening work proved too much for the bridge's foundations; it was subsequently discovered that the bridge was sinking an inch every eight years (3 cm every 10 years). By 1924, the east side of the bridge was some three to four inches lower than the west side; it soon became apparent that this bridge would have to be removed and replaced with a more modern one. Haytor Haytor or Hay Tor is a granite tor on Dartmoor in the English county of Devon. ... The Haytor Granite Tramway was a unique granite-railed tramway on Hay Tor, Dartmoor, Devon. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. ... Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia) ( 13 August 1792 - 2 December 1849 ) as Queen Adelaide was the Queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... Location within the British Isles Princetown is a town situated on Dartmoor in the county of Devon in England. ... High Willhays, the highest point on Dartmoor and southern England at 621 m (2037 ft) above sea level, with Yes Tor beyond. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Rennie's Old London Bridge during reconstruction at Lake Havasu in March 1971
Rennie's Old London Bridge during reconstruction at Lake Havasu in March 1971

In 1967 the Common Council of the City of London placed the bridge on the market and began to look for potential buyers. Council member Ivan Luckin had put forward the idea of selling the bridge, and recalls: "They all thought I was completely crazy when I suggested we should sell London Bridge when it needed replacing." On 18 April 1968, Rennie's bridge was sold to the American entrepreneur Robert P. McCulloch of McCulloch Oil for US$2,460,000. An often-repeated urban legend, denied by Luckin, is that McCulloch believed mistakenly that he was buying the more impressive Tower Bridge.[7] As the bridge was disassembled, each piece was numbered to aid reassembly and those markings can still be seen today. The bridge was reconstructed at Lake Havasu City, Arizona and re-dedicated on October 10, 1971. The reconstruction of Rennie's London Bridge spans a man-made canal that leads from Lake Havasu to Thomson Bay, and forms the centrepiece of a theme park in English style, complete with mock-Tudor shopping mall. Rennie's London Bridge has become Arizona's second-biggest tourist attraction, after the Grand Canyon. Image File history File links London-Bridge-March-1971. ... Image File history File links London-Bridge-March-1971. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Robert McCulloch (disambiguation). ... See also McCulloch (disambiguation) and Robert P. McCulloch McCulloch Motors Corporation is a manufacturer of chainsaws. ... For other uses, see Urban legend (disambiguation). ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... Lake Havasu City is a city in Mohave County, Arizona, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 41,938. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... London Bridge in Lake Havasu City The sign on London Bridge, Lake Havasu City, during April 2005 The London Bridge, currently located in Lake Havasu City, Arizona was originally constructed in London, England in 1831. ... The Tudorbethan Revival which manifested itself in domestic architecture in the United Kingdom in the20th century, and was also of influence in some other countries. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the canyon in the southwestern United States. ...

The rebuilt London Bridge in Lake Havasu City, Arizona

The version of London Bridge that was rebuilt at Lake Havasu consists of a concrete frame with stones from the Old London Bridge used as cladding. The cladding stones used are 150 to 200mm (6 to 8 inches) thick. The remaining stone was left at Merrivale Quarry at Princetown in Devon. [8] When Merrivale Quarry was abandoned and flooded in 2003, some of the remaining stone was sold in an online auction. [9] Photo of the reconstructed London Bridge in Lake Havasu, Arizona. ... Photo of the reconstructed London Bridge in Lake Havasu, Arizona. ... Lake Havasu City is a city in Mohave County, Arizona, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 41,938. ... London Bridge in Lake Havasu City The sign on London Bridge, Lake Havasu City, during April 2005 The London Bridge, currently located in Lake Havasu City, Arizona was originally constructed in London, England in 1831. ... Location within the British Isles Princetown is a town situated on Dartmoor in the county of Devon in England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ...


Modern London Bridge

London Bridge with the Gherkin in the background
London Bridge with the Gherkin in the background

The current London Bridge was designed by Mott, Hay and Anderson. The senior engineer was Alan Simpson, the superstructure was designed by a team led by Michael Leeming, and foundations by a team led by Keith Ponting. The bridge was constructed by contractors John Mowlem and Co[10] from 1967 to 1972, and opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 March 1973.[11] It comprises three spans of prestressed concrete box girders, a total of 928 feet (283 m) long. The bridges lights were made from Napoleon's canons. The bridge was built to be functional and long-lived, and, as such, it is noticeably less decorated than other Thames bridges. The cost of £4 million was met entirely by the City Bridge Trust charity. The current bridge was built in the same location as Rennie's bridge, with the previous bridge remaining in use while the first two girders were constructed upstream and downstream. Traffic was then transferred onto the two new girders, and the previous bridge demolished to allow the final two central girders to be added.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata London_Bridge,_November_2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata London_Bridge,_November_2005. ... 30 St Mary Axe is a building in Londons main financial district, the City of London. ... Mott MacDonald is a UK based multi-disciplinary management, engineering and development consultancy. ... Mowlem is one of the UKs largest construction and engineering companies. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Traditional reinforced concrete is based on the use of steel reinforcement bars, rebar, inside poured concrete. ... A box girder bridge is a bridge commonly used for roadway flyovers and for modern elevated structures of light rail transport. ...


In 1984, the British warship HMS Jupiter collided with London Bridge causing significant damage to both ship and bridge. On Remembrance Day 2004, various London bridges were furnished with red lighting as part of a night-time flight along the river by wartime aircraft. London Bridge was the one bridge not subsequently stripped of the illuminations, which are switched on at night. HMS Jupiter (F60) was a Leander-class frigate of the Royal Navy (RN). ... Remembrance Day also known as Poppy Day, Armistice Day (the event it commemorates), or Veterans Day in the United States is a day to commemorate the sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war, specifically since the First World War. ...


The current London Bridge is often shown in films, news and documentaries showing the throng of commuters journeying to work into The City from London Bridge Station (south to north). A recent example of this is actor Hugh Grant crossing the bridge north to south during the morning rush hour, in the 2002 film About a Boy. Coat of arms The City of London is a small area in Greater London. ... Hugh John Mungo Grant (born September 9, 1960) is a Golden Globe-winning British actor and film producer. ... About a Boy is RUBBISH !!!! :( == Headline text == Link titleLink titleLink title About a Boy is a 2002 film directed by brothers Chris Weitz and Paul Weitz, based on the book of the same name by Nick Hornby. ...


Tourist attractions

A new tourist attraction, the London Bridge Museum, is scheduled to open by 2012 in the vaults in the southern abutment of the bridge.[13]


Bibliography

  • Jackson, Peter, "London Bridge - A Visual History", Historical Publications, revised edition, 2002, ISBN 0-948667-82-6
  • Murray, Peter & Stevens, Mary Anne, "Living Bridges - The inhabited bridge, past, present and future", Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1996, ISBN 3-7913-1734-2
  • Pierce, Patricia, "Old London Bridge - The Story of the Longest Inhabited Bridge in Europe", Headline Books, 2001, ISBN 0-7472-3493-0
  • Yee, Albert, "London Bridge - Progress Drawings", no publisher, 1974, no ISBN

References

  1. ^ "Statutory Instrument 2000 No. 1117 - The GLA Roads Designation Order 2000". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved on March 30, 2007.
  2. ^ "Image Search for 'London Bridge'". Google. Retrieved on March 30, 2007.
  3. ^ London bridge is falling down Nursery Rhyme, History and Origins
  4. ^ "Tornado extremes". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. Retrieved on August 1, 2007.
  5. ^ Pierce, p.45 and Jackson, p.77
  6. ^ Rev. John Ray, "Book of Proverbs", 1670, cited in Jackson, p.77
  7. ^ How London Bridge Was Sold To The States (from This Is Local London)
  8. ^ London Bridge is still here! - 21/12/1995 - Contract Journal
  9. ^ Merrivale Quarry, Princetown, Central Dartmoor, Dartmoor & Teign Valley District, Devon, England, UK
  10. ^ Building talk
  11. ^ Where Thames Smooth Waters Glide
  12. ^ Yee, plate 65 and others
  13. ^ The London Bridge Museum & Educational Trust

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Blackfriars Railway Bridge, London, with remains of old bridge in foreground Blackfriars Railway Bridge is a railway bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and the Millennium Bridge. ... For other uses, see Millennium Bridge. ... Southwark Bridge and St Pauls Cathedral Southwark Bridge seen from the South Bank of the Thames. ... Cannon Street Railway Bridge Cannon Street Railway Bridge is a bridge in central London, crossing the River Thames. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... This is a list of crossings of the River Thames, downstream first, including bridges, tunnels and ferries. ... Bridges in the United Kingdom is a link page for any non-railway bridge in the United Kingdom. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... [[Media:Italic textLondon has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The City of Westminster is a borough of London, England with city status. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The history of local government in London, England can be broken down into a number of periods: History of local government in the United Kingdom History of London ^ a b Barlow, I., Metropolitan Government, (1991) ^ Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889-1965), (1989... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
London Bridge, Lake Havasu City, Arizona (461 words)
London Bridge crosses a narrow boating channel that connects with Thompson Bay on the Arizona side of Lake Havasu.
Prior to the arrival of London Bridge, the land upon which the bridge was placed was a peninsula.
Once you walk west under the bridge, you'll see a concrete walkway ramp which leads up to the London Bridge visitors' center where there are some historical photos and other information about the bridge and other attractions and points of interest within about a 100-mile radius of Lake Havasu City.
Lake Havasu City Convention & Visitors Bureau • Arizona (1183 words)
The first "London Bridge" was built by the Romans in 43 A.D. They built a temporary pontoon bridge which was planks laid across a row of anchored boats, or they may have used ferry boats.
The next record of a bridge was 984 when a report was recorded of a widow and her son who had driven pins into the image of a man. The woman, who was thought to be a witch, was taken to the London Bridge and drowned while her son escaped.
Reconstructing the London Bridge in Lake Havasu City was done in the same manner as the Egyptians built pyramids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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