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Encyclopedia > London
London
The Palace of Westminster on the River Thames

The Palace of Westminster on the River Thames Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1293, 1331 KB) This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its author, Arpingstone. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ...

Location

London region shown within England
better map File links The following pages link to this file: Greater London London Categories: GFDL images ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...

Coordinates: 51°30′25″N, 0°07′39″W
Government
Sovereign state: United Kingdom
Constituent country: England
Region: London
Regional authority: Greater London Authority
Regional assembly: London Assembly
HQ: City Hall
Mayor: Ken Livingstone
Subdivisions
Districts: City & 32 London boroughs
UK Parliament: 74 constituencies
London Assembly: 14 constituencies
European Parliament: London constituency
Geography
City of London
Area: 2.6 km² (1.00 sq mi)
Population: 9,200 (2005 est.)
Density: 3,172/km² (8,215/sq mi)
Greater London
Area: 1,579 km² (609 sq mi)
Population: 7.5 million (2005 est.)
Density: 4,761/km² (12,331/sq mi)
Wider population
Urban area: 8.5 million
Metro area: 12-14 million
Time Zone
Standard: GMT (UTC)
Summer: (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Website
http://www.london.gov.uk

London (pronounced /ˈlʌndən/) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. An important settlement for around two millennia, London is today one of the world's most important business and financial centres,[1] and its influence in politics, culture, education, entertainment, media, fashion, sport and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the key global cities. In mathematics as applied to geometry, physics or engineering, a coordinate system is a system for assigning a tuple of numbers to each point in an n-dimensional space. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Constituent countries is a phrase sometimes used, usually by official institutions, in contexts in which a number of countries make up a larger entity or grouping; thus the OECD has used the phrase in reference to the former Yugoslavia (example here) and European institutions such as the Council of Europe... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... City Hall, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge City Hall in London is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945), is an English politician who has been the Mayor of London since the creation of the post in 2000. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The Houses of Parliament, seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The adminstrative region and ceremonial county of Greater London, together with the enclave of the City of London, is divided into 74 Parliamentary constituencies (all Borough constituencies). ... Greater London is divided into a number of constituencies for London Assembly elections. ... Sign in the entrance of the European Parliament building in Brussels, written in all the official languages used in the European Union as of July 2006 The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The debating chamber, or hemicycle, in Strasbourg The European Parliament building in Brussels The European Parliament (formerly European... London is a constituency of the European Parliament. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ... Commuters from East Anglia arrive at Liverpool Street Station The London Commuter Belt or London Metropolitan Area is the name given to the built-up area surrounding and running into Greater London but not administered as part of it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in England. ...  Areas that observe daylight saving time  Areas that once observed daylight saving time  Areas that have never observed daylight saving time A 2001 public service announcement for the upcoming turning back of the clocks Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time, is a conventional local time adopted by... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving British Summer Time (BST) is the changing of the clocks in effect in the United Kingdom and Irish Summer Time (IST) in Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Look up London in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Recreation. ... The term fashion usually applies to a prevailing mode of expression, but quite often applies to a personal mode of expression that may or may not adhere to prevailing ideals. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... A world city, or a world-class city, is a city with a set of somewhat subjective traits which often include the following: International familiarity (or first-name familiarity – one would say Paris, not Paris, France). Active influence and participation in international events and world affairs (for example, New...


London is the most populous city in the European Union[2] with a population of 7.5 million and a metropolitan area population of between 12 and 14 million. Its population is very cosmopolitan, drawing from a wide range of peoples, cultures and religions, speaking over 300 different languages. London is an international transport hub, with five international airports and a large port. It serves as the largest aviation hub in the world, [3] and its main airport, Heathrow, carries more international passengers than any other airport in the world. [4] Metropolitan area in Western Tokyo as seen from Tokyo Tower A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or... Look up cosmopolitan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An International airport is an airport where flights from other countries land and/or take off. ... The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ...


London is a major tourist destination, with iconic landmarks including the Houses of Parliament, Tower Bridge, the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Buckingham Palace and the London Eye amongst its many attractions, along with famous institutions such as the British Museum and the National Gallery. A tourist destination is a city, town or other area the economy of which is dependent to a significant extent on the revenues accruing from tourism. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... Tower Bridge is a bascule bridge in London, England over the River Thames. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... The London Eye at twilight The British Airways London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, opened in 1999 and is the largest observation wheel (a type of Ferris wheel) in the world. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... The National Gallery from Trafalgar Square The National Gallery is an art gallery in London, located on the north side of Trafalgar Square. ...

Contents

Defining London

London is a region of England, also commonly known as the Greater London area; its local government is the Greater London Authority. The urban sprawl of the conurbation — or Greater London Urban Area — covers a roughly similar area, with a slightly larger population. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt. At London's core is the small, ancient City of London which is commonly known as "The City" or "Square Mile". Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have City status. The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The Greater London Urban Area is the conurbation based around London in the South East of England. ... Commuters from East Anglia arrive at Liverpool Street Station The London Commuter Belt or London Metropolitan Area is the name given to the built-up area surrounding and running into Greater London but not administered as part of it. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... Cathedral city redirects here. ...


40% of Greater London is covered by the London postal area.[5] The London telephone area code covers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are omitted and some places just outside are included. The area within the orbital M25 motorway is sometimes used to define the "London area"[6] and the Greater London boundary has been aligned to it in places.[7] Greater London is split for some purposes into Inner London and Outer London. The system of London postal districts predate the introduction of postcodes throughout the United Kingdom in the 1960s and have been adapted over time. ... 020 is the STD code for Greater London in the United Kingdom. ... For the star cluster, see Open Cluster M25 The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that do not form part of Inner London, but form a ring around it. ...


London's metropolitan area ('the metropolis') grew considerably during the Victorian era and again during the Interwar period with expansion halted in the 1940s by World War II and Green Belt legislation and has been largely static since. The Metropolitan Police District, city-wide local government area and London transport area have varied over time, but currently broadly coincide with the Greater London boundary. hhi comm arts fiends!!! said ronnie and phil Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the... Europe between 1929 and 1938 The Interwar period (also interbellum) is understood within Western culture to be the period between the end of the First World War and the beginning of the Second World War in Europe, specifically 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... In city planning, the Green Belt is a concept for controlling metropolitan growth introduced around London, England by minister of housing Duncan Sandys via a Government Circular. ... The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the area policed by Londons Metropolitan Police Service. ... London Transport badge on a 1950s RT Type Bus The public transport network in London, United Kingdom and its environs has been under the single control of various organisations commonly known as London Transport. ...


Unlike most capital cities, London's status as the capital of the UK has never been granted or confirmed officially — by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution. The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ... A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified procedural agreement that is followed by the institutions of a state. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Constitution of the United Kingdom is an area of uncodified law, consisting of both written and unwritten sources. ...


The Romans may have marked the centre of Londinium with the London Stone, still visible on Cannon Street. [8] The co-ordinates of the nominal centre of London (traditionally considered to be the original Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross, near the junction of Trafalgar Square and Whitehall) are approximately 51°30′29″N, 00°07′29″W. Trafalgar Square has also became a central point for celebrations and protests. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Londinium may refer to: An ancient Roman name for London (see History of London) Londinium (movie) A song by Catatonia A fictional planet in the TV show Firefly, (see moons and planets in Firefly) Londinivm, a free MMORPG. Londinium (album), an album by the band Archive This is a disambiguation... London Stone 111 Cannon Street London The London Stone is an ancient stone, that is said to be the place from which the Romans measured all distances in Great Britain. ... Cannon Street is a road in the south of the City of London. ... The Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The Eleanor crosses are lavishly decorated stone monuments in the shape of a cross that Edward I of England erected in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile. ... The Victorian Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The name Charing Cross, now given to a district of central London in the City of Westminster, comes from the original hamlet of Charing, where King Edward I placed a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ...


Geography and climate

London is the largest urban area and capital city of the United Kingdom. ... London has a temperate climate, with regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. ...

Topography and climate

London and its suburbs as seen at night by the International Space Station.
London and its suburbs as seen at night by the International Space Station.

Greater London covers an area of 609 square miles (1,579 km²), making it one of the world's largest cities by area. Its primary geographical feature is the Thames, a navigable river which crosses the city from the southwest to the east. The Thames Valley is a floodplain surrounded by gently rolling hills such as Parliament Hill and Primrose Hill. These hills presented no significant obstacle to the growth of London from its origins as a port on the north side of the river, and therefore London is roughly circular. ImageMetadata File history File links London_Night. ... ImageMetadata File history File links London_Night. ... ISS redirects here. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... This is a list of the largest cities of the world estimated for the year 2005. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... A navigable river is a river which can be navigated by ships. ... The Thames Valley is generally the region that drains into the River Thames, England, but is used in a more specific term by the government. ... Gravel floodplain of a glacial river near the Snow Mountains in Alaska, 1902. ... Parliament Hill is an open area of in north-west London adjacent to Hampstead Heath administered by the Corporation of London. ... Primrose Hill. ...


The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands. It has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.[9] The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound. In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat, but a more substantial barrier further downstream may be necessary in the near future. Embankment can be: An artificial slope which can be made out of earth, stones or bricks, or a combination of these. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The subterranean or underground rivers of London are the tributaries of the River Thames and River Lea that were built over during the growth of the metropolis of London. ... Tides are the cyclic rising and falling of Earths ocean surface caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and the Sun acting on the Earth. ... A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity and undergoes internal deformation. ... Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, isostatic rebound or isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last ice age, through a process known as isostatic depression. ... The Thames Barrier is a flood control structure on the River Thames at Woolwich Reach in London. ... Woolwich is a suburb in south-east London, England in the London Borough of Greenwich, on the south side of the River Thames, though the tiny exclave of North Woolwich (which is now part of the London Borough of Newham) is on the north side of the river. ...

The River Thames before sunrise.
The River Thames before sunrise.

London has a temperate climate with regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year - London is in fact amongst the driest of Europe's capitals.[citation needed] The warmest month is July, with an average temperature range at Greenwich of 13.6 °C to 22.8 °C (56.5 to 73.0 °F). The coolest month is January, averaging 2.4 °C to 7.9 °C (35.6 to 46.2 °F). Average annual precipitation is 583.6 mm(22.98 in), with February on average the driest month.[10] Snow is uncommon, particularly because heat from the urban area can make London 5 °C (9 °F) hotter than the surrounding areas in winter. London is in USDA Hardiness zone 9, and AHS Heat Zone 2.
Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 784 KB) Taken by Zach Alsgaard with a Nikon CoolPix 2500 camera in March 2005, http://filebox. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 784 KB) Taken by Zach Alsgaard with a Nikon CoolPix 2500 camera in March 2005, http://filebox. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Average maximum, minimum and range of monthly air temperatures recorded in Campinas, Brazil, between January 2001 and July 2006 Average maximum, minimum and range of monthly air temperatures recorded in Aracaju, state of Sergipe, Brazil, between January 2001 and July 2006 Temperature range is the numerical difference between the minimum... Greenwich (pronounced grenn-itch or by some grinn-itch ) is a town, now part of the south eastern urban sprawl of London, on the south bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Greenwich. ... Celsius relates to the Celsius or centrigrade temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones A hardiness zone is a geographically-defined zone in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by temperature hardiness, or ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone. ...

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Avg high °C (°F) 7.2 (45.0) 7.6 (45.7) 10.3 (50.5) 13.0 (55.4) 17.0 (62.6) 20.3 (68.5) 22.3 (72.1) 21.9 (71.4) 19.1 (66.4) 15.2 (59.4) 10.4 (50.7) 8.2 (46.8)
Avg low temperature °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 2.5 (36.5) 3.8 (38.8) 5.6 (42.1) 8.7 (47.7) 11.6 (52.9) 13.7 (56.7) 13.4 (56.1) 11.4 (52.5) 8.9 (48.0) 5.1 (41.2) 3.4 (38.1)
Source: Worldweather.org

Districts

See also: Inner London and Outer London
Main articles: Central London, City of London, West End, East London, East End, Docklands, West London, North London, South London
Part of the London skyline looking east from the South Bank of the Thames.
Part of the London skyline looking east from the South Bank of the Thames.

London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names (e.g. Bloomsbury, Mayfair, Whitechapel). These are either informal designations, or reflect the names of superseded parishes and city wards. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a neighbourhood with its own distinctive character, but often with no modern official boundaries (the boundaries often overlap, allowing estate agents some leeway in defining the location of a property). Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that do not form part of Inner London, but form a ring around it. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... The West End of London is part of the city centre of London in England. ... East London is the name commonly given to the eastern part of London on the north side of the River Thames. ... The East End of London, known locally as the East End, is an area, with no formal authority or boundaries, that spans a number of administative districts of London in England. ... The Millennium Dome and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... Satellite image of the inner part of West London West London is the area of Greater London to the west of the central area. ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ... South London area South London (known colloquially as South of the River) is the area of London south of the River Thames. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x786, 732 KB) Summary London Skyline Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1048x786, 732 KB) Summary London Skyline Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The National Theatre is one of the collection of arts buildings that make up the South Bank Centre. ... Bloomsbury is an area of central London, in the London Borough of Camden. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... Whitechapel is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, United Kingdom. ...


One area of London which does have a strict definition is the City of London (usually just called The City), the largest financial district and central business district (CBD) in Europe. The City has its own governance and boundaries, giving it a status as the only completely autonomous local authority in London. London's new financial and commercial hub is the Docklands area to the east of the City, dominated by the Canary Wharf complex. Other businesses locate in the City of Westminster, the home of the UK's national government and the famous Westminster Abbey (NOT the centre of the Anglican Church, which is at Canterbury). The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... A Central business district (CBD) or downtown is a commercial heart of a city. ... CBD may stand for: Central business district Convention on Biological Diversity Cannabidiol, a cannabinoid from Cannabis sativa (hemp). ... The Millennium Dome and Canary Wharf from the Royal Victoria Dock. ... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west...


The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, with locations such as Oxford Street, Leicester Square, Covent Garden and Piccadilly Circus acting as tourist magnets. The West London area is known for fashionable and expensive residential areas such as Notting Hill, Kensington and Chelsea — where some properties can sell for £5,000,000 and above. The West End of London is part of the city centre of London in England. ... Oxford Street, from the top deck of a bus Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in London, England in the City of Westminster, and one of the worlds most famous streets for shopping. ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster. ... Piccadilly Circus is a famous traffic intersection and public space of Londons West End in the City of Westminster. ... Satellite image of the inner part of West London West London is the area of Greater London to the west of the central area. ... For the film, see Notting Hill (film). ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... Statue of Thomas More on Cheyne Walk. ...


The eastern side of London contains the East End — the area closest to the original Port of London, known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London. The surrounding East London area saw much of London's early industrial development; now, brownfield sites throughout the area are being redeveloped, including areas along the Thames (the Thames Gateway) and up the Lower Lea Valley, which is being developed into the Olympic Park for the 2012 Olympics. North London and South London are informal divisions of the capital made by the River Thames, although they can define varying areas. The East End of London, known locally as the East End, is an area, with no formal authority or boundaries, that spans a number of administative districts of London in England. ... The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ... East London is the name commonly given to the eastern part of London on the north side of the River Thames. ... Examples of brownfields that were redeveloped into productive properties Brownfields are abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination. ... The Thames Gateway is an area of land stretching 40 miles eastwards from East London on both sides of the River Thames and the Thames Estuary. ... The Lower Lea Valley is the area surrounding the River Lea (or Lee), which runs along the boundary of the London Boroughs of Tower Hamlets and Newham and into the River Thames. ... The London Olympic Park, is a new sporting complex to be built in Stratford for the 2012 Summer Olympics. ... London 2012 was the successful bid for the 2012 Summer Games, to be held in London with most events taking place in Stratford, Newham. ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ... South London area South London (known colloquially as South of the River) is the area of London south of the River Thames. ...


Built environment

See also: Architecture in London and List of tallest structures in London
Some of the skyscrapers in Canary Wharf, London's second financial district.
Some of the skyscrapers in Canary Wharf, London's second financial district.

The density of London varies, with high employment density in the central area, high residential densities in inner London and lower densities in the suburbs. In the dense areas, most of the concentration is achieved with medium-rise and high-rise buildings. London's skyscrapers such as the famous "Gherkin", Tower 42 and One Canada Square are usually found in the two financial districts, the City of London and Canary Wharf. See also: List of tallest structures in London The British Museum, one of Londons top tourist attractions London is not characterised by any particular architectural style, having accumulated its buildings over a long period of time. ... Londons three tallest buildings at Canary Wharf, The HSBC building 200 m, One Canada Square 235 m, The City Group Centre 200 m. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 781 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1728x2304, 781 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... Outer London is the name for the group of London Boroughs that do not form part of Inner London, but form a ring around it. ... High-rise is a 1975 novel by J. G. Ballard. ... Looking south down Bishopsgate, one of the main roads leading through Londons financial district. ... Tower 42 is the tallest building in the City of London Tower 42 from directly below Tower 42 viewed from street level. ... 1 Canada Square building (centre) One Canada Square, a skyscraper in London, is the tallest building in the United Kingdom. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ...


In recent years, the development of tall buildings has been encouraged in the London Plan, which will lead to the erection of new skyscrapers over the next few years as London goes through a high-rise boom, particularly in the City of London and Canary Wharf.[11] The 72-storey, 310 m "Shard London Bridge" by London Bridge station, the 288 m Bishopsgate Tower and around 30 other skyscrapers over 150 m are either proposed or approved and could transform the city's skyline. 30 St. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ... Shard London Bridge, set to become the tallest building in Western Europe. ... London Bridge station is a National Rail and London Underground station in the London Borough of Southwark, which occupies a large area on two levels, immediately south-east of London Bridge and 1. ... Artists rendering of the Bishopsgate Tower, and some of the other towers planned for London Another rendering, showing the view from London Bridge. ...


Other notable modern buildings include City Hall in Southwark with its distinctive oval shape, the British Library in Somers Town, the Great Court of the British Museum, and the Millennium Dome next to the Thames east of Canary Wharf. The disused (but soon to be rejuvenated) 1907 Battersea Power Station by the river in the southwest is a local landmark, whilst some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture, most notably St Pancras and Paddington (at least internally). City Hall, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge City Hall in London is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... The Borough or Southwark is an area of the London Borough of Southwark situated 1. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... Somers Town is an area of London adjacent to the British Library at St Pancras and south of Camden Town. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... The Millennium Dome, with the Canary Wharf complex in the background, seen from the River Thames Aerial view of the Millennium Dome The Millennium Dome, seen from the Isle of Dogs. ... Battersea Power Station viewed from the north bank of the River Thames at Pimlico. ... St Pancras station is a railway station in north central London, England, between the new British Library building to its west and Kings Cross station to its east. ... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station is a major National Rail station in the Paddington area of London, England. ...


London is not characterised by any particular architectural style, having accumulated its buildings over a long period of time. Few structures predate the Great Fire of 1666, except for the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City. Many buildings in London date from the Edwardian or Victorian periods. Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... Tudor usually relates to the Tudor period in English history, which refers to the period of time between 1485 and 1558/1603 when the Tudor dynasty held the English throne. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... Victorian can refer to: people from or attributes of places called Victoria (disambiguation page), including Victoria, Australia, people who lived during the British Victorian era of the 19th century, and aspects of the Victorian era, for example: Victorian architecture Victorian fashion Victorian morality Victorian literature This is a disambiguation page...


Several monuments pay homage to people and events in the city. The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area whilst commemorating the Great Fire of London which originated nearby. Marble Arch and Wellington Arch, at the north and south ends of Park Lane respectively, have royal connections, as do the Albert Memorial and Royal Albert Hall in Kensington. Nelson's Column is a nationally-recognised monument in Trafalgar Square, providing a focal point for the whole central area. The Monument to the Great Fire of London, more commonly known as the Monument, is located in the City of London, near to the northern end of London Bridge close to where the Great Fire of London (1666) started. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Marble Arch Marble Arch is a white Carrara marble monument near Speakers Corner in Hyde Park, at the western end of Oxford Street in London, England. ... Wellington Arch, also known as Constitution Arch, is a triumphal arch located to the south of Hyde Park in central London. ... Park Lane could refer to: Park Lane, a road in London, England Park Lane, a mall in Halifax, Nova Scotia Mercury Park Lane, a car produced by the Ford Motor Company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, England, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall. ... Royal Albert Hall The Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences is an arts venue dedicated to Queen Victorias husband and consort, Prince Albert. ... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... Lord Nelson at the top of the column that bears his name Nelsons Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ...


Parks and gardens

London has a number of open spaces. The largest of these in the central area are the Royal Parks of Hyde Park and its neighbours Kensington Gardens and Holland Park Gardens at the western edge of central London, and Regent's Park on the northern edge. This park is located near the tourist attractions of Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum and Baker Street, where the fictional Sherlock Holmes lived. Closer to central London are the smaller Royal Parks of Green Park and St. James's Park. Hyde Park in particular is popular for sports and sometimes hosts open-air concerts. London is well endowed with open spaces. ... The Royal Parks of London are lands originally owned by the monarchy of England or the United Kingdom for the recreation of the royal family. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1757x1173, 459 KB) Kensington Palace in winter, Kensington Gardens, London, UK. Taken by contributor 1986. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1757x1173, 459 KB) Kensington Palace in winter, Kensington Gardens, London, UK. Taken by contributor 1986. ... This article is about the park in London. ... The Royal Parks of London are lands originally owned by the monarchy of England or the United Kingdom for the recreation of the royal family. ... The Serpentine, viewed from the eastern end Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in central London and one of the Royal Parks of London. ... This article is about the park in London. ... Holland Park is a district and a public park in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, in west central London in England. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ... Sherlock Holmes as imagined by the seminal Holmesian artist, Sidney Paget, in The Strand magazine. ... Green Park, London Green Park (officially The Green Park) is one of the Royal Parks of London. ... St. ...

Image:Hyde park.jpg

A number of large parks lie outside the city centre, including the remaining Royal Parks ofGreenwich Park to the south east, and Bushy Park and Richmond Park to the south west. Primrose Hill to the north of Regent's Park is a popular spot to view the city skyline. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the 791-acre Hampstead Heath of north London. This incorporates Kenwood House, the former stately home and a popular location in the summer months where classical music concerts are held by the lake, attracting thousands of people every weekend to enjoy the music, scenery and fireworks. Hyde Park is the name of: Hyde Park, a Royal Park in London (the original location) Hyde Park in Sydney - a park some places in the United States of America: Hyde Park, Massachusetts Hyde Park, New York - a town in Dutchess County, New York Hyde Park, Vermont - a town Hyde... One of the Royal Parks of London, Greenwich Park is a former deer-park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in south east London. ... Bushy Park Bushy Park is the second-largest of the Royal Parks of London. ... A corner of the Isabella Plantation in Richmond Park Richmond Park is the largest of the Royal Parks in London. ... Primrose Hill. ... Hampstead Heath (locally known as The Heath) is a public open space in the north of London. ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ... Kenwood House Kenwood House (also known as the Iveagh Bequest) is a former stately home in Hampstead Heath in London. ... A stately home is, strictly speaking, one of about 500 large properties built in England between the mid-16th century and the early part of the 20th century, as well as converted abbeys and other church property (after the Dissolution of the Monasteries). ...


History

Main article: History of London

London has a recorded history that goes back over 2,000 years. ...

Early London

Although there is some evidence of scattered pre-Roman settlement in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans in AD 43, following the Roman invasion of Britain. This settlement was called Londinium, commonly believed to be the origin of the present-day name, although a Celtic origin is also possible. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ...

Westminster Abbey is one of London's oldest and most important buildings
Westminster Abbey is one of London's oldest and most important buildings

The first London lasted for just seventeen years. Around AD 61, the Iceni tribe of Celts led by Queen Boudica stormed London, burning it to the ground. The next, heavily-planned incarnation of the city prospered and superseded Colchester as the capital of the Roman province of Britannia in AD 100. At its height in the 2nd century AD, Roman London had a population of around 60,000. However, by the 3rd century AD, the city started a slow decline due to trouble in the Roman Empire, and by the 5th century AD, it was largely abandoned. Download high resolution version (863x1024, 243 KB)The West Door of Westminster Abbey. ... Download high resolution version (863x1024, 243 KB)The West Door of Westminster Abbey. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... The Iceni or Eceni were a Brythonic tribe who inhabited an area of Britain corresponding roughly to the modern-day county of Norfolk between the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. The Cenimagni, who surrendered to Julius Caesar during his second expedition to Britain in 54 BC, may have... Celts redirects here. ... Statue of Boudica near Westminster Pier, with her two daughters upon a chariot Boudica (also Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Britannia on a 2005 £2 coin. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


By 600 AD, the Anglo-Saxons had created a new settlement (Lundenwic) about 1 km upstream from the old Roman city, around what is now Covent Garden. There was probably a harbour at the mouth of the River Fleet for fishing and trading, and this trading grew until disaster struck in 851 AD, when the city's defences were overcome by a massive Viking raid and it was razed to the ground. A Viking occupation twenty years later was short-lived, and Alfred the Great, the new King of England, established peace and moved the settlement within the defensive walls of the old Roman city (then called Lundenburgh). The original city became Ealdwīc ("old city"), a name surviving to the present day as Aldwych. The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Lundenwic was the name given to London during the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries AD when London was situated away from the fortified Roman City of London. ... Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster. ... Entrance to the Fleet River, Samuel Scott, c. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne explorers, traders, and warriors of the Norsemen who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Alfred (Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d) (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... Lundenburgh was a name given to London following the restoration of the city by King Alfred the Great in 886 AD. It refers to his policy of creating boroughs or defended places to help defend against the Danes. ... Aldwych is a place and road in the City of Westminster in London. ...


Subsequently, under the control of various English kings, London once again prospered as an international trading centre and political arena. However, Viking raids began again in the late 10th century, and reached a head in 1013 when they besieged the city under Danish King Canute and forced English King Ethelred the Unready to flee. In a retaliatory attack, Ethelred's army achieved victory by pulling down London Bridge with the Danish garrison on top, and English control was re-established. Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... Ethelred II (c. ... This article is about the bridge in London. ...


Canute took control of the English throne in 1017, controlling the city and country until 1042, when his death resulted in a reversion to Anglo-Saxon control under his pious step-son Edward the Confessor, who re-founded Westminster Abbey and the adjacent Palace of Westminster. By this time, London had become the largest and most prosperous city in England, although the official seat of government was still at Winchester. The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... The seat of government is the location of the government for a political entity. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ...


Norman and medieval London

The Great Fire of London destroyed large parts of the city in 1666.
The Great Fire of London destroyed large parts of the city in 1666.

Following a victory at the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror, the then Duke of Normandy, was crowned King of England in the newly-finished Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day 1066. William granted the citizens of London special privileges, whilst building a castle in the southeast corner of the city to keep them under control. This castle was expanded by later kings and is now known as the Tower of London, serving first as a royal residence and later as a prison. Image File history File links Great_Fire_London. ... Image File history File links Great_Fire_London. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... // Combatants Normans, supported by Bretons, Aquitanians, Flemings & French Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000 - 8,000 7,000 - 8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly more than the Normans The Battle of Hastings... William I ( 1027 – September 9, 1087), was King of England from 1066 to 1087. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


In 1097, William II began the building of Westminster Hall, close by the abbey of the same name. The hall proved the basis of a new Palace of Westminster, the prime royal residence throughout the Middle Ages. Westminster became the seat of the royal court and government (persisting until the present day), whilst its distinct neighbour, the City of London, was a centre of trade and commerce and flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London. Eventually, the adjacent cities grew together and formed the basis of modern central London, superseding Winchester as capital of England in the 12th century. William II (called Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance) (c. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... Statistics Population: 40,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU485295 Administration District: City of Winchester Shire county: Hampshire Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Hampshire Historic county: Hampshire Services Police force: Hampshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office...


After the successful defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, political stability in England allowed London to grow further. In 1603, James VI of Scotland came to the throne of England, essentially uniting the two countries. His enactment of harsh anti-Catholic laws made him unpopular, and an assassination attempt was made on 5 November 1605 — the famous Gunpowder Plot. The Spanish Armada or Great/Grand Armada (Old Spanish: Grande y Felicísima Armada, great and most fortunate navy; but called by the English, with ironic intention, the Invincible Fleet) refers to the Spanish-controlled fleet which sailed against England in 1588, with the intention of escorting an invading army... King James I of England/VII of Scotland, the first monarch to rule the Kingdoms of England and Scotland at the same time Events March - Samuel de Champlain, French explorer, sails to Canada March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Assassin and Targeted killing redirect here. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ...


Plague caused extensive problems for London in the early 17th century, culminating in the Great Plague in 1665-1666. This was the last major outbreak in Europe, possibly thanks to the disastrous fire of 1666. The Great Fire of London broke out in the original City and quickly swept through London's wooden buildings, destroying large swathes of the city. Rebuilding took over ten years. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... A Table of the Funerals in the Several Parishes within the Bills of Mortality of the City of London, 1665 A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ...


Rise of modern London

A London street hit during the Blitz of World War II
A London street hit during the Blitz of World War II

Following London's growth in the 18th century, it became the world's largest city from about 1831 to 1925 [12]. This growth was aided from 1836 by London's first railways which put countryside towns within easy reach of the city. The rail network expanded very rapidly, and caused these places to grow whilst London itself expanded into surrounding fields, merging with neighbouring settlements such as Kensington. Rising traffic congestion on city centre roads led to the creation of the world's first metro system — the London Underground — in 1863, driving further expansion and urbanisation. [13] Because of this rapid growth, London became one of the first cities in human history to reach a population of one million. WWII; London, England. ... WWII; London, England. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage) The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Kensington is an area to the west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. ... Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ...


London's local government system struggled to cope with the rapid growth, especially in providing the city with adequate infrastructure. Between 1855 and 1889, the Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion. It was then replaced by the County of London, overseen by the London County Council, London's first elected city-wide administration. Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state or province. ... The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in 1889. ... The County of London (in red), super imposed upon todays Greater London area, to show the difference in size with post-1965 Borough boundaries The County of London was an administrative county of England from 1888 to 1965. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ...

The London Eye (also known as The British Airways London Eye), one of the many symbols of modern London
The London Eye (also known as The British Airways London Eye), one of the many symbols of modern London

. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1400, 1282 KB) Summary This photo is of the London Eye on the 7th of April 2006 as viewed from the rear. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2100x1400, 1282 KB) Summary This photo is of the London Eye on the 7th of April 2006 as viewed from the rear. ... The London Eye at twilight The British Airways London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, opened in 1999 and is the largest observation wheel (a type of Ferris wheel) in the world. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ...


The Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe during World War II killed over 30,000 Londoners and flattened large tracts of housing and other buildings across London. The rebuilding during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s was characterised by a wide range of architectural styles and has resulted in a lack of architectural unity that has become part of London's character. In 1965 London's political boundaries were expanded to take into account the growth of the urban area outside the County of London's borders. The expanded area was called Greater London and was administered by the Greater London Council. Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage) The Blitz was the sustained bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture largely by morphological characteristics - in terms of form, techniques, materials, etc. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ...


In the decades following World War II, large-scale immigration from Commonwealth countries and beyond, transformed London into one of the most racially and culturally diverse cities in Europe. Integration of the new immigrants was not always smooth, with events such as the Brixton Riots in the 1980s. The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ... There have been three riots in Brixton: Brixton riot (1981) - April 11, 1981 Brixton riot (1985) - September 28, 1985 Brixton riot (1995) - December 13, 1995 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


An economic revival from the 1980s onwards re-established London's position as an eminent trading centre. However, as the seat of government and the most important city in the UK, it has been subjected to bouts of terrorism. IRA bombers sought to pressure the government into negotiations over Northern Ireland, frequently disrupting city activities with bomb threats — some of which were carried out — until their 1997 cease-fire. More recently, a series of coordinated bomb attacks were carried out by Islamic extremist suicide bombers on the public transport network on 7 July 2005 — just 24 hours after London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics. Terrorist redirects here. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... Motto: (Latin) Who will separate us?[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Irish, Ulster Scots3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of coordinated bomb blasts that struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Five cities made the shortlist to host the 2012 Summer Olympics (formally known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad), which were awarded to London (United Kingdom) on July 6, 2005. ... The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will be held in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. ...


Government

See also: :Category:London Government

Local government

City Hall at night, headquarters of the Greater London Authority.
City Hall at night, headquarters of the Greater London Authority.

The administration of London takes place in two tiers — a city-wide, strategic tier and a local tier. City-wide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority (GLA), whilst local administration is carried out by 33 smaller districts. City Hall, London Background info: This picture was a complete fluke. ... City Hall, London Background info: This picture was a complete fluke. ... City Hall, taken from the high walkway on Tower Bridge City Hall in London is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...


The GLA is responsible for strategic planning, policing, the fire service, transport and economic development. It consists of two elected parts — the Mayor of London, who has executive powers, and the London Assembly, who scrutinise the Mayor's decisions and can accept or reject his budget proposals each year. The GLA is a recent organisation, having been set up in 2000 to replace the similar Greater London Council (GLC) which had been abolished in 1986. Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The London Fire Brigade (LFB) provides fire fighting and rescue services in London, UK. It is the third largest fire department in the world with nearly 7000 staff. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in yoyoyoyoyoyoyoyoyooyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyooooooooo There are more than 20,000 professional economic developers employed world wide in this highly specialized industry. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ...


The Mayor of London is Ken Livingstone, who is in his second term of office. He was elected in 2000 as an independent candidate and again in 2004 as a Labour candidate. Ken Livingstone was also the leader of the GLC when it was abolished. Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945), is an English politician who has been the Mayor of London since the creation of the post in 2000. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ...


The 34 local districts are the 33 London boroughs and the City of London. They are responsible for local services not overseen by the GLA, such as local planning, schools, social services, and refuse collection. The London boroughs each have a council which is elected every four years by local residents. The City of London does not have a conventional local authority, but is governed by the historic Corporation of London which is elected by both residents and businesses, and which has existed more or less unchanged since the Middle Ages. The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The City of London also has its own police force: The City of London Police, which is independent of the Metropolitan Police Service which covers the rest of Greater London. City Police Mounted Section officer The City of London Police is the Home Office police force responsible for the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temple. ... The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is the Home Office police force responsible for Greater London, with the exception of the square mile of the City of London. ...


Health services in London are managed by the national government through the National Health Service, which is controlled and administered in London by a single NHS Strategic Health Authority[14]. The logo of the NHS for England. ... NHS Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) are part of the structure of the National Health Service in England. ...


National government

London is the home of the Government of the United Kingdom which is located around the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. Many government offices are located close to Parliament, particularly along Whitehall and including the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1084x768, 278 KB) The Palace of Westminster at night seen from the south bank of the River Thames. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1084x768, 278 KB) The Palace of Westminster at night seen from the south bank of the River Thames. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament or Westminster Palace, in London, England is where the two Houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (the House of Lords and the House of Commons) meet to conduct their business. ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... Downing Street For a wider coverage of London, visit the London Portal. ...


The British Parliament is often referred to as the "Mother of Parliaments" because it has been the model for most other parliamentary systems, and its Acts have created many other parliaments. Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British "three-tier" model. Most countries in Europe and the Commonwealth have similarly organized parliaments with a largely ceremonial head of state who formally opens and closes parliament, a large elected lower house and a smaller, upper house. World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... The English noun Commonwealth dates originally from the fifteenth century. ...


London is represented in the national Parliament by 74 Members of Parliament (MPs) who correspond to local parliamentary constituencies. For a list of London constituencies, see List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London. Of these 74 MPs, 44 are from the Labour Party, 21 are Conservatives, 8 are Liberal Democrats and one is from the RESPECT party. The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... In the United Kingdom each of the electoral areas or divisions called constituencies elects one or more members to a parliament or assembly. ... The adminstrative region and ceremonial county of Greater London, together with the enclave of the City of London, is divided into 74 Parliamentary constituencies (all Borough constituencies). ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative & Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), and the largest in terms of public membership. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. ... RESPECT The Unity Coalition is a left wing British political party founded on January 25, 2004 in London. ...


Economy

Further information: Economy of the United Kingdom, Economy of London, Media in London and Tourism in London

London is a major centre for international business and commerce and is one of three "command centres" for the global economy (along with New York City and Tokyo).[15] The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... Bishopsgate, in the City of London. ... London is a major international communications centre with a virtually unrivalled number of media outlets. ... London is an important hub for tourists, and the city is home to an array tourist attractions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (849x1471, 370 KB) Bishopsgate, at the junction with Camomile Street and Wormwood Street, in the City of London, with Tower 42 and 99 Bishopsgate looming overhead. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (849x1471, 370 KB) Bishopsgate, at the junction with Camomile Street and Wormwood Street, in the City of London, with Tower 42 and 99 Bishopsgate looming overhead. ... Looking north from a pedestrian bridge across Bishopsgate Bishopsgate, in the heart of Londons financial district. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... This article or section may contain external links added only to promote a website, product, or service – otherwise known as spam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into globalization. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ...


As Europe's largest city economy, year-by-year, London's economy generates approximately 19% of the UK's GDP[16] or £219 billion in 2005; whilst the entire London metropolitan area generates approximately 30% of UK GDP or £345 billion in 2005.[17] Commuters from East Anglia arrive at Liverpool Street Station The London Commuter Belt or London Metropolitan Area is the name given to the built-up area surrounding and running into Greater London but not administered as part of it. ...


London shifted to a mostly service-based economy earlier than other European cities, particularly following the Second World War. London's success as a service industry and business centre can be attributed to many factors: English becoming the new lingua franca; its former position as the capital of the British Empire; its close relationship with the U.S. and various countries in Asia; English law being the most important and most used contract law in international business, the multi-cultural infrastructure (schools, places of worship, cultural and social organisations); relatively low taxes, particularly for foreigners (non-UK domiciled residents do not get taxed on their foreign earnings); a business friendly environment (e.g. in the City of London the local government is not elected by the resident population but instead by business - the City of London is a business democracy), good transport infrastructure, particularly its aviation industry and a deregulated economy with little intervention by the government. [citation needed] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This box:      The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... // The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties. ... Multiculturalism is an ideology advocating that society should consist of, or at least allow and include, distinct cultural groups, with equal status. ...


Over 85% (3.2 million) of the employed population of greater London works in service industries. Another half a million employees resident in Greater London work in manufacturing and construction, almost equally divided between both.[citation needed]


London has five major business districts: the City, Westminster, Canary Wharf, Camden & Islington and Lambeth & Southwark.

Business District Office Space (m²) Business Concentration
The City 7,740,000 finance, broking, insurance, legal
Westminster 5,780,000 head offices, real estate, private banking, hedge funds, government
Camden & Islington 2,294,000 creative industries, finance, design, art, fashion, architecture
Canary Wharf 2,120,000 banking, media, legal
Lambeth & Southwark 1,780,000 accountancy, consultancy, local government

London's largest industry remains finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments.[18] Over 300,000 people are employed in financial services in London, more than the entire population of Frankfurt in Germany, Europe's second biggest financial centre. London has over 480 overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. More funds are invested in the City of London than in the next top 10 European cities combined. The London Stock Exchange is the largest in the world, and bigger than New York and Tokyo combined. It has a combined daily turnover of US$683 billion, nearly a third of total world activity.[19] The City is the largest financial and business centre in Europe, home to banks, brokers, insurers and legal and accounting firms. A second, smaller financial district is developing at Canary Wharf to the east of the City which includes the global headquarters of HSBC, Reuters, Barclays and many of the largest law firms in the world. London handled 31% of global currency transactions in 2005 — an average daily turnover of US$753 billion — with more US dollars traded in London than New York, and more Euros traded than in every other city in Europe combined.[20] [21] A financial export is a business service provided by a domestic firm (regardless of ownership) to a foreign firm within the scope of financial services. ... The balance of payments is a measure of the payments that flow from one exports and imports of goods, services, and financial capital, as well financial transfers. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ... HSBC Holdings plc (LSE: HSBA, SEHK: 005, NYSE: HBC, Euronext: HSBC, BSX: 1077223879) is one of the largest banking groups in the world, ranked the fifth-largest company and third-largest banking company in the world in Forbes Global 2000. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Barclays Bank is the fourth largest bank in the United Kingdom. ... A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law. ... In the foreign exchange market and international finance, a world currency or global currency refers to a currency in which the vast majority of international transactions take place and which serves as the worlds primary reserve currency. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NY redirects here. ... The Greek name for the rainy, stormy southeast wind. ...

The Bank of England, the central bank of the United Kingdom.
The Bank of England, the central bank of the United Kingdom.

More than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE 100) and over 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies are headquartered in central London. Over 70% of the FTSE 100 are located within London's metropolitan area, and 75% of Fortune 500 companies have offices in London. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 781 KB) The Bank of England in Threadneedle Street, London, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 781 KB) The Bank of England in Threadneedle Street, London, England. ... Headquarters London Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound Sterling -ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5% Printer(s) De La Rue Mint(s) Royal Mint Website bankofengland. ... The Financial Times Stock Exchange Index of 100 Leading Shares, or FTSE 100 Index (pronounced footsie), is a share index of the 100 largest companies listed on the London Stock Exchange. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ...


Along with professional services, media companies are concentrated in London (see Media in London) and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector.[22] The BBC is a key employer, while other broadcasters also have headquarters around the city. Many national newspapers are edited in London, having traditionally been associated with Fleet Street in the City, they are now primarily based around Canary Wharf. Soho is the centre of London's post-production industry. Professional Services are infrequent, technical, or unique functions performed by independent contractors or consultant whose occupation is the rendering of such services. ... London is a major international communications centre with a virtually unrivalled number of media outlets. ... This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... // [edit] National newspapers Traditionally newspapers could be split into quality, serious-minded newspapers (usually referred to as broadsheets due to their large size) and tabloid, less serious newspapers. ... Fleet Street in 2005 Fleet Street is a famous street in London, England, named after the River Fleet. ... HSBC Tower (left), One Canada Square (centre), Citigroup Centre (right) Canary Wharf in Tower Hamlets, London, England, is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks in the London Docklands. ... Soho is an area of central Londons West End, in the borough of the City of Westminster. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


Tourism is one of London's prime industries and employed the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in London in 2003[23], whilst annual expenditure by tourists is around £15bn.[24] London is a popular destination for tourists, attracting 27 million overnight-stay visitors every year, second only to Paris.[25] London is an important hub for tourists, and the city is home to an array tourist attractions. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the third-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 50 million tonnes of cargo each year.[26] Most of this actually passes through Tilbury, outside the boundary of Greater London. The Port of London lies along the banks of the River Thames in London, England. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Tilbury is located on the north bank of the River Thames, in the borough of Thurrock in England, at the point where the river suddenly narrows to about 800 yards/740 metres in width. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


Demographics

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and was the most populated city in the world until overtaken by New York in 1925. Its population peaked at 8,615,245 in 1939. Londons population has grown extensively in the last two centuries, thanks to rapid urbanisation. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 400 KB) London, Piccadilly Circus Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1800x1200, 400 KB) London, Piccadilly Circus Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): London ... Piccadilly Circus is a famous traffic intersection and public space of Londons West End in the City of Westminster. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


There were an estimated 7,517,700 people living in the Greater London area in mid-2005.[27] However, London's continuous urban area extends beyond the borders of Greater London and was home to 8,278,251 people at the 2001 UK census,[28] whilst its wider metropolitan area has a population of between 12 and 14 million depending on the definition of that area[29] [30]. As per Eurostat, London is the most populous city and metropolitan area of the European Union [31]. Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... The United Kingdom has taken a census of its population every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941. ... Metropolitan area in Western Tokyo as seen from Tokyo Tower A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or... The Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) is the statistical arm of the European Commission, producing data for the European Union and promoting harmonisation of statistical methods across the member states. ...


The region covers an area of 1,579 square kilometres. The population density is 4,761 people per square kilometres, more than ten times that of any other English region. The region (also known as Government Office region) is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity in England. ...


Ethnicity

In the 2001 census, 71.15% of these seven and a half million people classed their ethnic group as white (classified as White British (59.79%), White Irish (3.07%) or "Other White" (8.29%)), 12.09% as Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi or "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan, Arab and other South Asian ethnicities), 10.91% as Black (5.28% as Black African, 4.79% as Black Caribbean, 0.84% as "Other Black"), 3.15% as mixed race, 1.12% as Chinese and 1.58% as other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, and Vietnamese). 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. The Irish, from both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, constitute the largest group of London's population born outside Great Britain, numbering approximately 200,000. In 2001 censuses were conducted in Canada: Canada 2001 Census Nepal: Demographics of Nepal Portugal Slovakia: Demographics of Slovakia United Kingdom: United Kingdom Census 2001 Categories: Demographics ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ...


The largest religious groupings are Christian (58.2%), No Religion (15.8%), Muslim (7.2%), Hindu (4.1%), Jewish (2.1%), and Sikh (1.5%). Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth and his life, death, resurrection, and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit: eternal law; in several modern Indian languages[1] also known as ), is a religion that originated on the Indian subcontinent. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in sixteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ...


In January 2005, a survey of London's ethnic and religious diversity claimed that there were more than 300 languages spoken and 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000 in London.[32]


Foreign born

Figures from the Office for National Statistics show that, as of 2006, London's foreign-born population is 2,288,000, up from 1,630,000 in 1997. [33]. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The table below shows the 'Country of Birth' of London residents in 2001, the date of the last UK Census. (Top 21) [34]. The United Kingdom has taken a census of its population every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941. ...

Country of Birth Population
United Kingdom United Kingdom 5,230,155
India India 172,162
Republic of Ireland Republic of Ireland 157,285
Bangladesh Bangladesh 84,565
Jamaica Jamaica 80,319
Nigeria Nigeria 68,907
Pakistan 66,658
Kenya Kenya 66,311
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 49,932
Ghana Ghana 46,513
Cyprus 45,888
South Africa South Africa 45,506
United States United States 44,622
Australia Australia 41,488
Germany Germany 39,818
Turkey Turkey 39,128
Italy Italy 38,694
France France 38,130
Somalia Somalia 33,831
Uganda Uganda 32,082
New Zealand New Zealand 27,494

It is one of the most ethnically diverse cities in the industrialised world, with more than 300 languages spoken and 50 non-indigenous communities with a population of more than 10,000 living in London.[36] The 2001 census showed that about 27% of London's population were born outside the UK, and about 29% were classified as non-white.[37] Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kenya. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uganda. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... This is a list of the largest cities of the world estimated for the year 2005. ... This page lists the 100 largest metropolitan areas of the world, ranked by population. ... The following is a 2006 list of cities and towns with the most billionaires (in US dollars) according to Forbes: New York City, USA – 45 Los Angeles, USA – 31 (Includes Beverly Hills, an independent city, but wholly within LA City Limitss, along with Bel-Air and Holmby Hills neighborhoods, and... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2003). ...


In terms of religion, London has traditionally been dominated by Christianity, and has a large number of churches, particularly in the City. The famous St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, whilst important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. The Abbey is not to be confused with nearby Westminster Cathedral, a relatively recent edifice which is the largest Roman Catholic cathedral in England and Wales. Despite the prevalence of Anglican churches, observance is very low within the Anglican denomination and yet considerably higher among London's Roman Catholic and Christian Orthodox communities.[38] [39] Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth and his life, death, resurrection, and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... St. ... St Pauls Cathedral from the south St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, England and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Southwark Cathedral Southwark Cathedral or The Cathedral and Collegiate Church of St Saviour and St Mary Overie, Southwark, London, lies on the south bank of the River Thames close to London Bridge. ... The term Anglican (from medieval Latin ecclesia Anglicana meaning the English church) is used to describe the people, institutions, and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the established Church of England, the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican Churches (a loosely affiliated group of... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... Westminster Cathedral from Victoria Street The interior of Westminster Cathedral Westminster Cathedral is the motherchurch of the Roman Catholic faithful of the Archdiocese of Westminster and the metropolitan church of the Westminster Province, located at 42 Francis Street SW1 in the City of Westminster in London, England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


London is also home to sizeable Muslim, Hindu, Sikh, and Jewish communities. Many Muslims live in Tower Hamlets and Newham; the most important Muslim edifice is London Central Mosque on the edge of Regent's Park. London's large Hindu community is found in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent, the latter of which contains one of Europe's largest Hindu temples, Neasden Temple.[40] Sikh communities are located in East and West London, which is also home to one of the largest Sikh Temples in the world, outside India. The majority of British Jews live in London, with significant Jewish communities in Stamford Hill (the most Orthodox Jewish area outside New York City and Israel) and Golders Green in North London.[41] A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Sikh (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent of Sikhism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is the London borough to the east of the City of London, north of the River Thames in East London. ... The London Borough of Newham is a London borough in East London. ... The London Central Mosque as viewed from Regents Park The London Central Mosque is a large mosque located near the Baker Street Underground station and Regents Park in the London Borough of Westminster. ... This article is about Regents Park in London. ... Alternative meanings: Harrow, London, a place in the London Borough of Harrow; Harrow School, a famous public school in the United Kingdom; The Harrow, a fantasy and horror magazine. ... Brent may refer to: the London Borough of Brent the River Brent which runs through the Boroughs of Barnett, Brent, Ealing and Hounslow. ... // A Hindu temple is a house of worship for the followers of Hinduism. ... // The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir is a Hindu temple in Neasden, in the London Borough of Brent in north-west London. ... This article is about the history of the Jewish people in England. ... Stamford Hill is a place in the north of the London Borough of Hackney, near the border with Haringey. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in London, England. ... North London is that part of London which is north of the River Thames. ...


Transport

Main article: Transport in London
Paddington Station, one of London's main railway terminals.
Paddington Station, one of London's main railway terminals.

Transport is one of the four areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, but the mayor's financial control is limited. The public transport network, administered by Transport for London (TfL), is the most extensive in the world, but faces congestion and reliability issues, which a large investment programme is attempting to address, including £7 billion (€10 billion) of improvements planned for the Olympics. London has recently been awarded the city for best public transport. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 499 KB) Paddington station in London during the morning rush hour Photograph: Phychem Date: March 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Paddington station ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 499 KB) Paddington station in London during the morning rush hour Photograph: Phychem Date: March 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Paddington station ... Paddington Station, March 2005 during rush hour Paddington station or London Paddington station is a major National Rail and London Underground station complex in the Paddington area of London. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... Transport for London (TfL) is a local government body responsible for the transport system throughout the City of London and Greater London in England. ... The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will be held in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. ...


Rail

The centrepiece of the public transport network is the London Underground, the oldest and largest metro system in the world, dating from 1863.[13] The Metro system was home to the world's first underground electric line, the City & South London Railway, which began service in 1890.[42] Nearly 1 billion journeys are made each year on the London Underground system.[43] The Underground serves the central area and most suburbs to the north of the Thames, whilst those to the south are served by an extensive suburban rail network. Commuter and intercity railways generally do not cross the city, instead running into fourteen terminal stations scattered around its historic centre. The London bus network caters for most local journeys and carries even more passengers than the Underground. These internationally recognised buses are the trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the underground. Eurostar trains link London Waterloo station with Lille and Paris in France, and Brussels in Belgium. The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... The City & South London Railway (C&SLR), originally known as City of London & Southwark Subway, is considered to be the first real deep-level tube railway in the world. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... The National Rail network of the United Kingdom does not have one main London railway station in London, England. ... A symbol of London: the Routemaster bus A new London icon? A new Enviro 400 operating for Metroline. ... This article is about high-speed trains between London and Brussels / Paris. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Nickname: The Capital Of Europe, Comic City City of a 100 Museums Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area    - City 162 (Region) km²  (62. ...


Air

Heathrow Airport The world's busiest airport for number of international passengers.
Heathrow Airport The world's busiest airport for number of international passengers.

London is a major international air transport hub. No fewer than eight airports use the words London Airport in their name, but most traffic passes through one of five major airports. London Heathrow Airport is the busiest airport in the world for international traffic[44] and handles a mixture of full service domestic, European and inter-continental scheduled passenger flights. Similar traffic, with the addition of some low-cost short-haul flights, is also handled at London Gatwick Airport. London Stansted Airport and London Luton Airport cater mostly for low-cost short-haul flights. London City Airport, the smallest and most central airport, is focused on business travellers, with a mixture of full service short-haul scheduled flights and considerable business jet traffic.[45] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1205, 869 KB) Four aircraft queue at London Heathrow Airport (England), for take off from runway 26R (the eastern end of the northern of the two main Heathrow runways). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1205, 869 KB) Four aircraft queue at London Heathrow Airport (England), for take off from runway 26R (the eastern end of the northern of the two main Heathrow runways). ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... Aerial view of Heathrow London Heathrow Airport (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL), often referred to as Heathrow, is the third busiest airport in the world, after Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and Chicago OHare. ... The cachet of being known as the worlds busiest airport is fiercely fought over by the owners of the worlds largest airports. ... Boeing 737-700 of UK low cost carrier easyJet waiting for take off at Bristol A low-cost carrier or low cost airline (also known as a no-frills or discount carrier / airline) is an airline that offers generally low fares in exchange for eliminating many traditional passenger services. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA: LGW, ICAO: EGKK) is Londons second largest airport and the second busiest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Stansted Airport (IATA: STN, ICAO: EGSS) is a large passenger airport with a single runway and hub for a number of major European low-cost airlines. ... London Luton Airport (IATA: LTN, ICAO: EGGW) (previously called Luton International Airport) is an airport about 35 miles north of London just east of the town of Luton, Bedfordshire, England. ... London City Airport (IATA: LCY, ICAO: EGLC) is a single-runway airport, intended for use by STOL (Short Take Off and Landing) airliners, and principally serving the financial districts of London. ... Business jet, private jet or, in slang, bizjet is a term describing a jet aircraft, usually of modest size, designed for transporting small groups of business people for commercial reasons at a time convenient to their business needs. ...


Road

Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, travel in outer London is car-dominated. The inner ring road (around the city centre), the North and South Circular roads (in the suburbs) and an orbital motorway (the M25, outside the built-up area) encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes — but very few motorways penetrate into inner London. A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city (the Ringways Plan) was prepared in the 1960s but was mostly cancelled in the early 1970s. In 2003, a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. With a few exceptions, motorists are required to pay £8 per day to drive within a defined zone encompassing much of central London. Motorists who are residents of the defined zone can buy a season pass which is renewed monthly. The London Inner Ring Road is the name commonly given to a collection of major roads that encircle the centremost part of London, United Kingdom. ... The A406 or the North Circular Road is a trunk-road linking west and east London going via North London. ... The A205 or South Circular Road is a roughly semicircular trunk road that joins west London to east London via south London. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... For the star cluster, see Open Cluster M25 The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs which form the central part of Greater London and are surrounded by Outer London. ... The London Ringways were a series of four ring roads planned in the 1960s to circle London at various distances from the city centre. ... The white-on-red C marks all entrances to the congestion charge zone although in some areas the charge zone is poorly signed, and accidental journeys into the zone can occur For more coverage on London, visit the London Portal. ...


Education

Main article: Education in London
Senate House, a building by Charles Holden housing the administration and library of the University of London.
Senate House, a building by Charles Holden housing the administration and library of the University of London.

Home to a range of universities, colleges and schools, London has a student population of about 378,000[46] and is a centre of research and development. Most primary and secondary schools in London follow the same system as the rest of England. London is a leading educational centre, and has one of the largest populations of overseas students of any city in the world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1280 KB) I am the author. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1280 KB) I am the author. ... The Senate House of the University of London Senate House, the administrative centre of the University of London, lies in the heart of Bloomsbury between the School of Oriental and African Studies to the north and the British Museum to the south. ... Charles Henry Holden (12 May 1875 - 1 May 1960) was an English architect known for his designs of stations on the London Underground railway system. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ... Education in England is the responsibility of Department for Education and Skills at national level and, in the case of publicly funded compulsory education, of Local Education Authorities. ...


With 125,000 students, the University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe.[47] It comprises 20 colleges as well as several smaller institutes, each with a high degree of autonomy. Constituent colleges have their own admissions procedures, and are effectively universities in their own right, although all degrees are awarded by the University of London rather than the individual colleges. Its constituents include multi-disciplinary colleges such as UCL, King's and Queen Mary and more specialised institutions such as Imperial, the London School of Economics, SOAS, the Royal Academy of Music and the Institute of Education. The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... University College London, commonly known as UCL, is one of the colleges that make up the University of London. ... Kings College London is the largest college of the University of London and one of a number of university institutions founded in England in the early 19th century. ... Queen Mary, University of London (QMUL) (until recently Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London and still called that in its charter and occasionally still abbreviated to QMW) is the fourth largest College of the University of London. ... Imperial College London is a prestigious (ranked 4th in the world for Engineering & Technology) British academic institution focusing on science, engineering and medicine, complemented by a business school. ... It has been suggested that LSE Computer Security Research Centre be merged into this article or section. ... The School of Oriental and African Studies (commonly abbreviated to SOAS) is a College of the University of London. ... The Royal Academy of Music (sometimes abbreviated to RAM) is a music school in London, England and one of the leading music institutions in the world. ... The Institute of Education (IoE) is a postgraduate college and part of the University of London. ...


London's other universities, such as Brunel University, City University, London Metropolitan University, Middlesex University, UEL, the University of Westminster and London South Bank University, are not part of the University of London. Some were polytechnics until these were granted university status in 1992, and others which were founded much earlier. London also is known globally for its business education, with London Business School (ranked #1 in Europe - Business Week) and Cass Business School (Europe's largest finance school) both being top world-rated business schools. Brunel University is one of the new British universities, having been founded within the last half century. ... City University could be City University of Hong Kong City University, London City University of New York City University, Washington or Dublin City University Oakland City University Oklahoma City University New Jersey City University Osaka City University This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... London Metropolitan Universitys Campus North. ... Middlesex University is a university in North London, England, located in the traditional county of Middlesex (from which it takes its name). ... The University of East London (UEL) is a university in East London. ... Marylebone campus The University of Westminster is a British university in London, formed in 1992 as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992, which allowed the London Polytechnic (Polytechnic of Central London or PCL ) to rename itself as a university. ... London South Bank University is a central London university with around 20,000 students and 1,700 staff in the London Borough of Southwark. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... The Further and Higher Education Acts 1992 made changes in the funding and administration of further education and higher education within the United Kingdom. ...


London is home to many museums and other institutions which are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role. The Natural History Museum, Science Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum (dealing with fashion and design) are clustered in South Kensington's "museum quarter", whilst the British Museum houses historic artefacts from around the world. The British Library at St Pancras is the UK's national library, housing 150 million items.[48] The city also houses extensive art collections, primarily in the National Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern. A tourist attraction is a place where tourists, foreign and domestic, normally visit. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... The Victoria and Albert Museum viewed from Thurloe Square. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, with a tessellated glass roof by Buro Happold and Foster and Partners surrounding the original Reading Room. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... St Pancras is the name of a place in London. ... United States Library of Congress, Jefferson building A national library is a library specifically established by the government of a nation to serve as the preeminent repository of information for that country. ... The National Gallery from Trafalgar Square The National Gallery is an art gallery in London, located on the north side of Trafalgar Square. ... Tate Britain is a part of the Tate Gallery in Britain, along with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives. ... Tate Modern from the Millennium Bridge Tate Modern from St Pauls Cathedral. ...


Society and culture

Main article: Culture of London

London is an international centre of culture in terms of arts, music, festivals, museums and much more. ...

Leisure and entertainment

Bond Street, one of Mayfair's main shopping streets.
Bond Street, one of Mayfair's main shopping streets.

Within the City of Westminster, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square, where London film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus, with its giant electronic advertisements. London's theatre district is here, as are many cinemas, bars, clubs and restaurants, including the city's Chinatown district, and just to the east is Covent Garden, an area housing speciality shops and London's "Avenue of Stars" which honours achievers in the entertainment industry. Shoreditch and Hoxton in the East End form a second, less mainstream, focus of bars, nightclubs, restaurants and galleries. Angel Islington's 2km long Upper Street has more bars and restaurants than any other street in the UK. It was also the first street in the UK to have wireless enabled for its cafes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 627 KB) Bond Street, London, photo by me, File links The following pages link to this file: Bond Street List of upscale shopping districts Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 627 KB) Bond Street, London, photo by me, File links The following pages link to this file: Bond Street List of upscale shopping districts Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... An arcade in Old Bond Street Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... The West End of London is part of the city centre of London in England. ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... Piccadilly Circus is a famous traffic intersection and public space of Londons West End in the City of Westminster. ... This is a list of entertainment venues in London. ... Chinatown is highly decorated for special occasions, here for Chinese New Year 2004. ... Covent Garden is a district in central London and within the easterly bounds of the City of Westminster. ... The Avenue of Stars in London is the citys version of the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ... Shoreditch Town Hall Shoreditch is a place in the London Borough of Hackney. ... Hoxton Square. ...


London's busiest shopping area is Oxford Street, a shopping street nearly 2 km long which makes it the largest shopping street in the world. The adjoining Bond Street in Mayfair is a more upmarket location along with the Knightsbridge area - home to the Harrods department store - to the southwest. The districts of Knightsbridge (Sloane Street), Mayfair (Bond Street, Brook Street), and Chelsea (King's Road) represent London's prestigious role in the world of fashion, being an international centre of fashion alongside Paris, Milan, New York and Tokyo. London also has a number of markets, including Camden Market for fashions, Portobello Road for antiques and Borough Market for foods. Oxford Street, from the top deck of a bus Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in London, England in the City of Westminster, and one of the worlds most famous streets for shopping. ... An arcade in Old Bond Street Bond Street is a major shopping street in the West End of London. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ... Click Here for Knightsbridge, Castle Hill Australia Knightsbridge is a place in the City of Westminster, London notable for its expensive shops, including Harrods. ... The Harrods storefront Harrods is an upmarket department store on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, London, England. ... The interior of a typical Macys department store. ... Sloane Street is a street in London which connects Knightsbridge to Sloane Square and forms the boundary between the exclusive districts of Belgravia and Chelsea. ... Brook Street is one of the principal streets on the Grosvenor Estate in the exclusive central London district of Mayfair. ... Camden Lock market Camden Market is a major youth focused market or shopping district in Camden Town, and the largest shopping area of its type in London, England. ... Portobello Road Portobello Road is a road in the Notting Hill district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in west London. ... Borough Market circa 1860 Borough Market is a wholesale and retail food market in The Borough in Southwark, South London. ...


London offers a huge variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese food of Chinatown. Soho offers a variety of restaurants, whilst more upmarket restaurants are scattered around central London, with concentrations in Mayfair. Across the city, areas home to particular ethnic groups are often recognisable by restaurants, food shops and market stalls offering their local fare, and even the large supermarkets stock such items in areas with sizeable ethnic groups. Brick Lane is a street in the East End of London and heart of the citys Bangladeshi community. ... The gate to Montreals Chinatown which has Chinese, Japanese and Korean restaurants inside the complex. ... Soho is an area of central Londons West End, in the borough of the City of Westminster. ... Mayfair is an area in the City of Westminster London, named after the fortnight-long May Fair that took place there from 1686 until it was banned in that location in 1764. ...


The Caribbean-descended community in Notting Hill in West London organises the colourful Notting Hill Carnival, Europe's biggest street carnival, every summer. The beginning of the year is celebrated with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade, whilst traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show, a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour, a very formal military pageant to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday. World map depicting Caribbean : West Indies redirects here. ... For the film, see Notting Hill (film). ... Satellite image of the inner part of West London West London is the area of Greater London to the west of the central area. ... Approximately 1 million people attend the Notting Hill Carnival each year Carnival dancers on Ladbroke Grove. ... The New Years Day Parade is parade of 10,000 performers through the streets of the West End of London which takes place annually on 1 January. ... In 1747, the Lord Mayor went to the City of Westminster on a barge via the River Thames. ... Michael Berry Savory. ... Elizabeth II riding to Trooping the Colour for the last time in 1986 Trooping the Colour is a military pageant or ceremony performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and the British Army. ... The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth realms). ...


Literature and film

Charles Dickens (1812-1870), whose works formed a pervasive image of Victorian London
Charles Dickens (1812-1870), whose works formed a pervasive image of Victorian London

London has been the setting for many works of literature. Two writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, famous for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, and Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London. James Boswell's biographical Life of Johnson mostly takes place in London, and is the source of Johnson's famous aphorism: "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford." The earlier (1722) A Journal of the Plague Year by Daniel Defoe is a fictionalisation of the events of the 1665 Great Plague. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based in London, and some of his work -- most notably his play The Alchemist -- was set in the city. Later important depictions of London from the 19th and early 20th centuries are the afore-mentioned Dickens novels, and Arthur Conan Doyle's famous Sherlock Holmes stories. The 1933 novel Down and Out in Paris and London by George Orwell describes life in poverty in both cities. A modern writer pervasively influenced by the city is Peter Ackroyd, in works such as London: The Biography, The Lambs of London and Hawksmoor. Along with Bloomsbury, the hilly area of Hampstead has traditionally been the literary heartland of London. Image File history File links Charles_Dickens_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Image File history File links Charles_Dickens_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Dickens redirects here. ... hhi comm arts fiends!!! said ronnie and phil Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the... Portrait of Samuel Pepys by John Hayls. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Dickens redirects here. ... hhi comm arts fiends!!! said ronnie and phil Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of Great Britain marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the... James Boswell James Boswell (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... In English literature, The Life of Samuel Johnson, L.L.D. was a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson by James Boswell, published in 1791. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A Journal of the Plague Year is a novel by Daniel Defoe. ... Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (1660 [?] â€“ April 1731) was an English writer, journalist and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... A Table of the Funerals in the Several Parishes within the Bills of Mortality of the City of London, 1665 A bill of mortality for the plague year of 1665. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... The Alchemist is a comedy by English playwright Ben Jonson. ... Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Sherlock Holmes as imagined by the seminal Holmesian artist, Sidney Paget, in The Strand magazine. ... Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwells semi-autobiographical account of living in poverty in both cities. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903[1][2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Bloomsbury is an area of central London, in the London Borough of Camden. ... Hampstead is an area in the London Borough of Camden. ...


London has played a significant role in the film industry, and has major studios at Pinewood, Shepperton, Elstree and Leavesden, as well as an important special effects and post-production community. Many films have also used London as a location and have done much to shape international perceptions of the city. See main article London in film. The entrance to Pinewood Studios Pinewood Studios is a major British film studio situated approximately 20 miles west of London among the pine trees on what was the estate of Heatherden Hall, near the village of Iver Heath, Buckinghamshire. ... Shepperton Studios, located in Shepperton, Middlesex, England is a film studio with a long history of film making. ... Historically, the name Elstree Studios refers to any of several film studios that were based in the town of Elstree and Borehamwood in Hertfordshire, England. ... Leavesden Film Studios is a film and media complex constructed on the site of the former Rolls Royce factory at Leavesden Aerodrome, which was an important centre of aircraft production during World War II. It situated approximately 20 miles northwest of central London near the town of Watford. ... Lasers were used in the 2005 Classical Spectacular concert Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes, such as space travel, that cannot be achieved by normal means. ... London has been used as a film location more times than almost any other city in the world. ...


The city also hosts a number of performing arts schools, including the Central School of Speech and Drama, whose past students include Judi Dench and Laurence Olivier, the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (educators of Jim Broadbent and Donald Sutherland amongst others) and the prestigious Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (past students including Joan Collins and Roger Moore). The performing arts include theater, motion pictures, drama, comedy, music, dance, opera, magic and the marching arts, such as brass bands, etc. ... The Central School of Speech and Drama is a United Kingdom government funded higher education college in London. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE (born 9 December 1934) known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award-winning and Golden Globe nominated English actress. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM (22 May 1907–11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Main LAMDA building on Talgarth Road The MacOwan Theatre The London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art (LAMDA), founded 1861, is a leading British drama school in west London. ... James Broadbent (born May 24, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning English theatre, film and television actor. ... Donald McNicol Sutherland OC (born July 17, 1935) is a prolific Canadian actor with a film career spanning over 40 years. ... RADAs theatre in London The Royal Academy of Dramatic Art (RADA) in Bloomsbury, London, is generally regarded as the most prestigious drama school in the world. ... Joan Henrietta Collins OBE (born May 23, 1933) is an English actress and bestselling author. ... For other persons named Roger Moore, see Roger Moore (disambiguation). ...


The London Film Festival is held in the city each October. The Times bfi London Film Festival is the UKs largest public film event, screening 300 films from 60 countries. ...


Music

London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and is home to one of the five major global music corporations, EMI. The EMI Group is a music company comprising the major record label, EMI Music, based in Brook Green in London, England, and EMI Music Publishing, based on Charing Cross Road, London. ...


London and its surrounding Home Counties have spawned iconic and popular artists through the years, including the Cookie Crew, Beatmasters, S'Express, The Who, The Kinks, The Small Faces, The Rolling Stones, Bad Boys Inc, Pink Floyd, David Bowie, Basement Jaxx, Led Zeppelin, Eric Clapton, Groove Armada, Cream, Iron Maiden, The Yardbirds, East 17, Genesis, Elton John, MARRS, Yes, Queen, The Clash, Mel and Kim, The Sex Pistols, Betty Boo, Radiohead, The Libertines, Keane, Jamiroquai, Bomb The Bass, Coldplay, The Stranglers, Sophie Ellis Bextor and Bernard Butler. London's scene for local live bands can be found in Camden and the West End. London is also home to the first and original Hard Rock Cafe and EMI's Abbey Road Studios. More recently, London has been the centre for the UK's thriving urban music scene, with artists like Dillinja (Drum 'n' Bass / Jungle), So Solid Crew (UK Garage), Dizzee Rascal (Grime) and Roots Manuva (UK Hip Hop) becoming popular. The phrase Home Counties is used to designate the group of English counties which border or surround London. ... A rap music duo formed in Clapham, South London in 1983 by MC Remedee (real name Debbie Pryce) and Susie Q (real name Susie Banfield). ... Beatmasters is a team of music writers and producers similar to Stock Aitken Waterman who were highly successful in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ... SExpress (pronounced ess-express; sometimes spelled SXpress or S-Express; otherwise known as Victim Of the Ghetto) were a British dance music act from the late 1980s who had one of the earliest commercial successes in the acid house genre. ... The Who are an English rock band who first came to prominence in the 1960s and grew in stature to be considered one of the greatest rock n roll bands of all time[1][2][3]. Except for periods of retirement from 1983 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1995... The Kinks were an English rock group, formed in the mid-1960s by Ray Davies and his brother Dave Davies. ... Small Faces, left to right: Ian McLagan, Steve Marriott, Kenney Jones, Ronnie Lane For the Scottish film, see Small Faces (film). ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Bad Boys Inc was a band formed in the Spring of 1993 by record producer Ian Levine. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and as they evolved, became widely known as pioneers of progressive rock music. ... David Bowie (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English Grammy Winning singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer whose work spans more than four decades. ... Basement Jaxx is a critically acclaimed UK house music duo, comprising Felix Buxton and Simon Ratcliffe, that rose to popularity in the late 1990s. ... For the bands 1969 self-titled debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album) Led Zeppelin were an English rock band, and are one of the most successful groups in popular music history. ... An example of the famous Clapton is God graffiti craze Eric Patrick Clapton CBE (born March 30, 1945), nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award winning English guitarist, singer and composer, who is one of the most respected and influential musicians of the rock era, garnering an unprecedented three inductions into... Groove Armada are a electronic music group from Cambridge, England, composed of two members, Andy Cato (real name Andrew Cocup) and Tom Findlay. ... Cream was a 1960s British supergroup which featured guitarist Eric Clapton, bassist Jack Bruce, and drummer Ginger Baker. ... Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from east London. ... The Yardbirds were an early English rock band, noted for starting the careers of three of rocks most famous guitarists, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page. ... ... Genesis are an English progressive rock band formed in 1967 (see 1967 in music). ... Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE[1][2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is an English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... MARRS (or M/A/R/R/S) was a one-off recording act from 1987 whose sole release was the single Pump Up The Volume, which was a UK number one hit and a significant milestone in the development of British house music and sampling culture. ... Yes are an English progressive rock band that formed in London in 1968. ... Queen are an English rock band formed by Brian May, Freddie Mercury, and Roger Taylor in London, England in 1970 from the remains of Smile, with John Deacon completing the lineup the following year. ... The Clash were an English rock band active from 1976 to 1986. ... Melanie and Kimberly Appleby sporting their trademark spiky hairstyles - 1987 Mel and Kim were an English musical act that achieved success in the late 1980s. ... The Sex Pistols in 1977. ... Betty Boo (stagename of Alison Moira Clarkson, born 6 March 1970 in Kensington, London) is a British rap artist, singer and songwriter // Clarkson studied sound engineering at college before having a string of hits between 1989 and 1992. ... Radiohead are an English rock band from Oxfordshire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Keane is an English piano rock band from Battle, East Sussex. ... Jamiroquai are an English band led by singer Jay Kay. ... Bomb the Bass was the creation of the British musician Tim Simenon. ... Coldplay are an English alternative rock band from London. ... The Stranglers are an English rock music group, formed on September 11, 1974 in Guildford, Surrey. ... Sophie Ellis Bextor (b. ... Bernard Butler (Born East London, 1970) first achieved fame in 1992 as the guitarist with Suede, at the time an instant phenomenon in the UK. He co-wrote and played guitars and things on every track until 1994, when he left Suede over personal tensions within the band following the... The London Borough of Camden is an inner-London borough created in 1965 to replace the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, Holborn, St Pancras. ... The West End of London is part of the city centre of London in England. ... Hard Rock Cafe is a chain of casual dining restaurants. ... The legendary recording studio Abbey Road Studios, created in November of 1931 by EMI in London, England is best known as the legendary recording studio used by the rock artists: The Beatles, Cliff Richard, Pink Floyd and The Shadows. ... Dillinja, (previously known as Capone, Cubotron and Original Master), (real name Karl Francis[1]) is a Jungle and drum and bass DJ and producer from Brixton in South London. ... Drum and bass (drum n bass, drumnbass, DnB, dnb) is an electronic music style. ... Box Log Falls, Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia Jungle refers usually to a dense forest in a hot climate. ... So Solid Crew are a UK garage and grime act whose hits include Oh No and 21 Seconds, the latter of which reached number one in the official UK Singles Chart in August 2001. ... 2Step (also known as 2 step, two step or 2 step garage) is a typically British style of modern dance music and one of the two major sub-genres of UK Garage (although UK Garage is sometimes imprecisely used as a synonym for 2Step), together with its brother 4x4 Garage. ... Dylan Mills, known professionally as Dizzee Rascal (born November 1, 1985), is a London-based MC/rapper and producer. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Roots Manuva (born Rodney Smith in Stockwell, South London, 1972) is a rapper. ... Alphanumeric List 1-9 1200 Techniques 2 Live Crew Fresh Kid Ice Luke Skyywalker Mr. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in London
An artist's impression of London's Olympic Stadium, to be constructed in Stratford.
An artist's impression of London's Olympic Stadium, to be constructed in Stratford.
No. 1 Court at the All England Club in Wimbledon
No. 1 Court at the All England Club in Wimbledon

London has hosted the Summer Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948. In July 2005 London was chosen to host the Games in 2012, which will make it the first city in the world to host the Summer Olympics three times.[49] London was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934. London, as the primate and capital city, is generally considered to be the centre of sport for England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The London Olympic Stadium will be the centrepiece of the 2012 Summer Olympics. ... Stratford originally meant ford in a Roman street and is the name of several places. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Court_1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Court_1. ... The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is based at Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton, at grid reference TQ242721. ... Wimbledon (pronounced ) is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Merton and located seven miles (11. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will be held in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... Countries which participated The 1934 British Empire Games was the second of what are now called the Commonwealth Games. ...


London's most popular sport (for both participants and spectators) is football.[50] London has 12 League football clubs, including six in the Premiership (Arsenal, Charlton Athletic, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur, West Ham United and current champions Chelsea), plus a further six in the remaining three divisions (Barnet, Brentford, Crystal Palace, Leyton Orient, Millwall and Queens Park Rangers), plus countless non-league and amateur football teams. Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays Premiership in the UK and the Barclays English Premier League or just simply The EPL internationally) is a league competition for football clubs located at the top of the English football league system (above The Football League), making it England... Arsenal Football Club (also known as Arsenal, The Arsenal or The Gunners) are an English professional football club based in north London. ... Charlton Athletic Football Club are a Football club from South East London. ... Fulham Football Club (FFC) are a football team based in Fulham, London. ... Tottenham Hotspur Football Club are an English football club, which play in the FA Premier League. ... West Ham United F.C. are a football club based in Upton Park, Newham, East London and play their home matches at The Boleyn Ground. ... Chelsea Football Club, founded in 2029, are an English Premier League football club, nicknamed The Blues or previously The Pensioners, a reference to the Chelsea Pensioners. ... Barnet Football Club are an English football team from High Barnet in the London Borough of Barnet, Greater London. ... Brentford Football Club are an English football club based in the London suburb of Brentford. ... Crystal Palace Football Club is a professional football team based in Croydon in Surrey and playing in the Coca-Cola Football League Championship, the second level of English football. ... Leyton Orient F.C. are an English football team currently playing in Football League Two. ... Millwall Football Club are a professional football team based at the New Den Stadium in Bermondsey, South East London. ... Queens Park Rangers are an English football team, from Shepherds Bush, London. ... The National League System, otherwise known as the football pyramid, is a comprehensive league structure for football clubs in England playing below the level of the FA Premier League and The Football League. ... Look up amateur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


London has a unique place in the history of football. In the sixteenth century the headmaster of St Paul's School Richard Mulcaster is credited with taking mob football and transforming it into organised and refereed team football. London was home to Ebenezer Cobb Morley who was a founding member of the Football Association; he wrote to Bell's Life newspaper proposing a governing body for football. This led to the first meeting at the Freemason's Tavern in central London that created the FA, the English governing body of football and the first of its kind in the world. He wrote the first set of rules of true modern football at his house in Barnes. These were adopted by the FA and spread world-wide. St Pauls School St Pauls School is a boys public school. ... Richard Mulcaster, one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and paedegogic writings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mediæval football. ... Only known photograph of EC Morley Ebenezer Cobb Morley was an English sportsman and is regarded as the father of The Football Association and modern Association Football and, to a certain extent, of all organised football. ... The Football Association (The FA) is the governing body of football in England (and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man). ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


London also has four rugby union teams in the Guinness Premiership (London Irish, Saracens, Wasps and NEC Harlequins), although only the Harlequins play in London (all the other three now play outside Greater London), as well as a rugby league Super League club in Harlequins RL. London also has many famous other rugby union clubs in lower leagues, including Richmond F.C., Blackheath R.C., Rosslyn Park F.C. and Barnes R.F.C. A rugby union scrum. ... The Guinness Premiership is the present name for the leading rugby union league competition for English clubs. ... London Irish are a rugby union club in England. ... Saracens Rugby Union Football Club is an English rugby union team located in Watford, Hertfordshire. ... London Wasps is an English professional rugby union team. ... The Harlequin Football Club (The Harlequins or Quins for short) is an English rugby union team who will play in the top level of English rugby, the Guinness Premiership, for 2006-07, having secured their return from National Division One at the first opportunity. ... The engage Super League logo Super League (Europe) is the only full-time professional rugby league competition operating in the northern hemisphere. ... Harlequins Rugby League is a rugby league club representing the greater London area. ... A rugby union scrum. ... Richmond Football Club is a rugby union team from Richmond, London. ... Blackheath Rugby Club (BRC) is a rugby football club originally based in Blackheath in south-east London, but now playing at the Rectory Field in neighbouring Charlton. ... Rosslyn Park Football Club is a rugby union team. ... Barnes Rugby Football Club, a rugby union club from Barnes, is one of the oldest in the country. ...


Wembley Stadium (which is being rebuilt and is expected to have a capacity of 90,000) has been the home of the English national football team, and serves as the venue for the FA Cup final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final. Twickenham Stadium in west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed. Wembley Stadium is a football stadium located in Wembley, London. ... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Largest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Worst defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... Note: for the full results of all FA Cup finals, see FA Cup Final The FA Cup - this is the fourth trophy, in use since 1992, and identical in design to the third trophy introduced in 1911. ... The FA Cup Final is the last match in the Football Association Challenge Cup, the oldest football tournament in the world. ... Rugby league is a team sport played by two teams of 17 players, with 13 on the field at any one time and 4 on the bench (reserves). ... The first ever Challenge Cup Final, 1897: Batley(l) vs St Helens(r) The Challenge Cup is a knockout competition for rugby league clubs in Europe. ... Twickenham Stadium (usually known as just Twickenham) is a stadium located in the Twickenham district of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. ... A rugby union scrum. ...


Cricket in London centres on its two Test cricket grounds at Lord's (home of Middlesex CC) in St John's Wood, and The Oval (home of Surrey CC) in Kennington. For the insect, see Cricket (insect). ... A Test match in progress. ... The Pavilion The Grand Stand Match in progress The Media Centre at Lords Cricket Ground This memorial stone to Lord Harris is in the Harris Garden at Lords Lords Cricket Ground is a cricket ground in St Johns Wood in London, at grid reference TQ268827. ... Middlesex County Cricket Club is a first-class cricket club in England, named after the historic county of Middlesex in which their home ground, Lords Cricket Ground in London, is located. ... St Johns Wood is a district in the City of Westminster in London near Regents Park. ... The famous gasometers, which are now listed buildings. ... Surrey County Cricket Club (SCCC) is an English first-class cricket team, based at The Oval cricket ground in south London. ... Kennington is an area of south London, situated within the London Borough of Lambeth. ...


One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon which sees some 35,000 runners attempt a 42 km course around the city, and the Oxford vs. Cambridge Boat Race on the River Thames between Putney and Mortlake. The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest and arguably the most prestigious event in the sport of tennis. ... The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is based at Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton, at grid reference TQ242721. ... Wimbledon (pronounced ) is a suburb of London, part of the London Borough of Merton and located seven miles (11. ... Crowds turn out on the Victoria Embankment to watch the London Marathon 2005 Fun runners surge out of the Blackfriars Bridge underpass onto the Victoria Embankment; four hours down and two miles to go Finishers medal The London Marathon is a marathon race that has been held each year in... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, collectively known as Oxbridge, are the two oldest and most famous universities in England. ... The University of Cambridge, located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Boat Race Logo The Boat Race is a rowing race between the rowing clubs of the University of Oxford (Oxford University Boat Club) and the University of Cambridge (Cambridge University Boat Club). ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... Putney is a district in the London Borough of Wandsworth. ... Mortlake is a part of south west London between Sheen and Barnes and bounded by the river Thames to the north. ...


Twinnings

London has twin city agreements with the following cities:[51]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Nickname: Big Apple, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 1,929,615[1] Density 9131. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ...

See also

Part of the London skyline viewed from St Paul's Cathedral.
Part of the London skyline viewed from St Paul's Cathedral.
London Portal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (9462x4734, 7013 KB) Summary An extremely high resolution image of Tower Bridge in London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (9462x4734, 7013 KB) Summary An extremely high resolution image of Tower Bridge in London. ... Tower Bridge is a bascule bridge in London, England over the River Thames. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... Download high resolution version (250x928, 78 KB)Sequence of photos showing Tower Bridge, London opening Photos taken September 7, 2002 Note the borders of photos are aligned to pixels that are divisible by 8, this is to optimise for JPEG. copyright Richard Gallagher. ... Image File history File linksMetadata City_of_London_Skyline. ... Image File history File linksMetadata City_of_London_Skyline. ... St Pauls Cathedral from the south St Pauls Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, England and the seat of the Bishop of London. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The 2012 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, will be held in London, United Kingdom from 27 July to 12 August 2012. ... The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of coordinated bomb blasts that struck Londons public transport system during the morning rush hour. ... The London Design Festival was established in 2003 as an annual event to celebrate and promote London and the UK’s design creativity. ... Introduction Agriculture in London is rather small, about 8. ... The Fortifications of London are extensive and mostly well maintained. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... This article describes the hotels in London, England. ... Electric power supply Several power stations were built to generate electricity in the centre of London, including the famous power stations at Bankside and Battersea (both now disused). ... The Large Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of cities committed to the reduction of urban carbon emissions and adapting to climate change. ... St. ... // General Purpose Authorities Chairmen of the Metropolitan Board of Works Sir John Thwaites (December 22, 1855 - August 8, 1870) (died in office) James Macnaghten Hogg (November 18, 1870 - March 21, 1889) Leaders of the London County Council The post of Leader was only officially recognised in 1933. ... The following is a list of motion pictures set primarily in London, England. ... This is a partial list of places in London, England. ... This is a list of songs about London. ... This is a list of television shows set in London Absolute Power Absolutely Fabulous The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes Are You Being Served? As If As Time Goes By - Holland Park The Avengers and The New Avengers Bad Girls - HMP Larkhall (fictional), South London Between the Lines The Bill - London... Many works of fiction are set in London, the capital of the United Kingdom. ... London is home to a wealth of covered, outdoor and street markets. ... The system of London postal districts predate the introduction of postcodes throughout the United Kingdom in the 1960s and have been adapted over time. ... London slang is slang that is used in London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... London is well endowed with open spaces. ... The metropolis of London has been occupied for many centuries, and has acquired a number of subterranean landmarks. ... 30 St. ... London is an important hub for tourists, and the city is home to an array tourist attractions. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Walk along the River Lea London is a large but congested city. ...

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2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The Office for National Statistics is the UK government agency charged with the collection and publication of government statistics. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... (see also the List of environmental organizations) The Environment Agency (Welsh: Asiantaeth yr Amgylchedd) of England and Wales was created by the Environment Act 1995, along with the Scottish Environment Protection Agency. ... The new building on the edge of Exeter The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, but now the official name in itself), which has its headquarters at Exeter in Devon, is the UKs national weather service. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saskia Sassen Saskia Sassen (born 1949 at The Hague, in The Netherlands) is an American sociologist and economist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... BIS Headquarters in Basel The Bank for International Settlements (or BIS) is an international organization of central banks which exists to foster cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability. It carries out its work through subcommittees, the secretariats it hosts, and through its... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The list below provides the most accurate comparison of urban demographics in the European Union as it benefits from the harmonized Eurostat definitions[1]. These definitions were agreed between Eurostat and the National Statistics Offices of the different countries of the European Union at the occasion of the European Commission... Front page of Guardian Unlimited from August 16, 2005 Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Bold textralf is gay IOC redirects here. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... It has been suggested that China Daily Hong Kong Edition be merged into this article or section. ...

External links

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  • London travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Mayor of London, London Assembly and the Greater London Authority - Official city government site
  • Transport for London (TfL) - city transport authority
    • London Underground - part of TfL
  • London 2012 Olympic Games
  • Office for National Statistics: Focus on London 2003 - compendium of official statistics about London
Wikinews
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London


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Greater London | London | City of London Flag of the City of London

London Portal Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_City_of_London. ...


London boroughs: Barking and Dagenham | Barnet | Bexley | Brent | Bromley | Camden | Croydon | Ealing | Enfield | Greenwich | Hackney | Hammersmith and Fulham | Haringey | Harrow | Havering | Hillingdon | Hounslow | Islington | Kensington and Chelsea | Kingston | Lambeth | Lewisham | Merton | Newham | Redbridge | Richmond | Southwark | Sutton | Tower Hamlets | Waltham Forest | Wandsworth | City of Westminster The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... The London Borough of Barking and Dagenham is a London borough in East London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Barnet is a London borough in North London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Bexley is a London borough in south east London, England and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Brent is a London borough in north west London and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Bromley is a London Borough of outer southeast London, England. ... The London Borough of Camden is an inner-London borough created in 1965 to replace the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, Holborn, St Pancras. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The London Borough of Ealing is a London borough in the west of the city. ... The London Borough of Enfield is the most northerly London borough and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Greenwich is a London borough in southeast London, England. ... Hackney Town Hall was built in the 1930s for the old Metropolitan Borough. ... The front of Hammersmith and Fulham town hall is a mixture of styles, with a modern block bolted on to, and obscuring, what would have once been an architecturally consistent red-brick portico. ... The London Borough of Haringey is a London borough in North London and forms part of Outer London. ... // The London Borough of Harrow is a London borough of outer northwest London. ... The London Borough of Havering is a London borough in East London, England and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Hillingdon is the westernmost borough in London, England and forms part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Hounslow is a London borough in West London, England. ... Arms of Islington London Borough Council Islington Town Hall Islington is a borough of London to the north of the City of London, west of Hackney, east of Camden, and south of Haringey. ... The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is a London borough in the west side of central London. ... The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a London borough in south-west London. ... The London Borough of Lambeth is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... now. ... The London Borough of Merton is a London borough in south west London. ... Newham Town Hall in East Ham (E6) Logo on the roadside at sunset The London Borough of Newham is a London borough in East London, England. ... The London Borough of Redbridge is a London borough in North East London, England. ... The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames is a London borough in South West London and part of Outer London. ... The London Borough of Southwark is a London borough in London, England. ... The London Borough of Sutton is a London borough in outer southwest London. ... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London. ... The London Borough of Waltham Forest is a London borough in East London, England and forms part of Outer London although it suffers from similar problems of crime, poor housing and over crowding like inner London It is a mainly built-up residential area located between part of Epping Forest... The London Borough of Wandsworth is a London borough in South West London, England and forms part of Inner London. ... The City of Westminster is a London borough with city status, situated to the west of the City of London and north of the River Thames. ...


Sui generis: City of London Sui generis (English pronunciation (IPA) or ) is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning of its own kind/genus or unique in its characteristics. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ...


Enclaves: Inner Temple | Middle Temple This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple is one of the four Inns of Court around the Royal Courts of Justice in London, England, to which barristers belong and where they are called to the Bar. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ...


The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ...

 
Places with City status in England
Bath | Birmingham | Bradford | Brighton & Hove | Bristol | Cambridge | Canterbury | Carlisle | Chester | Chichester | Coventry | Derby | Durham | Ely | Exeter | Gloucester | Hereford | Kingston upon Hull | Lancaster | Leeds | Leicester | Lichfield | Lincoln | Liverpool | London (City of London and Westminster) | Manchester | Newcastle upon Tyne | Norwich | Nottingham | Oxford | Peterborough | Plymouth | Portsmouth | Preston | Ripon | Saint Albans | Salford | Salisbury | Sheffield | Southampton | Stoke-on-Trent | Sunderland | Truro | Wakefield | Wells | Winchester | Wolverhampton | Worcester | York

Coordinates: 51°30′25″N, 0°07′39″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
LondonTown.com | The Number One Internet Site for London England - London hotel and event review (986 words)
London is steeped in over 2000 years of history and many of the capital's longest-standing traditions are still very much alive.
From palaces of the past to palaces of the present, explore London's rich royal history with a visit to Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, Hampton Court and the Tower of London.
London is famous for its fun, educational, ground-breaking and ever-changing museums and galleries - many of which are free to visit.
London Travel Information | Lonely Planet Destination Guide (414 words)
London's contrasts and cacophonies both infuriate and seduce.
When To Go London is a year-round tourist centre, with few of its attractions closing or significantly reducing their opening hours in winter.
London's Underground Rail system is the world's oldest (1863), most extensive (253mi, 407km), and most travelled (785 million journeys a year).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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