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The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence comes the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. In northern Italy they founded a state, the Kingdom of the Lombards, which was eventually absorbed by the Carolingian Empire (see Kingdom of Italy). Much of their history and culture was recorded by the historian Paul the Deacon. They gave their name to the region Lombardy. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The medieval Kingdom of Italy was a state originally comprising the northern two thirds of modern-day Italy, which formed from the break-up of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century. ... Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...

Contents

The Lombard Legend

Paul the Deacon describes, in the HISTORIA GENTIS LANGOBARDORUM (Book 1, Chapter I), that the Lombards originated from an island called Scadinavia[1]and called themselves Winnili.[2] Paul the Deacon (c. ...


"...and also other fierce and barbarous nations have come from Germany. In like manner also the race of Winnili,that is, of Langobards, which afterwards ruled prosperously in Italy, tracing its origin from the German peoples, came from the island which is called Scadinavia,..."


The reason for the exodus from Scadinavia by the Winnili, is mentioned in the "Chronicon Gothanum" where the prophetess or sibyl Gambara "declared to them their migration." "Moved therefore not by necessity, nor hardness of heart, nor oppression of the poor, but that they should attain salvation from on high, she says that they are to go forth." (Monument, Germ. Hist. Leges, IV, 641.).


In Book 1, Chapter III of the HISTORIA GENTIS LANGOBARDORUM, Paul describes the departure from Scadinavia.


"Therefore that section to which fate had assigned the abandonment of their native soil and the search for foreign fields, after two leaders had been appointed over them, to wit: Ibor[3]and Aio,[4] who were brothers, in the bloom of youthful vigor and more eminent than the rest, said farewell to their own people, as well as their country, and set out upon their way to seek for lands where they might dwell and establish their abodes. The mother of these leaders, Gambara[5] by name, was a woman of the keenest ability and most prudent in counsel among her people, and they trusted not a little to her shrewdness in doubtful matters."


In Chapter VII, Paul describes the arrival of the Winnili.


"The Winnili then, having departed from Scandinavia with their leaders Ibor and Aio, and coming into the region which is called Scoringa,[6] settled there for some years. At that time Ambri and Assi, leaders of the Wandals, were coercing all the neighboring by war. Already elated by many victories they sent messengers to the Winnili to tell them that they should either pay tribute to the Wandals or make ready for the struggles of war. Then Ibor and Aio, with the approval of their mother Gambara, determine that it is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute. They send word to the Wandals by messengers that they will rather fight than be slaves. The Winnili were then all in the flower of their youth, but were very few in number since they had been only the third part of one island of no great size."


The Chapter I of the ORIGO GENTIS LANGOBARDORUM describes the encounter and the resulting name change.


"Then Ambri and Assi, that is, the leaders of the Wandals, asked Godan(=Odin) that he should give them the victory over the Winniles. Godan answered, saying: ‘Whom I shall first see when at sunrise, to them will I give the victory.’ At that time Gambara with her two sons, that is, Ybor and Agio, who were chiefs over the Winniles, besought Frea(=Frigg), the wife of Godan, to be propitious to the Winniles. Then Frea gave counsel that at sunrise the Winniles should come, and that their women, with their hair let down around the face in the likeness of a beard, should also come with their husbands. Then when it became bright, while the sun was rising, Frea, the wife of Godan, turned around the bed where her husband was lying and put his face towards the east and awakened him. And he, looking at then, saw the Winniles and their women having their hair let down around the face. And he says, ‘Who are these Long-beards?’ And Frea said to Godan, ‘As you have given them a name, give them also the victory.’ And he gave them the victory, so that they should defend themselves according to his counsel and obtain the victory. From that time the Winniles were called Langobards."


The Heaðobards (meaning "the Warlike Bards"[7]) were possibly a branch of the Lombards,[7] and their name may be preserved in toponym Bardengau, in Mecklenburg, Germany.[7] They are mentioned in both Beowulf and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Daner. However, in the Norse tradition the Heaðobards had apparently been forgotten and the conflict is instead rendered as a family feud,[8] or as a conflict with the Saxons, where the Danes take the place of the Heaðobards.[9] The Heaðobards was a group which appears in the Anglo-Saxon poems Widsith and Beowulf. ... The great coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ... Widsith is an Old English poem of 144 lines. ... The Daner were an ancient North germanic tribe residing in modern day southern Sweden and on the Danish islands. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...

Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. 500 BC-50 BC. The magenta-colored area south of Scandinavia represents the Jastorf culture
Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and AD 117 is also shown.
Map showing the pre-Migration Age distribution of the Germanic tribes in Proto-Germanic times, and stages of their expansion up to 50 BC, AD 100 and AD 300. The extent of the Roman Empire in 68 BC and AD 117 is also shown.
German map showing the Roman campaigns
German map showing the Roman campaigns
Lombardic migration
Lombardic migration

Download high resolution version (657x683, 31 KB)Map of the Nordic Iron Age and the Jastorf culture. ... Download high resolution version (657x683, 31 KB)Map of the Nordic Iron Age and the Jastorf culture. ... A map of the area covered by the Pre-Roman Iron Age, ca 500 BC-1 AD The Pre-Roman Iron Age (also called the Celtic Iron Age) (ca 600 BC or 500 BC - ca 1 AD) designates the earliest part (i. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47... The Jastorf culture is an Iron Age material culture in northern Europe, dated from about 600 BC to 1. ... Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ... Image File history File links Pre_Migration_Age_Germanic. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Kll. ... Image File history File links Kll. ...

The Origins and Migrational period of the Lombards

The Lombards were first historically mentioned by the Romans in 5 AD, during the Germanic campaigns of Tiberius and are described by the Roman historian Velleius Paterculus (II, 106), who accompanied one of the expeditions of Tiberius as Prefect of Cavalry, as "More fierce than ordinary German savagery". Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ...


The Langobards first dwelt in that region which lies between the Weser and the lower Elbe (a territory of the Jastorf culture). It would appear also from the combined testimony of Strabo (A. D. 20) and Tacitus (A, D. 117) that the Langobards dwelt near the mouth of the Elbe shortly after the beginning of the Christian era, and were in frequent and close relations with the Hermunduri and Semnones, two great Suevic tribes dwelling- higher up the stream Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... An ancient tribe of Germanic people who occupied the area around what is now Thuringia, Saxony, and Northern Bavaria, from roughly around 1 AD, to 400 AD. -Alternate spellings: Hermunduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, Hermonduli ... The Semnoni (German: ) or Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus. ...


Strabo (Hodgkin, V, 81) mentions that the Lombards and Hermunduri (upon being defeated by the Romans) crossed the Elbe river and settled its east bank. However, Ptolomy locates the Lombards on the west bank of the Elbe river again in the 2nd Cen. AD, which indicates a re-settlement "Possibly both authors were right for different periods in their history (Hodgkin, V, 82)". The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... There have been several people named Ptolemy: Claudius Ptolemaeus, called Ptolemy, was an ancient Greek geographer and astronomer; The Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt included several kings by that name (for a full list, see that article); Ptolemy, a disciple of the Gnostic Valentinius is known only for writing a... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ...


In the year 9 AD Arminius (nobleman of the Cherusci) lured Varus and his legions in an ambush in the "saltus Teutoburgiensis". The Roman forces were annihilated. The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Hermann, Armin, 16 BC–AD 21) was a war chief of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... Varus can refer to: in anatomy, a varus deformity an ancient Roman politician, Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 BC - 9 AD) Varus, a Roman cognomen This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Tacitus wrote "It is not known whether the Langobards were among the confederates who thus arrested the conquest of their country by the Romans, although they dwelt not far from the scene of this historic battle. They were then considered, however, to belong to the Suevian stock and were subject, not far from this time, to the king of the Marcomanni, a Suevian race (id., p. 34; Tacitus Germania, 38-40; Annals, II, 45)" Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...


However in the year 17 AD, the Lombards and Semnones fought alongside the Cherusci against Marobod and the Marcomanni. When the legions of Varus were destroyed, the head of the Roman commander was sent to Marobod and his cooperation solicited. He refused however to join the confederated German tribes, he sent the head to Rome for funeral honors, and continued to maintain between the empire and the barbarians, the neutrality he had observed in former wars. This refusal to unite in the national aspirations for German independence, cost him his throne. " Not only the Cheruscans and their confederates " says Tacitus (Ann. II, 45) "who had been the ancient soldiery of Arminius, took arms, but the Semnones and Langobards, both Suevian nations, revolted to him from the sovereignty of Marobod . . . . The armies (Ch. 46) . . . . were stimulated by reasons of their own, the Cheruscans and the Langobards fought for their ancient honor or their newly acquired independence, and the others for increasing their dominion." Marobod was defeated and overthrown. The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe inhabiting the Rhine valley and the plains and forests of northwestern Germany (between near modern Osnabrück and Hanover) during the 1st century BCE and 1st century CE. They were first allies and then enemies of Rome. ... Varus can refer to: in anatomy, a varus deformity an ancient Roman politician, Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 BC - 9 AD) Varus, a Roman cognomen This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


Tacitus, writing the "Germania" in about 98 AD; describes the character of the Lombards thus: "What, on the contrary, ennobles the Lombards is the smallness of their number, for they, who are surrounded with very many and very powerful nations, derive their security from no obsequiousness or plying, but by dint of battle and adventurous deeds." (Germania)


Tacitus locates the lombards on the lower Elbe river and counts the Lombards as a Suevi tribe closley related to the Semnones. This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Semnoni (German: ) or Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus. ...


In the Year 47 AD, the Lombards conquer the Cherusci, but do not subject them, instead they restore an exiled Cherusci Nobleman (nephew of Arminius)


"Again, the Langobards appear upon the scene, with sufficient power as it seems to control the destiny of the tribe which, thirty-eight years before, had been the leader in the struggle for independence, for they restored him to the sovereignty of which he had been despoiled by his inconstant subjects" (Tacitus Annals, XI, 16, 17).


In the winter of the year 166 AD 6.000 Lombard warriors crossed the Danube river and invaded Pannonia (Fragment, VI, p. 124 of the Bonn. ed.). In the spring of 167 AD the barbarian warriors were defeated by the Romans "...were put to rout by the Roman cavalry under Vindex and the infantry under Candidus, whereupon the barbarians desisted from their invasion and sent as ambassadors to Aelius Basaus, who was then administering Pannonia, Vallomar, king of the Marcommani, and ten others, one for each tribe. Peace was made, and the barbarians returned home. These events occurred about A. D. 165. (Hodgkin, V, 88.) ". This episode signaled the first migration of the Lombards. Their monthlong raids and combat in Pannonia gave the Lombards an inside on the richness of foreign lands and ofcourse stolen goods. Upon this the proper Lombard migration from the Elbe River (north) to the Danube (south) began in the second half of the 4th Cen. AD. Zeuss (p. 471), Wiese (p. 38) and Schmidt (35, 36) believe that they did not depart permanently from their original abodes on the Elbe until the second half of the fourth century so that according to this view they must have returned to these original abodes. The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


The Lombards remained on the Lower Elbe lands till second half of the 4th. Cen. AD. In the second half of the 4th. Cen. AD the Lombards started their migration to the south, following the Elbe course up. Not much is recorded of the Lombards during their Migrational period, all that is recorded are the names of the Lombard Kings: Agelmund - Lamisso - Lethu - Hildeoc - Gudeoc - Claffo. Arian Christianity was introduced amongst the Lombard people. It is unknown and also unlikely that the Lombards became vassals of the Huns. The Migration was complete when the Lombards settled in "Rugorum Patria" in the ancient Noricum in 493 AD. This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... The Huns were a Turkic confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ...


Paul the Deacon describes this episode in the HISTORIA GENTIS LANGOBARDORUM (Book 1, Chapter XIX) Paul the Deacon (c. ...


"Odoacar then, having collected together the nations which were subject to his sovereignty, that is the Turcilingi and the Heroli and the portion of the Rugii he already possessed and also the peoples of Italy, came into Rugiland and fought with the Rugii, and sweeping them away in final defeat he destroyed also Feletheus their king, and after the whole province was devastated, he returned to Italy and carried off with him an abundant multitude of captives. Then the Langobards, having moved out of their own territories, came into Rugiland, which is called in the Latin tongue the country of the Rugii, and because it was fertile in soil they remained in it a number of years."


The Lombardic Conquests

The conquest of the Herulic kingdom This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ...


The Lombards were once again on the Danube, in the same region that they were more than 300 years ago. This time the Lombards and other Barbarians were plundering Noricum. The Lombards settled the former lands of the Rugi in ancient Noricum, it was the first region the Lombards entered that was marked by Roman Culture. The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ...


Tato son of the dead Claffo, became king of the Lombards in 490 AD. In 507 AD Tato and the Lombards moved out of Rugiland and settled new lands in the south-east. Tato was the first king of the Lombards. ...


"The Langobards also departed from Rugiland, and dwelt in open fields, which are called "feld" in the barbarian tongue." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XX)


Paul further describes this period


"While they sojourned there for the space of three years, a war sprang up between Tato and Rodolf, king of the Heroli." HGL (Book 1, Chapter XX)


Paul explains the reasons for the war.


"Treaties formerly bound them together, and the cause of the discord between them was this: the brother of king Rodolf had come to Tato for the purpose of concluding peace, and when, upon the completion of his mission, he sought again his native country, it happened that his way passed in front of the house of the king's daughter, who was called Rumetruda." HGL (Book 1, Chapter XX)


Paul further describes how Rumetruda seduced Rodolfs brother, and had him murdered by her guards.


"When these things were announced to king Rodolf he bewailed his brother's cruel murder, and impatient in his rage, burned to avenge that brother's death, Breaking the treaty he had negotiated with Tato, he declared war against him." HGL (Book 1, Chapter XX)


Procopius (B. G., II, 14 et seq.) gives a different account of the origin of this war. He states (Hodgkin, V, 106) that the warriors of the tribe having lived in peace for three years, chafed at this inaction and taunted Rodolf, calling him womanish and soft-hearted, until he determined to make war upon the Langobards, but gave no pretext for his attack. Three times the Langobards sent ambassadors to placate him, who offered to increase the tribute paid by their nation, but Rodolf drove them from his presence.


Paul describes the Battle


"Why say more? The lines of battle on both sides come together in the open fields. Rodolf sends his men into the fight, but staying himself in camp, he plays at draughts, not at all wavering in his hope of victory. The Heroli were indeed at that time well trained in martial exercises, and already very famous from their many victories. And either to fight more freely or to show their contempt for a wound inflicted by the enemy, they fought naked, covering only the shameful things of the body. Therefore, while the king himself in undoubting reliance on the power of these men, was safely playing at draughts, he ordered one of his followers to climb into a tree which happened to be by, that he might tell him more quickly of the victory of his troops, and he threatened to cut off the man's head if he announced that the ranks of the Heroli were fleeing. The man, when he saw that the line of the Heroli was bent, and that they were hard pressed by the Langobards, being often asked by the king what the Heroli were doing, answered that they were fighting excellently. And not daring to speak, he did not reveal the calamity he saw until all the troops had turned their backs upon the foe. At last, though late, breaking into voice he cried: "Woe to thee wretched Herolia who art punished by the anger of the Lord of Heaven." Moved by these words the king said: "Are my Heroli fleeing?" And he replied: "Not I, but thou, king, thyself hast said this." Then, as is wont to happen in such circumstances, while the king and all, greatly alarmed, hesitated what to do, the Langobards came upon them and they were violently cut to pieces."


Procopius describes the battle Procopius (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...


Procopius (B. G., II, 14) gives another account of the battle. He says the sky above the Langobards was covered with black clouds, while above the Heroli it was clear, an omen which portended ruin to the Heroli, since the war god was in the storm cloud (Wiese, 39). They disregarded it, however, and pressed on hoping to win by their superior numbers, but when they fought hand to hand, many of the Heroli were slain, including Rodolf himself, whereupon his forces fled in headlong haste and most of them were killed by the pursuing Langobards.


Paul describes the Aftermath


" While the army of the Heroli indeed was scattering hither and thither, so great was the anger of heaven upon them,... Then the Langobards, when the victory was won, divide among themselves the huge booty they had found in the camp. Tato indeed carried off the banner of Rodolf which they call Bandum, and his helmet which he had been accustomed to wear in war. And now from that time all the courage of the Heroli so decayed that thereafter they had no king over them in any way. From this time on the Langobards, having become richer, and their army having been augmented from the various nations they had conquered, began to aspire to further wars, and to push forward upon every side the glory of their courage."


With the Herulic King dead and the main hordes annihilated, the war and the kingdom was won by the Lombards.


The conquest of the Gepidic Kingdom


"But after these things Tato indeed did not long rejoice in the triumph of war, for Waccho, the son of his brother Zuchilo, attacked him and deprived him of his life. Tato's son Hildechis also fought against Waccho, but when Waccho prevailed and he was overcome, he fled to the Gepidae and remained there an exile up to the end of his life. For this reason the Gepidae from that time incurred enmities with the Langobards." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXI)


The rivalry with the Gepids began with Waccho. Waccho king of the Lombards The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


"At the same time Waccho fell upon the Suavi and subjected them to his authority." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXI)


Schmidt (55) says, "There is ground to believe that this people is identical with the Suevi of Vannius who possessed the mountain land between the March and the Theiss."


Waccho was famous for building relations with other Germanic Dynasties and for being the first Lombard who allied with Byzantium. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ...


"And Waccho had three wives, that is, the first, Ranicunda, daughter of the king of the Turingi (Thuringians) ; then he married Austrigusa, the daughter of the king of the Gepidae, from whom he had two daughters; the name of one was Wisegarda, whom he bestowed in marriage upon Theudepert, king of the Franks, and the second was called Walderada, who was united with Cusupald, another king of the Franks, and he, having her in hatred gave her over in marriage to one of his followers called Garipald. And Waccho had for his third wife the daughter of the king of the Heroli, by name Salinga. From her a son was born to him, whom he called Waltari, and who upon the death of Waccho reigned as the eighth king over the Langobards. All these were Lithingi; for thus among them a certain noble stock was called." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXI)


Procopius (II, 22), " For instance, in the year 539, Vitiges, the Ostrogoth, being hard pressed by Belisarius, sent ambassadors to Waccho offering large sums of money to become his ally, but Waccho refused because a treaty had been concluded between the Langobards and Byzantines."


Waltari the last of the Lethings died, and Audoin[10] of the Gausians replaced him to be King of the Lombards. Once again the Lombards were on the move. Audoin led them to Pannonia. Justinian, says Procopius (B. G., Ill, 33), had given this and other lands to the Langobards together with great sums of money (Schmidt, 58). They appear to have been in fact subsidized as allies and confederates of the Roman Empire (Hartmann, II, I, 12), and it seems to have been at Justinian's instigation that Audoin married a Thuringian princess, the great-niece of Theoderic, who after the overthrow of the Thuringians had fled to Italy, and later had been brought by Belisarius to the court of Constantinople (Hartmann, II, i, 14). The reputation of the Lombards in Pannonia was cruel and ruthless. Repeatedly plundering and pillaging Dalmatia and Illyria. Map of Dalmatia, in present day Croatia highlighted Dalmatia (Croatian: Dalmacija, Italian: Dalmazia) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, in modern Croatia, spreading between the island of Rab in the northwest and the Gulf of Kotor (Boka Kotorska) in the southeast. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ...


The Lombards Occupied Pannonia II and Savia in 547AD, and with that provoking a war with the Gepids. The Byzantines however convinced both, to settle for a cease fire. Both Lombards and Gepids agreed to a cease fire for 3 years. Turisind king of the Gepids used the cease fire to strengthen his Hordes, and asked for help by the Huns. More than 12000 Kutiguric Huns joined the Gepids. With 1 year of cease fire remaining, Turisind send the Huns on raids in Byzantine lands. Justinian didnt have any more troops left, so he paid Utiguric Huns and Krim Goths to invade the Kutiguric land. With Kutiguric lands at waste, the kutiguric huns turned to Justinian and became a Foederati in Thrace. Upon this the Lombards invaded the Gepid land and met the Gepid hordes at the Asfeld. The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Huns were a Turkic confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Huns were a Turkic confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ...


"Then the Gepidae and the Langobards at last give birth to the strife which had been long since conceived and the two parties make ready for war." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXIII)


"When battle was joined, while both lines fought bravely and neither yielded to the other, it happened that in the midst of struggle, Alboin, the son of Audoin, and Turismod, the son of Turisind encountered each other. And Alboin, striking the other with his sword, hurled him headlong from his horse to destruction. The Gepidae, seeing that the king's son was killed, through whom in great part the war had been set on foot, at once, in their discouragement, start to flee. The Langobards, sharply following them up, overthrow them and when a great number had been killed they turn back to take off the spoils of the dead. When, after the victory had been won, the Langobards returned to their own abodes, they suggested to their king Audoin that Alboin, by whose valor they had won the victory in the fight, should become his table companion so that he who had been a comrade to his father in danger should also be a comrade at the feast. Audoin answered them that he could by no means do this lest he should break the usage of the nation. "You know," he said, "that it is not the custom among us that the son of the king should eat with his father unless he first receives his arms from the king of a foreign nation." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXIII)


The Battle ended in a triumphant victory for the Lombards.


"When he heard these things from his father, Alboin, taking only forty young men with him, journeyed to Turisind, king of the Gepidae with whom he had before waged war, and intimated the cause in which he had come. And the king, receiving him kindly, invited him to his table and placed him on his right hand where Turismod, his former son had been wont to sit. In the meantime, while the various dishes were made ready, Turisind, reflecting that his son had sat there only a little while before, and recalling to mind the death of his child and beholding his slayer present and sitting in his place, drawing deep sighs, could not contain himself, but at last his grief broke forth in utterance. "This place," he says, " is dear to me, but the person who sits in it is grievous enough to my sight." Then another son of the king who was present, aroused by his father's speech, began to provoke the Langobards with insults declaring (because they wore white bandages from their calves down) that they were like mares with white feet up to the legs, saying: " The mares that you take after have white fetlocks." Then one of the Langobards thus answered these things: " Go to the field of Asfeld and there you can find by experience beyond a doubt how stoutly those you call mares succeed in kicking; there the bones of your brother are scattered in the midst of the meadows like those of a vile beast." When they heard these things, the Gepidae, unable to bear the tumult of their passions, are violently stirred in anger and strive to avenge the open insult. The Langobards on the other side, ready for the fray, all lay their hands on the hilts of their swords. The king leaping forth from the table thrust himself into their midst and restrained his people from anger and strife, threatening first to punish him who first engaged in fight, saying that it is a victory not pleasing to God when any one kills his guest in his own house. Thus at last the quarrel having been allayed, they now finished the banquet with joyful spirits. And Turisind, taking up the arms of Turismod his son, delivered them to Alboin and sent him back in peace and safety to his father's kingdom. Alboin having returned to his father, was made from that time his table companion. And when he joyfully partook with his father of the royal delicacies, he related in order all the things which had happened to him among the Gepidae in the palace of Turisind. Those who were present were astonished and applauded the boldness of Alboin nor did they less extol in their praises the most honorable behavior of Turisind." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXIV)


Th Lombards become close allies of the Byzantines and form a foederati Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ...


"Now when the frequent victories of the Langobards were noised about in every direction, Narses, keeper of the imperial archives, who was then ruling over Italy and preparing for war against Totila, king of the Goths, inasmuch as he long before had the Langobards for allies, directed messengers to Alboin, asking that he should furnish him assistance to fight with the Goths. Then Alboin sent a chosen band of his to give support to the Romans against the Goths. They were transported into Italy by a bay of the Adriatic sea, and having joined the Romans, began the struggle with the Goths, and when these were reduced to utter destruction, together with Totila, their king, the Langobards returned as victors, honored with many gifts, to their own country. During all the time the Langobards held Pannonia, they were the allies of the Roman state against its rivals." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter I)


A Different account


"They were sent to Italy A. D. 552, returned A. D. 554 (Waitz). Their disorderly conduct and the outrages they committed against the Goths made them dangerous allies, and Narses took an early occasion to send them home " (Procopius, B. G., IV, 33).


Audoin died in 560 AD and Alboin his son the young energetic king took the throne.


"...Alboin, the tenth king, entered upon the government of his country according to the wishes of all, and since he had everywhere a name very illustrious and distinguished for power, Chlothar, the king of the Franks, joined to him in marriage his daughter Chlotsuinda. From her he begot one daughter only, Alpsuinda by name." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXVII)


The same took place with the Gepids, Turisind died and Cunimond replaced him.


"And he, desiring to avenge the old injuries of the Gepidae, broke his treaty with the Langobards and chose war rather than peace." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXVII)


The Avars (Huns) were a horde of Asiatics who had entered Europe in the closing years of the reign of Justinian, had extorted large subsidies from him and had penetrated westward as far as Thuringia (Hodgkin, V, 137). Their chief bore the title of cagan or khan. The treaty made by Alboin with the khan Baian shows that the Avars drove a hard bargain with the Langobards. Baian consented to the alliance only on condition that the Langobards should give the Avars a tenth part of their livestock and that in the event of victory the Avars should receive one-half of the spoils and the whole of the lands of the Gepidae (Schmidt, 63—64).


The Lombards and Avars attack from two sides, they enter the Gepid Land separetely. The Gepid king Cunimond desides to concentrate the combat on the Lombards and if successful than combat the Avars. But the Gepids never met the Avars.


"The Langobards become the victors, raging against the Gepidae in such wrath that they reduce them to utter destruction, and out of an abundant multitude scarcely the messenger survives." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXVII)


The Aftermath


"In this battle Alboin killed Cunimund, and made out of his head, which he carried off, a drinking goblet. This kind of a goblet is called among them "scala".[11]and he led away as a captive, Cunimund's daughter, Rosemund by name, together with a great multitude of both sexes and every age, and because Chlotsuinda had died he married her, to his own injury, as afterwards appeared. Then the Langobards secured such great booty that they now attained the most ample riches, but the race of the Gepidae were so diminished that from that time on they had no king. But all who were able to survive the war were either subjected to the Langobards or groan even up to the present time in bondage to a grievous mastery, since the Huns possess their country." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXVII)


Alboin as the Lombard hero


"But the name of Alboin was spread abroad far and wide, so illustrious, that even up to this time his noble bearing and glory, the good fortune of his wars and his courage are celebrated, not only among the Bavarians and the Saxons, but also among other men of the same tongue in their songs." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 1, Chapter XXVII)

A 7th century decorated Lombardic sword found in the Castelseprio necropolis, Lombardy
A 7th century decorated Lombardic sword found in the Castelseprio necropolis, Lombardy
The Lombardic Disc of Cividale del Friuli depicting a Lombard warrior
The Lombardic Disc of Cividale del Friuli depicting a Lombard warrior
The Cross of Agilulf
The Cross of Agilulf
The helmet plate of Agilulf
The helmet plate of Agilulf
Lombardic Belt Buckles, 7th Cen. AD Brescia necropolis Lombardy
Lombardic Belt Buckles, 7th Cen. AD Brescia necropolis Lombardy
Lombard fibula, from the Trosino necropolis, Duchy of Spoleto
Lombard fibula, from the Trosino necropolis, Duchy of Spoleto
Engraving 19th Cen. "Alboin enters Pavia"
Engraving 19th Cen. "Alboin enters Pavia"

The Conquest of the Italian peninsula Image File history File links Spada012. ... Image File history File links Spada012. ... Image File history File links Cividale1. ... Image File history File links Cividale1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (532x729, 63 KB)[edit] Summary Agilulf The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (532x729, 63 KB)[edit] Summary Agilulf The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1021x438, 331 KB)[edit] Summary Agilulf The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1021x438, 331 KB)[edit] Summary Agilulf The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Longo. ... Image File history File links Longo. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


After 18 years, the Gothic War was over in 553 AD and the Byzantines and their allies were victorious. Wars so bloody that all the Ostrogoths were put to the sword, and the Roman populus of the peninsula was greatly reduced. The Gothic War, 535–552, was the expression of Justinians decision in 535 to reverse the course of events of the past century in the West and win back for the Eastern Roman Empire the provinces of Italy that had been lost, first to Odoacer and then to the... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ...


"Now the whole nation of the Goths having been destroyed or overthrown, as has been said,..." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


Narses, the Byzantine general who alongside Belisarius was the protagonist victor over the Ostrogoths, was now made prefect of the now re-incoperated roman province of the "Peninsula Italica". But his popularity declined, as he prospered with the Gothic booty the Populs of the province was living in a destructed land in destructed cities. Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Belisarius is thought to be the figure to the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius himself. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Besides its original meaning, of or relating to the Goths (Gothos, Getas), a Germanic tribe and thus the Gothic language and the Gothic alphabet, the word Gothic has been used to refer to distinctly different things: From a Renaissance perspective (originally Italian, gotico, with connotations of rough, barbarous), it conveyed...


"Narses, after he had acquired much gold and silver and riches of other kinds, incurred the great envy of the Romans..." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


The Romans had enough of Narses and his policy of opression and consulted the Emperor Justinian and his wife Sophia. Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ...


"...in these words, saying, "It would be advantageous for the Romans to serve the Goths rather than the Greeks wherever the eunuch Narses rules and oppresses us with bondage, and of these things our most devout emperor is ignorant: Either free us from his hand or surely we will betray the city of Rome and ourselves to the heathens." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


Justinian was not pleased with Narses and replaced him with Longinus. Narses fearing the wrath of the Emperor and his wife did not dare to return to Constantinopel and opted to retreat to Neapolis (Naples). Narses feelt betrayed and deprived, but at the the of 74 was to weak and old to start a rebellion against the Emperor. Nontheless, fueled with hatred and anger he decided to anger and defeat the Emperor with a different way. Justinian may refer to: Justinian I, a Roman Emperor; Justinian II, a Byzantine Emperor; Justinian, a storeship sent to the convict settlement at New South Wales in 1790. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Naples panorama. ...


"Therefore, greatly racked by hate and fear, he withdrew to Neapolis (Naples), a city of Campania, and soon sent messengers to the nation of the Langobards, urging them to abandon the barren fields of Pannonia and come and take possession of Italy, teeming with every sort of riches." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


Other sources underline that Narses secretely invited the Lombards to conquer Italy from Longinus and Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The Liber Pontificalis (Life of John III, A. D. 579-590) says that Narses went to Campania and wrote to the Langobards to come and take possession of Italy (Hodgkin, V, 6o, 61). The Copenhagen continuer of Prosper (about 625) tells us that Narses, terrified by the threats of Sophia (wife of the Emperor Justinus I.), invited the Langobards from Pannonia and introduced them into Italy.


The Lombards who fought in Italy alongside the Byzantines against the Goths, already knew what expected them beyond the Alps, and saluted the "invetation" of Narses enthusiastically. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ...


"...and they form high expectations of future advantages. In Italy terrible signs were continually seen at night, that is, fiery swords appeared in heaven gleaming with that blood which was afterwards shed." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


The Lombards arrange the exodus.


"Then Alboin bestowed his own abode, that is, Pannonia, upon his friends the Huns on this condition: that if at any time it should be necessary for the Langobards to return they should take back their own fields."Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter V)


Alboin and the Lombards began their journey over the julian alps in April 568 AD, and where accompanied by other peoples. Although the Lombards were the majority other peoples such as the german Gepidae and Suebi, aswell as Noricans, Pannonians and Sarmatians dwelling on the Balkans joined the journey. The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a province of the Roman Empire. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


"Alboin then brought with him to Italy many men from various peoples which either other kings or he himself had taken." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVI)


A track of over 200.000 people moved from the Pannonian plains over the Alps into the Padanian plains in northern italy. With many villages and cities still in ruin from the gothic wars, the peoples of the Lombard track had to find and found their own settlments. Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ...


"Whence, even until today, we call the villages in which they dwell Gepidan, Suabian, Sarmatian, Pannonian, Norican, or by other names of this kind." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVI)


The Arrival of the Lombard track.


"And Alboin, king of the Langobards, moved out of Pannonia in the month of April after Easter, in the first indiction. In the second indiction indeed (September, 568, to September, 569), they began to plunder in Italy, but in the third indiction he became master of Italy."Origo gentis Langobardorum (Appendix II)


"...he (Alboin) ascended a mountain which stands forth in those places, and from there as far as he could see, he gazed upon a portion of Italy. Therefore this mountain it is said, was called from that time on "King's Mountain." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter VIII)


Rudolf Virchow said at the meeting of the German Anthropological Society, Sept. 5, 1899 that he had taken a special journey to follow the course of the Langobards into Italy and was convinced that their irruption was by the road over the Predil pass, thence into the valley of the Isonzo, and that Monte Maggiore (north of Cividale) is the "King's Mountain " of Paul. The river Soča (Italian Isonzo) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... Mt. ...


The Lombards quickly secured the lands of the north-east and with it, they took control of the fortress "Forum Julii" (Cividale). A Roman fortress located at feet of the Julian Alps. Alboin declared the land the first lombard province and "Forum Julii" as its capital. He enthrusted it to his nephew Gisulf. Forum Iulii, Latin meaning marketplace of Julius, or Forum Julii in modernized spelling, can refer in Latin to the following cities: Fréjus Friuli This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Edelweiss, Julian Alps, Slovenia The Julian Alps is part of the Alps that stretch from north-eastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2864 metres at Triglav. ... Gisulf is the name of several figures in the political history of Italy: Gisulf of Spoleto Gisulf I of Friuli Gisulf II of Friuli Gisulf I of Benevento Gisulf II of Benevento Gisulf I of Salerno Gisulf II of Salerno Categories: | ...


"his nephew Gisulf, who was his master of horse—whom they call in their own language "marpahis"[12] - a man suitable in every way. This Gisulf announced that he would not first undertake the government of this city and people unless Alboin would give him the "faras," that is, the families or stocks of the Langobards that he himself wished to choose."Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter VIII)


Indeed it was by faras or clans that Italy in general was first occupied by the Langobards (Hartmann II, 1, 21).


The district or duchy of Friuli which Gisulf was to rule cannot be definitely bounded. It reached northward probably to the Carnic Alps, eastward to the Julian Alps, and southward to a line not far from the coast which was subject to the sea power of the Eastern Empire. To the west, Friuli was bounded by other Langobard territory, especially by the duchy of Ceneda from which it was separated by the Tagliamento or Livenza (IIodg., VI, 43, 44). The Bavarians dwelt northwest of the duchy, the Slavonians northeast, and behind them the Asiatic Avars (Hodgkin, VI, 44). Friulian Coats of Arms Friuli (Furlan: Friûl, German: Friaul, Slovenian: Furlanija) is an area in northeastern Italy, comprising the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ...


"Also the blessed patriarch Paul presided over the city of Aquileia and its people and, fearing the barbarity of the Langobards, fled from Aquileia to the island of Grado;" Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter X)


"When Alboin then came to the river Plavis (Piave), Felix the bishop of the church of Tarvisium (Treviso) came forth there to meet him, and the king, since he was very generous, granted to him at his request all the property of his church and confirmed the things asked for by a solemn document." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XII)


Alboins generosity is also extolled in the song of Widsith (Hodgkin, V, 176).


The Lombards had conquerred much of the Padan plains within the first 6 months, they took Milan in september. The Catholic Bishop of Milan fleeing to Genoa. The Lombards took city after city, fortress after fortress and forced the the Byzantine forces to withdrew to the line Padova-Mantova, to protect Ravenna, the residence of the Exarch. Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Genoa (Genova in Italian - Zena in Genoese) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Alboin and the Lombards besieged "Ticinum" (Pavia), a Roman town in the heart of the Padan plains. Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its...


"The city of Ticinum (Pavia) at this time held out bravely, withstanding a siege more than three years, while the army of the Langobards remained close at hand on the western side. Meanwhile Alboin, after driving out the soldiers, took possession of everything as far as Tuscany except Rome and Ravenna and some other fortified places which were situated on the shore of the sea." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVI)


A Christian Lombard legend is recorded by Paul


"The city of Ticinum indeed, after enduring the siege for three years and some months, at length surrendered to Alboin and to the Langobards besieging it. When Alboin entered it through the so-called gate of St. John from the eastern side of the city, his horse fell in the middle of the gateway, and could not be gotten up, although urged by kicks and afterwards struck by the blows of spears. Then one of those Langobards thus spoke to the king, saying: Remember sir king, what vow you have plighted. Break so grievous a vow and you will enter the city, for truly there is a Christian people in this city." Alboin had vowed indeed that he would put all the people to the sword because they had been unwilling to surrender. After he broke this vow and promised mercy to the citizens, his horse straightway rose and he entered the city and remained steadfast in his promise, inflicting injury upon no one." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVII)


On June the 28th. 572 AD Alboin, king of the Lombards, Conquerer and Hero was murdered in Verona. His Foes were his own wife Rosemund, his foster brother and armor-bearer Helmechis and Peredeo a strong guardsman. The Annals of Ravenna (Exc. Sang. Agnell., ch. 96) says, " Alboin was killed by his followers in his palace by command of his wife Rosemund." John Biclaro: "Alboin is killed at night at Verona by his followers by the doing of his wife. Marius: Alboin was killed by his followers, that is by Hilmaegis with the rest, his wife agreeing to it." The Copenhagen Continuer of Prosper: "Alboin was killed at Verona by the treachery of his wife Rosemund, the daughter of king Conimund, Elmigisilus aiding her" (Schmidt, p.72).


The reason and the plot


"...he was slain by the treachery of his wife, and the cause of his murder was this: While he sat in merriment at a banquet at Verona longer than was proper, with the cup which he had made of the head of his father-in-law, king Cunimund, he ordered it to be given to the queen to drink wine, and he invited her to drink merrily with her father. Lest this should seem impossible to any one, I speak the truth in Christ. I saw king Ratchis (744AD-749AD) holding this cup in his hand on a certain festal day to show it to his guests. Then Rosemund, when she heard the thing, conceived in her heart deep anguish she could not restrain, and straightway she burned to revenge the death of her father by the murder of her husband,..." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVIII)


Rosemund tricked Peredeo into the involvment of the plot, and Peredeo assisted Helmechis the murderer.


"...this most warlike and very brave man being helpless against his enemy, was slain as if he were one of no account, and he who was most famous in war through the overthrow of so many enemies, perished by the scheme of one little woman...His body was buried with the great grief and lamentations of the Langobards...He was tall in stature and well fitted in his whole body for waging wars. In our own days Giselpert, who had been duke of Verona, opened his grave and took away his sword and any other of his ornaments found there. And for this reason he boasted with his accustomed vanity among ignorant men that he had seen Alboin." Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXVIII)


Rosemund, Helmechis and Albsuinda (Alboins daughter) along with treasures from Verona and her Guard fled via a boat to Ravenna (Byzantine Exarchate). At Ravenna, Rosemund wanted to poison Helmechis. Verona is an ancient town, episcopal see, and province in Veneto, Northern Italy. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


"But when he felt that he had drunk the cup of death, he compelled Rosemund, having drawn his sword upon her, to drink what was left, and thus these most wicked murderers perished at one moment by the judgment of God Almighty."Paul the Deacon HGL (Book 2, Chapter XXIX)


Later that year, Cleph was acclaimed the new king of the Lombards. Cleph extended the Lombard kingdom by completely conquering Tuscany and closing on Ravenna. Cleph was murdered in 574 AD. Cleph or Clef (in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ...


The kingdom of the Lombards, called by Romans Regnum Langobardorum and by the Lombards themselves simply Langbardaland or Langbard, was in need of a uniform law, in order that the Germanic peoples (Lombards, Gepids, and Heruli), that entered Italy under Alboin, would become one. The laws however didn't secure their political unity. The territorial splits of the duchies, caused by individual factions of the Garnisons, restrained the consolidations of the king.


In 570 Faroald and Zotto conquered lands of the central and southern Apennines creating the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, which was ruled by Faroald, and the Duchy of Benevento which was ruled by Zotto. These duchies were geographically cut off from the kingdom by the Byzantine territories that ranged from Adriatic to Tyrrhenian Seas, which caused further problems in the unity of the Lombards. Faroald I (also spelled Faruald) (died 591 or 592) was the first duke of Spoleto from about 570. ... Zotto (also Zotton or Zottone) was the military leader (Latin dux) of the Lombards in the Mezzogiorno. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ...


Exploratory Lombard pillaging in the valley of the Rhône mobilized the Franks of Austrasia, with Byzantine subsidies, to retake the Alpine passes. The northern Lombard dukes were sufficiently threatened by the Frankish-Byzantine pact to chose Authari, son of Cleph, as their new king in 584. By giving up sections of their territories, the dukes created a royal demesne, in which the southern dukes in Benevento and Spoleto were only peripherally involved. Authari arranged a truce with the Byzantine exarch and on 15 May 589 married Theodelinda, the daughter of Garibald I, Duke of Bavaria, and a Catholic. Authari managed to defeat Childebert's Franks in 588, but the Exarch Romanus made some gains, restoring his connection with Rome and retaking Mantua and Modena. Childebert's last attempt on Italy, with some allies among the dukes was finally repulsed in 590. The Franks did not reappear in Italy until Pepin's campaigns of 755-56. The Rhônes course. ... Austrasia & Neustria Austrasia formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands. ... Authari was the king of the Lombards. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Events October 17 - The Adige River overflows its banks, flooding the church of St. ... Theodelinda, Queen of the Lombards, (died 628) was the daughter of Duke Garibald I of Bavaria. ... Garibald I (also Garivald) (540 – ) was Duke of Bavaria from 555 until 591. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing (Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... Mantua (in Italian Mantova, in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo language Mantua) is an important city in Lombardy, Italy and capital of the province with the same name. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ...


Authari's successor was Agilulf, Duke of Turin. Agilulf also married the Catholic Theodelinda in 591. By papal historians Agilulf is considered one of the most barbaric kings of the Lombards: was was bought off with annual tributes and truces with Rome (which he had threatened in 593) and the Exarchata, in 599 and 605. He conquered many Umbrian cities. He also took part in campaigns outside the kingdom, fighting the Slavs in Bohemia and the Avars in the Balkans, and repeatedly defeating Avar raids in Friuli. He maintained good terms with the Bavarians and, although being married to a Catholic, he remained Arian and was an influential Arian king among the Lombards. It is said[citation needed] that Paganism died out under Agilulf and the Lombards became entirely Christian (Arian Christan). After his death in 616, Authari was succeeded by his son Adaloald and than by Arioald. Two unimportant kings, who mostly dealt with minor internal conflicts. Agilulf was duke of Turin and Lombard king of Italy. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Heathen redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Adaloald (602 – 626) was the Lombard king of Italy from 616 to 626. ... Arioald was the Lombard king of Italy from 626 to 636. ...


In 636 AD a very energetic king emerged, Rothari. He was Duke of Brescia and murdered many unpleasant noblemen and ruled the kingdom with iron discipline. He conquered Genoa and, by 643, all of Liguria. According to Paul the Deacon, "Rothari then captured all the cities of the Romans which were situated upon the shore of the sea from the city of Luna in Tuscany up to the boundaries of the Franks." (IV,xlv) With these quick conquests, he left the Byzantines with only the Ravennan marshes in northern Italy. The Byzantines tried to regain territory but were crushed by Rothari and his army at the Battle of Modena. Rothari of the house of Arodus was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. ... Paul the Deacon (c. ...


Rothari wrote the Edictum Rothari which was approved by a gairethinx in 643. His son Rodoald followed him to the throne, but was murdered after just six months in 653. His successor was Aripert I. Aripert son of Gundoald was the first Catholic Lombard king. Arianism was already in decline amongst the Lombard people, due to the slow but steady assimilation process with the Roman people of Italy. When Aripert I came to power, the rivalry between the Roman Catholics and the Lombard Arians was almost non-existent. Even the Arian bishop of Pavia became Catholic. The Edictum Rothari (also Edictus Rothari or Edictum Rotharis) was the first written compilation of Lombard law, codified and promulgated 22 November 643 by King Rothari. ... The gairethinx was Lombard ceremony in which edicts and laws were affirmed by the army. ... Rodoald (or Rodwald) was a Lombard king of Italy, who succeeded his father Rothari on the throne in 652. ... Aripert I (also spelled Aribert) was king of the Lombards (653-661) in Italy. ...


In 661, the kingdom fell to the sons of Aripert, Godepert and Perctarit. Godepert and Perctarit divided it between themselves and resided in Pavia and Milan. The Conflict that erupted between the two brothers was immediately used by Duke Grimuald of Benevento. Grimuald rode to Pavia with his guards and removed Godepert and forced Perctarit to flee the Kingdom. Godepert (also Gundipert, Godebert, Godipert, Godpert, Gotebert, Gotbert, Gotpert, Gosbert, or Gottbert) was king of the Lombards (661), eldest son and successor of Aripert I. He was an Arian who governed from the ancient capital, Pavia, while his brother, Perctarit, a Roman Catholic, governed from Milan. ... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Grimoald I (c. ...


In 662, Grimuald proclaimed himself King and ruled by the sword. He brutally forced all Lombard duchies of the Kingdom under his control. He installed his personal Lombard warband from the Benevento in the Kingdom. Called the Saviour of the Kingdom and the Lombards, he defeated the Franks in the North West, the Slavs in the North East and the Byzantines in the South.


Grimauald defeated an Army of Frank invaders in the Piedmont and allowed all of the Frank prisoners to be butchered. He than smashed an uprising of the Lombard duke, Lupus of Friuli with utmost brutality. He paid Avar mercenaries to devastate Friuli. He found out that Arnefrit, the son of Lupus raised an army and acquired Slavic allies. Grimuald tracked him down at once and defeated him at the Battle of Nimis. Arnefrit was killed in the Battle. The remaining Slavic allies were beheaded, and their heads were then stuck on poles outside of Nimis. Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Lupus was the Duke of Friuli from between 660 and 663 to his death around 666. ... Lupus is Latin for wolf. It may refer in English to: several diseases: Lupus erythematosus, the autoimmune disease (also known as systemic lupus erythematosus, or SLE) Lupus nephritis, an inflammation caused by SLE Lupus pernio, a feature of sarcoidosis Lupus vulgaris, a feature of cutaneous tuberculosis other uses: Lupus, the...


Grimuald installed Wechthari as duke of Friuli. Slavic tribes later tried to invade the Friuli, but were brutally butchered by Grimuald and Wechthari. In the south, the Byzantine Emperor Constans II. besieged Benevento. Grimuald personally led an army of Lombards, and defeated Emperor Constans II. at Benevento. Romuald was the Lombard that was besiegd by the Byzantines and liberated by Grimuald in Benevento. Romuald than raised his on army and conquered Taranto and Brindisi, two Byzantine strongholds in southern Italy. Grimoald and his army conquered Forli. Forli was a stronghold of the Exarchate of Ravenna. Grimuald in his typical Barbarian Arian custom, let many citizens be butchered. On Easter Day. His barbaric and blood thirsty nature gave Grimuald a very negative image, but he was a respected Lombard "general". Wechtar or Wechthari, a Lombard from Vicenza, was the Duke of Friuli from 666 to 678. ... The Duchy of Friuli was one of the great territorial Lombard duchies which was preserved as a frontier march by the Carolingians and their successors. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... St. ... Easter is the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe occurred after his death by crucifixion in AD 27-33 (see Good Friday). ... Grimoald I (c. ...


Grimoald I died in 671 and his son Garibald succeeded him. Garibald's reign came to a sudden end when Perctarit (son of Aripert) returned from exile and besieged Garibald. Garibald was removed and Perctarit became King in the same year 671. Perctarit tried to abolish Arian Christianity once and for all and made Catholicism the official religion. Perctarit also improved the relation towards Byzantium. However, many Arian Lombards despised his new policies, and a rebellion broke out centred around Alagis Duke of Trent, who also lead the plot that lead to the assassination of Perctarit Garibald was the young son of Grimoald I of Benevento, king of the Lombards, and Theodota, daughter of Aripert I. After his fathers death in 671, he reigned briefly for three months until the numerous adherents of Perctarit, his uncle, who had been exiled by Grimoald nine years earlier... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Alahis (or Alagis) was the Arian duke of Trent and Brescia before becoming king of the Lombards after his successful rebellion in 688. ... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ...


In 688, Cunipert, Garibald's son, took the throne. Alagis, the Arian duke of Trent continued to rebel and overthrew Cunipert. Cunipert fled to a deserted island in Lake Como. Alagis ruled tyrannically, and the Catholic Romans and Lombards of the Piedmont swore loyalty to Cunipert. In 689, Cunipert led this Catholic Faction into battle against Alagis and his Rebel Army at the Battle of Coronate in Lombardy. Cunipert won the Battle and killed Alagis. Cunipert's crown was restored in 689. The Arians tried one more Uprising under Ausfrid of Friuli, but failed. Cunipert (also Cunibert or Cunincpert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. ... Alahis (or Alagis) was the Arian duke of Trent and Brescia before becoming king of the Lombards after his successful rebellion in 688. ... Combatants forces of Cunincpert forces of Alahis Commanders Cunincpert Alahis The Battle of Coronate was fought in 689 between the forces of King Cunincpert of the Lombards and the usurper Alahis. ...


Cunipert died in 700. He was succeeded by Liutpert,Raginpert and Aripert II all of these reigns ended in 712. When the old Ansprand returned from Bavarian exile with an Bavarian and Venetian army to dispose Aripert II. Aripert II drowned in the Ticino. Ansprand didn't rule long, he was old and wanted to secure the throne for his son, Ansprand, who died in 712. Cunipert (also Cunibert or Cunincpert) was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. ... Liutpert or Liutbert (d. ... Raginpert was king of the Lombards in 701. ... Aripert II was king of the Lombards from 701 to 712. ... Ansprand (c. ... Aripert II was king of the Lombards from 701 to 712. ... Aripert II was king of the Lombards from 701 to 712. ... This article is about the Swiss canton Ticino. ... Ansprand (c. ...


Ansprand's successor was his son Liutprand who reigned from 712 to 744. He is remembered as the king who defeated and expelled the Byzantines. He conquered Bologna, Osimo, Rimini, and Ancona, along with the other cities of Emilia and the Pentapolis. In 736 Charles Martel called Liutprand for help. Liutprand and his army helped to re-conquer several French cities from the Arabs in 736. He donated Land to the Pope and died in 744 AD. He was buried in the church San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, in Pavia. Liutprand (Liudprand, Luitprand) (c. ... For the 13th century titular King of Hungary, see Charles Martel dAnjou. ...


Liutprand was considered a great King who outshone his successors. He was followed by Hildeprand, known as Hildeprand the Useless, who was crowned King in 744 and removed as king in 744. He died months later. He was succeeded by Ratchis. Ratchis was the first Lombard King with a Roman wife. The previous dynasty had died off, and so the highest ranked Duke of the North became King of the Lombards, in this case it was Ratchis. Ratchis was not a brilliant King nor General. Ratchis' reign was marked by his efforts to ally the Papacy and the Lombard Kingdom. Ratchis was unpopular with Lombard dukes and was removed from power. Ratchis entered the Abbey of Montecassino. Hildeprand was king of the Lombards in 744 and grandson (or uncle) and successor of Liutprand. ... Ratchis was duke of Friuli (739-744) and king of the Lombards (744-749). ...


Ratchis' brother Aistulf was crowned King in 749. Aistulf was different from his Brother, and wanted to conquer the remaining territory of the Italian peninsula. He finally conquered Ravenna in 751, and stood at the gates of Rome. The Pope called the Franks for help, and Pippin the Short crossed the Alps. He was the third Frank that crossed the Alps in hopes of defeating the Lombards. He did so, and returned the conquered Lands of Aistulf to the Pope. Aistulf remained king and the Kingdom was still intact. This was the first defeat at the hands of the Franks. Aistulf died 756. Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ...

Ratchis, King of the Lombards
Ratchis, King of the Lombards

Image File history File links Monza001. ... Image File history File links Monza001. ...

The Last King

When Aistulf died in 756 AD, Desiderius Duke of Tuscany succeeded him. Ratchis, brother of Aistulf and king of the Lombards from 744 AD - 749 AD opposed this move. He raised a rebellion and threatened Desiderius. Desiderius allied with Pope Stephen II. The Revolt of Ratchis was crushed. Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... Ratchis was duke of Friuli (739-744) and king of the Lombards (744-749). ... Stephen, elected pope in March of 752 to succeed Pope Zacharias, died of apoplexy three days later, before being consecrated. ...


Desiderius promised Pope Stephen II to return various towns back to the Holy See. Desiderius was a talented general, and faced several revolts in the time of his reign. He successfully put down every revolt.


Stephen III opposed Charlemagne's marriage to Desiderius' daughter, probably named Gerperga, in 768, but by his death in 772, he had made peace with the Lombards. The new pope, Adrian I, however, implored the aid of Charlemagne against him, and the marriage of dynasties was dissolved by Charlemagne's repudiation of Gerperga in 771. Charles sent her back to her father. Gerperga was the second wife of the king of the Franks Charlemagne. ...


Gerberga, the widow of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, sought the protection of the Lombard king after her husband's death in 771; and — probably in return for the slight cast upon his daughter — Desiderius recognised Gerberga's sons as lawful heirs, and attacked Pope Adrian for refusing to crown them kings and invaded the Pentapolis. The embassies of Adrian and Desiderius met at Thionville and Charlemagne favoured the pope's case.


Charlemagne led his Frankish troops over the Alps in 773 AD, and besieged Pavia. Because of further revolts, the Lombardic warbands were almost non-existent. The siege lasted until 774 AD. Defeated, Desiderius was exiled to an Abbey. Charlemagne took the title Rex Langobardorum, the first time a Germanic king adopted the title of a kingdom he had conquered. Only the Lombard Duchy of Benevento was still independent. Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ...

Close Up of the Agilulf Helmet Plate reveals the Look of the warrior guard and shows Agilulf with beard, long splitted hair and shaven backhead
Close Up of the Agilulf Helmet Plate reveals the Look of the warrior guard and shows Agilulf with beard, long splitted hair and shaven backhead
The Seal of Liutprand, showing Liutprand with beard, long splitted hair and shaven backhead
The Seal of Liutprand, showing Liutprand with beard, long splitted hair and shaven backhead

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Lombardic Appearance

In the Historia gentis Langobardorum (Book 4, Chapter XXII), Paul the Deacon describes the look of the Lombard male as such: "They shaved the neck, and left it bare up to the back of the head, having their hair hanging down on the face as far as the mouth and parting it on either side by a part in the forehead. Their garments were loose and mostly linen, such as the Anglo-Saxons are wont to wear, ornamented with broad borders woven in various colors. Their shoes, indeed, were open almost up to the tip of the great toe, and were held on by shoe latchets interlacing alternately."


Archaeological artifacts like the Silver Plate of Isola Rizza (mid. 7th Cen. AD), the Helmet Plate of Agilulf (early 7th Cen. AD) and the Seal of Liutprand (early 8th Cen. AD) reveal further inside on the Appearance of the Lombards.


The Legacy and Heritage

Lombardy the region in Italy, which includes the cities of Brescia, Bergamo ,Milan, the old capital Pavia and cities like Crema and Sondrio which were founded by the Lombards, is a reminder of the presence of the Lombards. Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Brescia (BS) Mayor Paolo Corsini (since June 10, 2003) Elevation 150 m Area 90 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 192,165  - Density 2,087/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Bresciani Dialing code 030 Postal code 25100 Frazioni Fornaci, Sant... Small street (via della Noca) leading to città alta. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Crema (Italian, cream) is a key component in the flavor of espresso with the appearance of a golden foam on the surface of the coffee. ... Sondrio (Latin Sundrium) is a town in the Province of Sondrio, in the region Lombardy in Italy. ...

Lombardic Christian Church Decorations, Pomposa Italy - 2nd window
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations, Pomposa Italy - 2nd window
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations
Lombardic Christian Church Decorations

Image File history File linksMetadata LongoArian01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata LongoArian01. ... Image File history File links Relief6. ... Image File history File links Relief6. ...

Lombardic Arianism

The Lombards were devoted Germanic pagans; their origins are based around the myth of Godan (=Odin) and his wife Frea (=Frigga). The Lombards remained pagan until the 4th - 5th Century AD, when they were Christianised by Arian monks of the Gothic peoples, during their Migration Period from the Lower Elbe lands to the Danube lands Noricum. Many, however, remained pagan; By 568 AD, when the Lombards conquered the Italian peninsula, most of the Lombards were still pagan, and remained Pagan till the early 8th Cen. AD. Arian may refer to one of the following. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... Heathen redirects here. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


The Langobards worshipped the so-called blood-tree or holy-tree, and Saint Barbatus preached in vain against the practice. (Acta Sanctor., under Feb. 19th, p. 139.)


They expressed a religious veneration to a golden viper, and prostrated themselves before it: they paid also a superstitious honour to a tree, on which they hung the skin of a wild beast, and these ceremonies were closed by public games, in which the skin served for a mark at which bowmen shot arrows over their shoulder. (Bollandus t. 3, Febr. p. 139. See Ughelli, Italia Sacra, t. 8, p. 13.)


Barbatus preached zealously against these abuses, and added fervent prayer and rigorous fasting for the conversion of his people. At length he roused their attention by foretelling the calamities they were to suffer from the army of Emperor Constans, who, soon after landing in Italy, besieged Benevento. Soon they were listening to the preacher and renounced their errors and idolatrous practices. Then Barbatus assured them that the siege would be ended and it so happened. Upon their repentance the saint cut down the tree with his own hand and melted down the golden viper to make a chalice for the altar. (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth) Chalice For the Gothic Metal band, see Chalice (band) A chalice (from Latin calix, cup) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ...


The viper (Ammodytes-Aspis-Berus)is a common snake in the Padan Plains of northern italy, and finds symbolism as the baby-eating viper of Milan (Biscione). The location of the forrest in which the Holy Blood Tree of the Lombards stood is not given.


In Lombard Italy, the Roman populous was Roman Catholic and the Germanic populous was Arian and Pagan with Lombardic Arianism being heavily pagan influenced. The Lombards gradually converted to Catholicism along with the assimilation process between them and the Romans The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Arian may refer to one of the following. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


When St. Barbatus entered upon his ministry in that city, the Christians themselves retained many idolatrous superstitions, which even their duke, or prince Romuald, authorized by his example, though son of Grimoald, king of the Lombards, who had edified all Italy by his conversion. (Bollandus t. 3, Febr. p. 139. See Ughelli, Italia Sacra, t. 8, p. 13.)


In the course of the Lombards' history, the fight between Catholicism and Arianism started as a conflict between Lombards and Romans but gradually became a conflict between Lombards and Lombards with the Catholic Lombards winning the conflict. As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ...


Many latter (Carolingian Empire) historic Lombard figures were within the Catholic Church. Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ...


Some examples


Paul the Deacon Paul the Deacon (c. ...


Archbishop Aribert of Milan Tomb of Aribert in the cathedral at Milan. ...


Pope Gregory VII (Born Hildebrand of Soana) Pope Gregory VII (c. ...


Lombard states

The independent Duchy of Spoleto was a Lombard territory founded about 570 in southern Italy by the Lombard dux Faroald. ... The dukes of Spoleto were rulers of Spoleto and most of central Italy outside the Papal States during the Early and High Middle Ages (c. ... The Duchy of Benevento was the southernmost Lombard duchy in medieval Italy, centred on Benevento, a city central in the Mezzogiorno. ... This is as list of the Dukes and Princes of Benevento, it is one of Wikipedias Lists of Incumbents. ... The Lombard Principality of Salerno was a South Italian state, centred on the port city of Salerno, formed out of the Principality of Benevento after a decade-long civil war in 851. ... This is a list of Princes of Salerno, one of Wikipedias Lists of Incumbents. ... The Principality of Capua was a Lombard state in Southern Italy, usually de facto independent, but under the varying suzerainty of Western and Eastern Roman Empires. ... This is as list of the Princes of Capua. ...

Sources

Much of our knowledge of the mythological and semi-mythological early history of the Lombard people comes from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards (Historia Langobardorum) written in the late 8th century, indebted to the 7th century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. Paul the Deacon (c. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Origo Gentis Langobardorum is a short 7th century text, detailing a legend of the origin of the Lombards, and their history up to the rule of Perctarit (672–688). ...


Historic kings of the Lombards

Lething Dynasty

Tato was the first king of the Lombards. ... Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ...

Another Dynasty

Wacho or Waccho was king of the Lombards before they entered Italy from an unknown date (perhaps circa 510) until his death in 539. ... Events November 29 - Antioch struck by an earthquake. ... Waltari son of Wacho from his third wife Silinga, was a king of the Lombards from ca. ... Events November 29 - Antioch struck by an earthquake. ... Events The Ostrogoths under Totila retake Rome from the Byzantine Empire. ...

Gausian Dynasty

Alduin or Audoin was king of the Lombards from 539 or 546 to 563 or 565. ... Events The Ostrogoths under Totila retake Rome from the Byzantine Empire. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Alboin or Alboïn (d. ... Events January 22 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. ... Events Emperor Bidatsu ascends the throne of Japan. ...

Another Dynasty

Rule of the Dukes (Ten year interregnum)

Cleph or Clef (in Italian, Clefi) was king of the Lombards from 572 or 573 to 574 or 575. ... Events Emperor Bidatsu ascends the throne of Japan. ... Events Emperor Justin II retires, choosing Tiberius II Constantine as his heir. ... The Rule of the Dukes was the decade-long interregnum from 574 or 575 which affected the Lombard kingdom in Italy after the death of Cleph. ... Authari was the king of the Lombards. ... Events The Visigoths conquer the Suevi kingdom in Spain. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Agilulf was duke of Turin and Lombard king of Italy. ... Events Ethelbert of Kent elected Bretwalda after Ceawlin of Wessex, the former Bretwalda, is deposed. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ...

Bavarian Dynasty, First Time

Adaloald (602 – 626) was the Lombard king of Italy from 616 to 626. ... Events Eadbald succeeds Ethelbert as king of Kent. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ...

Non-dynastic Kings

Arioald was the Lombard king of Italy from 626 to 636. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ...

Harodingian Dynasty

Rothari of the house of Arodus was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... Rodoald (or Rodwald) was a Lombard king of Italy, who succeeded his father Rothari on the throne in 652. ... Events Khazaria becomes an independent state (approximate date) Rodoald succeeds his father Rothari as king of the Lombards Births Clotaire III, king of the Franks Deaths Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, uncle of Muhammed, progenitor of the Abbasids Saint Ida of Nivelles, widow of Pippin of Landen, monastic foundress Rothari... Events Pope Martin I arrested Sigeberht II the Good succeeds Sigeberht I the Little as king of Essex Aripert, nephew of Theodelinda, succeeds Rodoald as king of the Lombards Births Deaths Chindaswinth, king of the Visigoths Rodoald, king of the Lombards Abbas, uncle of Muhammad and his chief financial supporter. ...

Bavarian Dynasty, Second Time

Aripert I (also spelled Aribert) was king of the Lombards (653-661) in Italy. ... Events Pope Martin I arrested Sigeberht II the Good succeeds Sigeberht I the Little as king of Essex Aripert, nephew of Theodelinda, succeeds Rodoald as king of the Lombards Births Deaths Chindaswinth, king of the Visigoths Rodoald, king of the Lombards Abbas, uncle of Muhammad and his chief financial supporter. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Godepert (also Gundipert, Godebert, Godipert, Godpert, Gotebert, Gotbert, Gotpert, Gosbert, or Gottbert) was king of the Lombards (661), eldest son and successor of Aripert I. He was an Arian who governed from the ancient capital, Pavia, while his brother, Perctarit, a Roman Catholic, governed from Milan. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert Births Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Japanese poet (approximate date) Deaths Maximus the Confessor, Byzantine theologian Godepert, king of the Lombards Categories: 662 ...

Beneventan Dynasty

Grimoald I (c. ... Events The regent Grimuald usurps the kingship of the Lombards, driving Perctarit into exile and killing Godepert Births Kakinomoto no Hitomaro, Japanese poet (approximate date) Deaths Maximus the Confessor, Byzantine theologian Godepert, king of the Lombards Categories: 662 ... Events Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching visited the capital of the partly-Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, Palembang, Indonesia. ... Garibald was the young son of Grimoald I of Benevento, king of the Lombards, and Theodota, daughter of Aripert I. After his fathers death in 671, he reigned briefly for three months until the numerous adherents of Perctarit, his uncle, who had been exiled by Grimoald nine years earlier... Events Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching visited the capital of the partly-Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, Palembang, Indonesia. ...

Bavarian Dynasty, Third Time

Perctarit (also Berthari) was king of the Lombards from 661 to 662 the first time and later from 671 to 688. ... Events Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching visited the capital of the partly-Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya, Palembang, Indonesia. ... Events Emperor Justinian II of the Bulgarians. ... Alahis or Alagis was duke of Trent and Brescia before becoming king of the Lombards after his successful rebellion in 688. ... Events Emperor Justinian II of the Bulgarians. ... Events Battle of Coronate: The army of Cunincpert, king of the Lombards, defeat the followers of the usurper Alahis on the Adda River. ... Cunipert or Cunincpert was king of the Lombards from 688 to 700. ... Events Emperor Justinian II of the Bulgarians. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Liutpert or Liutbert (d. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... Raginpert was king of the Lombards in 701. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... Aripert II was king of the Lombards from 701 to 712. ... Events September 30 - John VI succeeds Sergius I as Pope. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ...

Non-dynastic Kings

Ansprand (c. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Liutprand, king of the Lombards (reigned (712 – 744) is remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, the historic foundation of the Papal States. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... Hildeprand was king of the Lombards in 744 and grandson (or uncle) and successor of Liutprand. ... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... Ratchis was duke of Friuli (739-744) and king of the Lombards (744-749). ... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... Events June - Aistulf succeeds his brother Ratchis as king of the Lombards End of the reign of Emperor Shomu of Japan Empress Koken ascends to the throne of Japan Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah becomes caliph Births Deaths Saint John of Damascus (or Damascene), theologian Ratchis, king of the Lombards... Aistulf, also called Aistulf of Friuli, (d. ... Events June - Aistulf succeeds his brother Ratchis as king of the Lombards End of the reign of Emperor Shomu of Japan Empress Koken ascends to the throne of Japan Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah becomes caliph Births Deaths Saint John of Damascus (or Damascene), theologian Ratchis, king of the Lombards... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards, is chiefly known through his connection with Charlemagne. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Events Charlemagne conquers the kingdom of the Lombards, and takes title King of the Lombards. ...

Notes

  1. ^ That Paul wrote Scadinavia and not Scandinavia see Mommsen, 62, note i. In the Langobard Origo (see Appendix, II) the name is given as Scadan, Scandanan or Scadanan; in the Chronicon dothaniim, it is Scatenauge (Mon. Germ. Hist. Leges IV, p. 642). Paul appears to have transformed this into Scadinavia from Pliny's Natural History (Book IV, ch. 27, p. 823, Delphin ed.)
  2. ^ The word means eager for battle according to Bruckner (322).
  3. ^ *Eburaz, meaning "boar", and the same name as Eofor, see Proto-Germanic and Proto-Norse personal names
  4. ^ *Agjō, meaning "point" (as in spear/sword point) see Proto-Germanic and Proto-Norse personal names
  5. ^ The word 'gambar', according to Grimm (Deutsche Mythologie, I, 336), is the equivalent of 'strenuus'.
  6. ^ Schmidt (43) Scoringa = Shore, the Baltic shore
  7. ^ a b c The article Hadubarder in Nordisk familjebok (1909).
  8. ^ The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg
  9. ^ The article Starkad in Nordisk familjebok (1909).
  10. ^ The same, probably, as the Anglo-Saxon and English "Edwin (Hodgkin, V, 122, note I).
  11. ^ Compare the Norse word skaal, skoal, German Schale. Hodgkin, however, thinks it is related rather to the German Schadel, our skull (V, 139).
  12. ^ From 'mar', 'mare' a horse and 'paizan' to put on the bit, according to Grimm (Abel, Hodgkin, VI, 42; V, l6l).

Eofor, son of Wonred, was a Geatish warrior in Beowulf. ...

References

  • Frey, Eckart.[title]
  • Gwatkin, H.M., Whitney, J.P. (ed) The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume II—The Rise of the Saracens and the Foundations of the Western Empire. Cambridge University Press, 1926.
  • Hallenbeck, Jan T. "Pavia and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century" Transactions of the American Philosophical Society New Series, 72.4 (1982), pp. 1-186.
  • Oman, Charles. The Dark Ages 476-918. London, 1914.
  • Santosuosso, Antonio. Barbarians, Marauders, and Infidels: The Ways of Medieval Warfare (2004), ISBN 0-8133-9153-9

Henry Melvill Gwatkin (July 30, 1844–November 14, 1916) was a British theologian and church historian. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Charles William Chadwick Oman (January 12, 1860 - June 23, 1946) was a notable British military historian of the early 20th century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Antonio Santosuosso (born 1936) is a Professor Emeritus of History at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. ...

Further reading

  • Hodgkin, Thomas. Italy and Her Invaders, (Oxford:Clarendon Press) 1895. vol 5: "The Lombard Invasion 553-600", vol. 6: "The Lombard Kingdom 600-744".
  • Drew, Katherine Fischer, tr. The Lombard Laws.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lombards - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1629 words)
Lombards were one of the tribes forming the Suebi, and during the 1st century AD they lived in northwest Germany.
At the end of the 5th century Lombards settled in the area of what is now Austria, in the territory formerly occupied by the Rugians, and at the beginning of the 6th century they were settled in Pannonia (now Western Hungary and the Czech Republic) by the Emperor Justinian, in quality of foederati.
In the summer of 569, the Lombards conquered the main Roman centre of northern Italy, Milan.
f. The Lombards and the Popes. 2001. The Encyclopedia of World History (1565 words)
The Lombards, always few in number, had associated other peoples (including Saxons and some Slavs) in their invasion, but even then they were not numerous enough to occupy the whole peninsula.
Charlemagne, heir to the traditions of Pepin, having repudiated the daughter of the Lombard king, Desiderius, appeared in Italy to protect the pope.
It was equally decisive in Italian history, for the papal victory over the Lombards terminated the last effective effort to establish unity and a centralized government until the end of the 19th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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