A logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. Logic gates are primarily implemented electronically using diodes or transistors, but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays, fluidics, optics, or even mechanical elements. Boolean logic is a complete system for logical operations. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
This article is about the engineering discipline. ...
Closeup of the image below, showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal various semiconductor diodes, below a bridge rectifier Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics, a diode is a twoterminal component, almost always one that has electrical properties which vary depending on the direction of flow of charge...
Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ...
Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ...
Fluidics is science and technology of the application of a fluid or compressible medium to transmit energy and signals. ...
For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ...
This article is about devices that perform tasks. ...
Logic gates
A logic gate is a combination of different electronic components, that takes one or more logiclevel inputs and produces a single logiclevel output. Because the output is also a logiclevel value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates. In electronic logic, a logic level is represented by a certain voltage (which depends on the type of electronic logic in use). Each logic gate requires power so that it can source and sink currents to achieve the correct output voltage. In logic circuit diagrams the power is not shown, but in a full electronic schematic, power connections are required. There are 7 positive logic gates and each gate has two laws or rules.
Truth table 
Main article: Truth table A truth table is a table that describes the behaviour of a logic gate. It lists the value of the output for every possible combination of the inputs and can be used to simplify the number of logic gates and level of nesting in an electronic circuit. In general the truth table does not lead to an efficient implementation; a minimization procedure, using Karnaugh maps, the Quine–McCluskey algorithm or a heuristic algorithm is required for reducing the circuit complexity. Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...
The Karnaugh map, also known as a Veitch diagram (Kmap or KVmap for short), is a tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions. ...
The Quineâ€“McCluskey algorithm is a method used for minimization of boolean functions. ...
The Espresso heuristic logic minimizer is a widely used computer program for efficiently reducing the complexity of digital electronic gate circuits. ...
Background The simplest form of electronic logic is diode logic. This allows AND and OR gates to be built, but not inverters, and so is an incomplete form of logic. To build a complete logic system, valves (vacuum tubes) or transistors can be used. The simplest family of logic gates using bipolar transistors is called resistortransistor logic, or RTL. Unlike diode logic gates, RTL gates can be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions. These gates were used in early integrated circuits. For higher speed, the resistors used in RTL were replaced by diodes, leading to diodetransistor logic, or DTL. It was then discovered that one transistor could do the job of two diodes in the space of one diode, so transistortransistor logic, or TTL, was created. In some types of chip, to reduce size and power consumption still further, the bipolar transistors were replaced with complementary fieldeffect transistors (MOSFETs), resulting in complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) logic. Diode logic is an outdated technology which makes use of diodes to contruct logic gates. ...
In electronics, a vacuum tube (American English) or (thermionic) valve (British English) is a device generally used to amplify a signal. ...
Assorted discrete transistors A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used as an amplifier or an electrically controlled switch. ...
Resistortransistor logic (RTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT), and resistors; it is the earliest transistorized digital logic used. ...
Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...
DiodeTransistor Logic (DTL) DiodeTransistor Logic, or DTL, refers to the technology for designing and fabricating digital circuits wherein logic gates employ both diodes and transistors. ...
A Motorola 68000based computer with various TTL chips. ...
Large power Nchannel field effect transistor The fieldeffect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ...
The metalâ€“oxideâ€“semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (MOSFET, MOSFET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common fieldeffect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ...
For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...
For smallscale logic, designers now use prefabricated logic gates from families of devices such as the TTL 7400 series invented by Texas Instruments and the CMOS 4000 series invented by RCA, and their more recent descendants. These devices usually contain transistors with multiple emitters, used to implement the AND function, which are not available as separate components. Increasingly, these fixedfunction logic gates are being replaced by programmable logic devices, which allow designers to pack a huge number of mixed logic gates into a single integrated circuit. The fieldprogrammable nature of programmable logic devices such as FPGAs has removed the 'hard' property of hardware; it is now possible to change the logic design of a hardware system by reprogramming some of its components, thus allowing the features or function of a hardware implementation of a logic system to be changed. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...
A Motorola 68000based computer with various TTL chips. ...
The 7400 chip, containing four NANDs. ...
Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ...
For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...
The 4000 series is the general classification referring to the industry standard integrated circuits which implement a variety of logic functions using CMOS technology. ...
RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ...
A programmable logic device or PLD is an electronic component used to build digital circuits. ...
Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...
A programmable logic device or PLD is an electronic component used to build digital circuits. ...
A fieldprogrammable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ...
Electronic logic gates differ significantly from their relayandswitch equivalents. They are much faster, consume much less power, and are much smaller (all by a factor of a million or more in most cases). Also, there is a fundamental structural difference. The switch circuit creates a continuous metallic path for current to flow (in either direction) between its input and its output. The semiconductor logic gate, on the other hand, acts as a highgain voltage amplifier, which sinks a tiny current at its input and produces a lowimpedance voltage at its output. It is not possible for current to flow between the output and the input of a semiconductor logic gate. International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ...
The term amplifier as used in this article can mean either a circuit (or stage) using a single active device or a complete system such as a packaged audio hifi amplifier. ...
Another important advantage of standardised semiconductor logic gates, such as the 7400 and 4000 families, is that they are cascadable. This means that the output of one gate can be wired to the inputs of one or several other gates, and so on ad infinitum, enabling the construction of circuits of arbitrary complexity without requiring the designer to understand the internal workings of the gates. In practice, the output of one gate can only drive a finite number of inputs to other gates, a number called the 'fanout limit', but this limit is rarely reached in the newer CMOS logic circuits, as compared to TTL circuits. Also, there is always a delay, called the 'propagation delay', from a change in input of a gate to the corresponding change in its output. When gates are cascaded, the total propagation delay is approximately the sum of the individual delays, an effect which can become a problem in highspeed circuits. Fanout is a measure of the ability of a logic gate output, implemented electronically, to drive a number of inputs of other logic gates of the same type. ...
For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...
A Motorola 68000based computer with various TTL chips. ...
In computer science, the propogation delay is the amount of time starting from when the input to a logic gate becomes stable and valid to the time that the output of that logic gate is stable and valid. ...
Logic gates and hardware NAND and NOR logic gates are the two pillars of logic, in that all other types of Boolean logic gates (i.e., AND, OR, NOT, XOR, XNOR) can be created from a suitable network of just NAND or just NOR gate(s). They can be built from relays or transistors, or any other technology that can create an inverter and a twoinput AND or OR gate. Hence the NAND and NOR gates are called the universal gates. NAND Logic gate The Sheffer stroke, written  or â†‘, denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as not both. It is also called the alternative denial, since it says in effect that at least one of its operands is false. ...
The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR  it behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
Media:Example. ...
// Function The OR gate is a digital logic gate that behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
The NOT gate is a digital logic gate that behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
This article is about XOR in the sense of an electronic logic gate (e. ...
The XNOR gate is a digital logic gate whose function is the inverse of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. ...
For an input of 2 variables, there are 16 possible boolean algebraic functions. These 16 functions are enumerated below, together with their outputs for each combination of inputs variables. INPUT  A  0  0  1  1  B  0  1  0  1  OUTPUT  0  0  0  0  0  A AND B  0  0  0  1  A > B *  0  0  1  0  A  0  0  1  1  A < B *  0  1  0  0  B  0  1  0  1  A XOR B  0  1  1  0  A OR B  0  1  1  1  A NOR B  1  0  0  0  A XNOR B  1  0  0  1  NOT B  1  0  1  0  A ≥ B *  1  0  1  1  NOT A  1  1  0  0  A ≤ B *  1  1  0  1  A NAND B  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  1  1  The four functions labeled with a "*" are the logical implication functions: "A ≤ B" can be read as "A implies B"; it follows that "A > B" is "A does not imply B". These four functions are less common and are usually not implemented directly as logic gates. In logical calculus of mathematics, the logical conditional (also known as the material implication, sometimes material conditional) is a binary logical operator connecting two statements, if p then q where p is a hypothesis (or antecedent) and q is a conclusion (or consequent). ...
Logic gates are a vital part of many digital circuits, and as such, every kind is available as an IC. For examples, see the 4000 series of CMOS logic chips or the 7400 TTL series. The 4000 series is the general classification referring to the industry standard integrated circuits which implement a variety of logic functions using CMOS technology. ...
For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ...
Symbols
A synchronous 4bit up/down decade counter symbol (74LS192) in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std. 911984 and IEC Publication 6061712. There are two sets of symbols in common use, both now defined by ANSI/IEEE Std 911984 and its supplement ANSI/IEEE Std 91a1991. The "distinctive shape" set, based on traditional schematics, is used for simple drawings and is quicker to draw by hand. It is sometimes unofficially described as "military", reflecting its origin if not its modern usage. The "rectangular shape" set, based on IEC 6061712, has rectangular outlines for all types of gate, and allows representation of a much wider range of devices than is possible with the traditional symbols. The IEC's system has been adopted by other standards, such as EN 6061712:1999 in Europe and BS EN 6061712:1999 in the United Kingdom. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 720 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 Ã— 750 pixel, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{{title}}}. (All user names refer to en. ...
Image File history File links Size of this preview: 720 Ã— 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 Ã— 750 pixel, file size: 22 KB, MIME type: image/png) {{{title}}}. (All user names refer to en. ...
The American National Standards Institute or ANSI (pronounced ansee) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of standards for products, services, processes and systems in the United States. ...
Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ...
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...
EN can mean: Air Dolomiti, IATA airline designator A standard established by the European Committee for Standardization Engineer Estonia (FIPS 104 and obsolete NATO country code) Evaluation notice Exanewton, an SI unit of force. ...
British Standards is the new name of the British Standards Institute and is part of BSI Group which also includes a testing organisation. ...
The goal of IEEE Std 911984 was to provide a uniform method of describing the complex logic functions of digital circuits with schematic symbols. These functions were more complex than simple AND and OR gates. They could be medium scale circuits such as a 4bit counter to a large scale circuits such as a microprocessor. The 1984 version did not include the "distinctive shape" symbols.[1] These were added to the 1991 supplement with this note: "The distinctiveshape symbol is, according to IEC Publication 617, Part 12, not preferred, but is not considered to be in contradiction to that standard." In the 1980s, schematics were the predominate method to design both circuit boards and custom ICs known as gate arrays. Today custom ICs and the fieldprogrammable gate array are typically designed with Hardware Description Languages (HDL) such as Verilog or VHDL. The need for complex logic symbols has diminished and distinctive shape symbols are still the predominate style.^{[citation needed]} A Gate array is an approach to the design and manufacture of ASICs. ...
An Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. A fieldprogrammable gate array is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called logic blocks, and programmable interconnects. ...
In electronics, a hardware description language or HDL is any language from a class of computer languages for formal description of electronic circuits. ...
Verilog is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. ...
VHDL, or VHSIC Hardware Description Language, is commonly used as a designentry language for fieldprogrammable gate arrays and applicationspecific integrated circuits in electronic design automation of digital circuits. ...
Type  Distinctive shape  Rectangular shape  Boolean algebra between A & B  Truth table  AND 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A AND B  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  1  1  1   OR 

 A + B  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A OR B  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  1   NOT 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  NOT A  0  1  1  0   In electronics a NOT gate is more commonly called an inverter. The circle on the symbol is called a bubble, and is generally used in circuit diagrams to indicate an inverted (activelow) input or output.^{[1]}^{[2]}  NAND 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A NAND B  0  0  1  0  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  0   NOR 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A NOR B  0  0  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  1  1  0   In practice, the cheapest gate to manufacture is usually the NAND gate. Additionally, Charles Peirce showed that NAND gates alone (as well as NOR gates alone) can be used to reproduce the functions of all the other logic gates. Symbolically, a NAND gate can also be shown using the OR shape with bubbles on its inputs, and a NOR gate can be shown as an AND gate with bubbles on its inputs. This reflects the equivalency due to De Morgans law, but it also allows a diagram to be read more easily, or a circuit to be mapped onto available physical gates in packages easily, since any circuit node that has bubbles at both ends can be replaced by a simple bubbleless connection and a suitable change of gate. If the NAND is drawn as OR with input bubbles, and a NOR as AND with input bubbles, this gate substitution occurs automatically in the diagram (effectively, bubbles "cancel"). This is commonly seen in real logic diagrams  thus the reader must not get into the habit of associating the shapes exclusively as OR or AND shapes, but also take into account the bubbles at both inputs and outputs in order to determine the "true" logic function indicated. Media:Example. ...
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// Function The OR gate is a digital logic gate that behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
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The NOT gate is a digital logic gate that behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
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NAND Logic gate The Sheffer stroke, written  or â†‘, denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as not both. It is also called the alternative denial, since it says in effect that at least one of its operands is false. ...
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The NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR  it behaves according to the truth table to the right. ...
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Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pÉs/), (September 10, 1839 â€“ April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...
note that demorgans laws are also a big part in circut design. ...
Two more gates are the exclusiveOR or XOR function and its inverse, exclusiveNOR or XNOR. The two input ExclusiveOR is true only when the two input values are different, false if they are equal, regardless of the value. If there are more than two inputs, the gate generates a true at its output if the number of trues at its input is odd ([2]). In practice, these gates are built from combinations of simpler logic gates.  XOR 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A XOR B  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  1  1  1  0   XNOR 

  INPUT  OUTPUT  A  B  A XNOR B  0  0  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  1  1  1  
The 7400 chip, containing four NANDs. The two additional pins supply power (+5 V) and connect the ground. This article is about XOR in the sense of an electronic logic gate (e. ...
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The XNOR gate is a digital logic gate whose function is the inverse of the exclusive OR (XOR) gate. ...
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Image File history File links 7400. ...
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List of logic gate ICs The 7400 series has several ICs that contain just twoinput logic gates: The 7400 chip, containing four NANDs. ...
IC No.  Gate  7400  NAND  7402  NOR  7404  NOT gate  7408  AND  7432  OR  7486  XOR  DeMorgan equivalent symbols By use of De Morgan's theorem, an AND gate can be turned into an OR gate by inverting the sense of the logic at its inputs and outputs. This leads to a separate set of symbols with inverted inputs and the opposite core symbol. These symbols can make circuit diagrams for circuits using active low signals much clearer and help to show accidental connection of an active high output to an active low input or viceversa. note that demorgans laws are also a big part in circut design. ...
Activelow signals are used in electronic logic circuits to represent binary values by means of two different voltages. ...
Storage of bits Related to the concept of logic gates (and also built from them) is the idea of storing a bit of information. The gates discussed up to here cannot store a value: when the inputs change, the outputs immediately react. It is possible to make a storage element either through a capacitor (which stores charge due to its physical properties) or by feedback. Connecting the output of a gate to the input causes it to be put through the logic again, and choosing the feedback correctly allows it to be preserved or modified through the use of other inputs. A set of gates arranged in this fashion is known as a "latch", and more complicated designs that utilise clocks (signals that oscillate with a known period) and change only on the rising edge are called edgetriggered "flipflops". The combination of multiple flipflops in parallel, to store a multiplebit value, is known as a register. When using any of these gate setups the overall system has memory; it is then called a sequential system since its output can be influenced by its previous state(s). See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ...
In digital circuits, the latch is a particular usage of the simple (non clocked) flipflop or bistable multivibrator. ...
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ...
In digital circuits, the flipflop, latch, or bistable multivibrator is an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. ...
These registers or capacitorbased circuits are known as computer memory. They vary in performance, based on factors of speed, complexity, and reliability of storage, and many different types of designs are used based on the application. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
Threestate logic gates
A tristate buffer can be thought of as a switch. If B is on, the switch is closed. If B is off, the switch is open. 
Main article: Tristate buffer Threestate, or 3state, logic gates have three states of the output: high (H), low (L) and highimpedance (Z). The highimpedance state plays no role in the logic, which remains strictly binary. These devices are used on buses to allow multiple chips to send data. A group of threestates driving a line with a suitable control circuit is basically equivalent to a multiplexer, which may be physically distributed over separate devices or plugin cards. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...
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It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Threestate logic. ...
An electrical bus (sometimes spelled buss) is a physical electrical interface where many devices share the same electric connection. ...
MUX redirects here. ...
In electronics, a high output would mean the output is sourcing current from the positive power terminal (positive voltage). A low output would mean the output is sinking current to the negative power terminal (zero voltage). High impedance would mean that the output is effectively disconnected from the circuit. 'Tristate', a widelyused synonym of 'threestate', is a trademark of the National Semiconductor Corporation. Categories: Electronics companies of the United States  Companies based in California  Corporation stubs ...
Miscellaneous Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers, registers, arithmetic logic units (ALUs), and computer memory, all the way up through complete microprocessors which can contain more than a 100 million gates. In practice, the gates are made from field effect transistors (FETs), particularly metaloxidesemiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). MUX redirects here. ...
In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to frequently used valuesâ€”typically, these values are involved in multiple expression evaluations occurring within a small region on the program. ...
A typical schematic symbol for an ALU: A & B are operands; R is the output; F is the input from the Control Unit; D is an output status In computing, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. ...
This article does not cite any references or sources. ...
A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ...
Large power Nchannel field effect transistor The fieldeffect transistor (FET) is a transistor that relies on an electric field to control the shape and hence the conductivity of a channel in a semiconductor material. ...
The metalâ€“oxideâ€“semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (MOSFET, MOSFET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common fieldeffect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ...
In reversible logic, Toffoli gates are used. The term reversible computing refers to any computational process that is (at least to some close approximation) reversible, i. ...
In computer science, the Toffoli gate, invented by Tommaso Toffoli, is a universal reversible logic gate, which means that any reversible circuit can be constructed from Toffoli gates. ...
History and development The earliest logic gates were made mechanically. Charles Babbage, around 1837, devised the Analytical Engine. His logic gates relied on mechanical gearing to perform operations. Electromagnetic relays were later used for logic gates. In 1891, Almon Strowger patented a device containing a logic gate switch circuit (U.S. Patent 0,447,918 ). Strowger's patent was not in widespread use until the 1920s. Starting in 1898, Nikola Tesla filed for patents of devices containing logic gate circuits (see List of Tesla patents). Eventually, vacuum tubes replaced relays for logic operations. Lee De Forest's modification, in 1907, of the Fleming valve can be used as AND logic gate. Ludwig Wittgenstein introduced a version of the 16row truth table in #Logic gates and hardware above, as proposition 5.101 of Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus (1921). Claude E. Shannon introduced the use of Boolean algebra in the analysis and design of switching circuits in 1937. Walther Bothe, inventor of the coincidence circuit, got part of the 1954 Nobel Prize in physics, for the first modern electronic AND gate in 1924. Active research is taking place in molecular logic gates. Babbage redirects here. ...
The analytical engine, an important step in the history of computers, was the design of a mechanical generalpurpose computer by the British professor of mathematics Charles Babbage. ...
Almon Brown Strowger (1839 â€“ May 26, 1902) gave his name to the electromechanical telephone exchange technology that his invention and patent inspired. ...
Nikola Tesla (18561943)[1] was a worldrenowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...
For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...
Nikola Tesla with his invention, a wireless lightbulb powered by the electric field surrounding it. ...
Lee De Forest, (August 26, 1873 â€“ June 30, 1961) was an American inventor with over 300 patents to his credit. ...
Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria â€“ April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several groundbreaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ...
Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...
Book cover of the Dover edition of Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus (Ogden translation) Tractatus LogicoPhilosophicus is the only booklength work published by the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime. ...
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916  February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ...
Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (January 8, 1891 â€“ February 8, 1957) was a German physicist, mathematician, chemist, and Nobel Prize winner. ...
In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs. ...
Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...
The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ...
For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...
A molecular logic gate in nanotechnology is a logic gate on a molecular level. ...
See also An andinverter graph (AIG) is a directed, acyclic graph that represents a structural implementation of the logical functionality of a circuit or network. ...
Algebra of sets Ampheck Boole, George Boolean algebra Boolean domain Boolean function Boolean logic Boolean implicant Boolean prime ideal theorem Booleanvalued function Booleanvalued model Boolean satisfiability problem Booles syllogistic Canonical form (Boolean algebra) Characteristic function Compactness theorem Complete Boolean algebra De Morgan, Augustus De Morgans laws...
A Boolean function describes how to determine a Boolean value output based on some logical calculation from Boolean inputs. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
The Espresso heuristic logic minimizer is a widely used computer program for efficiently reducing the complexity of digital electronic gate circuits. ...
Fanout is a measure of the ability of a logic gate output, implemented electronically, to drive a number of inputs of other logic gates of the same type. ...
In digital circuits, the flipflop, latch, or bistable multivibrator is an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. ...
An example Karnaugh map The Karnaugh map, also known as a Veitch diagram (Kmap or KVmap for short), is a tool to facilitate management of Boolean algebraic expressions. ...
In computer engineering, a logic family of monolithic digital integrated circuit devices is a group of electronic logic gates constructed using one of several different designs, usually with compatible logic levels and power supply characteristics within a family. ...
A logical graph is a special type of graphtheoretic structure in any one of several systems of graphical syntax that Charles Sanders Peirce developed for logic. ...
nMOS logic uses ntype metaloxidesemiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ...
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...
The term reversible computing refers to any computational process that is (at least to some close approximation) reversible, i. ...
Truth tables are a type of mathematical table used in logic to determine whether an expression is true or whether an argument is valid. ...
A Venn diagram of sets A, B, and C Venn diagrams are illustrations used in the branch of mathematics known as set theory. ...
Zerothorder logic is a term in popular use among practitioners for the subject matter otherwise known as boolean functions, monadic predicate logic, propositional calculus, or sentential calculus. ...
References  This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007)   ^ Winfield Hill and Paul Horowitz (1989). The Art of Electronics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521377099.
 ^ another site that describes the logic gate bubble
Further reading  Awschalom, D., D. Loss, and N. Samarth, Semiconductor Spintronics and Quantum Computation (2002), SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Germany.
 Bostock, Geoff, Programmable Logic Devices. Technology and Applications (1988), McGrawHill, New York, NY.
 Brown, Stephen D. et al., FieldProgrammable Gate Arrays (1992), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA.
External links  Java applet of NOT gate
 Digital Circuit Simulator (Online and Windows Program)
