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Encyclopedia > Logging
A gumtree being felled. Dated to c. 1884-1917, Australia.
A gumtree being felled. Dated to c. 1884-1917, Australia.

Logging is the process in which trees are cut down for forest management and/or timber harvest. Timber is harvested to supply raw material for the wood products industry including logs for sawmills and pulp wood for the pulp and paper industry. Logging is controversial due to its potential environmental and aesthetic impacts. Look up log in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Gumtree online community. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Forest management includes a range of human interventions that affect forest ecosystems. ... Wood processing is an engineering discipline comprising the production of forest products, such as pulp and paper, construction materials, and tall oil. ... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... An International Paper mill in South Carolina The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American (United States, Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden) and East Asian countries (such as Japan). ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Aesthetics (or esthetics) (from the Greek word αισθητική) is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty. ...

Contents

Use of the term logging in forestry

In forestry the term logging is sometimes used in a narrow sense concerning the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest, usually a mill. In common usage however the term may be used generally to mean a range of forestry or silviculture activities. For example the practice of the removal of a valuable trees from the forest has been called selective logging sometimes confused with selection cut.[1] Illegal logging refers to what in forestry might be called timber theft. An example of illegal logging is cedar theft, which is most common in the American Pacific Northwest. Timber theft in all forms is quite rare in the United States. In common usage what is sometimes called clearcut logging is not is necessarily considered a type of logging but a harvest or silviculture method and is simply called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred as logging contractors. A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Forestry. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Forestry. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Logging usually refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land that has been flooded to create artificial dams and reservoirs, and trees have started to be felled there too (see underwater logging). This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... ... Underwater logging is the process of logging trees from underwater forests. ...


Logging and forestry

Horse logging in Poland
Horse logging in Poland

The two main stakeholders in most logging operations are the landowner and the logging contractor. Prior to a large harvest a landowner will often hire a consulting forester. Owners of large industrial tracts may employ their own foresters. During planning for the harvest the forester will determine how best to meet the landowner's objectives, including the silvicultural system to be used, even-aged or uneven-aged management, layout of roads and landings. If a selection cut is planned the forester will mark the trees intended to be cut or if a clear cut which blocks are to be harvested. A well-managed forest will be harvested according to a forest management plan. This plan should include areas off-limits to cutting such as sensitive habitat, vernal pools and riparian zones. Image File history File linksMetadata Zrywka_drewna_w_Masywie_Śnieżnika_PL.jpg‎ Opis Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Logging Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Zrywka_drewna_w_Masywie_Śnieżnika_PL.jpg‎ Opis Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Logging Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... A forester is a person who is engaged in forestry by creating and managing forests. ... Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis. ... Selection cutting is the logging practice of removing mature timber or thinning to improve the timber stand. ... Deforestation, in general is the sustained removal of trees. ... Forest management includes a range of human interventions that affect forest ecosystems. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Vernal pools occur in North, Central and Southern California, with the largest found in San Diego. ... A well preserved Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie. ...


A logging contractor may get paid according to the volume of wood harvested. There are over 320,000 jobs that have to do with the logging industry in Canada.


Logging methods

The above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods:

Tree-length logging
Trees are felled and then delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is then transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash (and the nutrients it contains) in the cut area where it must be further treated if wildland fires are of concern.

Full-tree logging Delimbing is the process of removing side branches from the stem of a felled tree. ... Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. ... Slash is a forestry term that refers to coarse and fine woody debris generated during logging operations or through wind, snow or other natural forest disturbances. ...

Trees are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. The trees are then delimbed, topped, and bucked at the landing. This method requires that slash be treated at the landing. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of clean electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting also refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. [2] This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, however, depending on the species, many of the limbs are often broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging
Big trees are felled, delimbed, bucked, and sorted (pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree, delimb and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by the forwarder.
The Washington Iron Works Skidder in Nuniong is the only one of its kind in Australia, with engine, spars and cables still rigged for work
The Washington Iron Works Skidder in Nuniong is the only one of its kind in Australia, with engine, spars and cables still rigged for work

. This method is usable for smaller timber on ground flat enough that forwarders can operate, but does not work well on steep slopes. Cut-to-length logging (CTL) is a system for mechanized forestry harvesting where trees are delimbed and cut to length directly at the stump area. ... Harvester in the Black Forest Harvester, type of heavy vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. ... Delimbing is the process of removing side branches from the stem of a felled tree. ... Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. ... Forwarders are a type of vehicles used in cut-to-length logging operations for transporting logs to a roadside landing. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2250x933, 1177 KB) Washington Iron Works Skidder, the only steam powered engine of its kind in Australia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2250x933, 1177 KB) Washington Iron Works Skidder, the only steam powered engine of its kind in Australia. ... Washington Winch The Washington Winch was imported to Australia in the 1920s. ...

Logging and safety

Computerized heavy machinery log cutting increases capital costs, yield, productivity, and personnel safety
Computerized heavy machinery log cutting increases capital costs, yield, productivity, and personnel safety

Logging is a dangerous occupation. In the United States, it has consistently been one of the most hazardous industries, having a fatality rate over 21 times higher than the rate for all workers in the US. [3] Loggers work with heavy, moving weights and the use of tools such as chainsaws and heavy equipment on uneven and sometimes unstable terrain. Loggers also deal with severe environmental conditions such as inclement weather and severe heat or cold. An injured logger is often far from professional emergency treatment. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 608 KB) Machine which uses a computer system to cut a log to a specific size. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 608 KB) Machine which uses a computer system to cut a log to a specific size. ...


Traditionally, the cry of "Timber!" developed as a warning alert fellow workers in an area that a tree is being felled, so they should be alert to avoid being struck. The term "widowmaker" for timber that is neither standing nor fallen to the ground demonstrates another emphasis on situational awareness as a safety principle. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Situation Awareness, or Situational Awareness was originally an aviation term used in human factors to describe awareness of tactical situations during aerial warfare. ...


The risks experienced in logging operations can be somewhat reduced, where conditions permit, by the use of mechanical tree harvesters and forwarders. Harvester in the Black Forest Harvester, type of heavy vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. ... Forwarders are a type of vehicles used in cut-to-length logging operations for transporting logs to a roadside landing. ...


Logging and the environment

Skidder in Oregon
Skidder in Oregon

The many impacts of logging on the environment can be divided into two broad categories, the timber harvest itself, that is, the removal of trees from the forest, and secondly the impact caused by logging operations such as felling or dragging trees and operation of machinery in the forest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Log skidder in second growth timber in Oregon I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Log skidder in second growth timber in Oregon I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... A slip tongue log skidder used in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


Impact of tree harvesting

Removal of trees alters species composition, the structure of the forest, and can cause nutrient depletion. This may provide opportunities for some species while creating a loss of opportunity for others. Trees providing midday shade to streams which may alter the stream's temperature either by preventing the sun from shining on the water by day, or by preventing the water from radiating the heat back at night. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ...


In altering the balance of animal and plant species, logging, if not limited to sufficiently small areas, alters the ecological system of the forest. The effect on ecosystems and on biodiversity is the small-scale effect of unrestricted logging.


The large-scale effect of the removal of trees is obviously the impact on the level of carbon in the atmosphere, with its consequences on global climate. Besides the carbon release due to possible burning associated with logging, or possibly with wood processing, the removal of trees prevents carbon from being captured by the trees from the atmosphere. Deforestation, frequently associated with logging, has been assessed to be in fact responsible for 17 percent of annual global carbon emissions, a level higher than the one from emissions due to transportation.


Impact of logging operations

Modern ground based logging operations require the use of heavy machinery in the forest. In some areas roads must be built which often causes habitat fragmentation and increased edge effect. The use of heavy machinery in a forest can cause soil compaction. Harvesting on steep slopes can lead to soil erosion, landslides, and water turbidity. Logging on saturated soils can cause ruts and change drainage patterns. Harvest activity near wetlands or vernal pools can degrade the habitat. Forest machines use oils which, if not handled carefully, can cause pollution. Roadbuilding for access to timber in frontier forests often opens up areas previously not accessible, which facilitates further development such as farming. Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... An edge effect is the effect of the juxtaposition of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ... Turbidity standards of 5, 50, and 500 NTU Turbidity is a cloudiness or haziness of a fluid, or of air, caused by individual particles (suspended solids) that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Vernal pools occur in North, Central and Southern California, with the largest found in San Diego. ...


Mitigation

These problems can be mitigated by using low-impact logging and best management practices, which set standards for reducing erosion from roads. Damage to streams and lakes can be reduced by not harvesting riparian strips. Mitigating the effect of logging can require the full restriction on logging on ecologically important lands, such as forests with a high level of biodiversity. Technological advances in logging equipment can reduce ruts and soil disturbance. Processors and forwarders with caterpillar tracks or other designs to lower ground pressure help to reduce machine impact [4]. Best Practice is a management idea which asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity, incentive or reward that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. ... Truck load of ponderosa pine, Malheur National Forest, Oregon, USA, 1942 Logging roads are construced to provide access to the forest for logging and other forest management operations. ... Riparian strips consist of growth left in or near water courses particularly in clearfelling logging operations. ... Harvester in the Black Forest Harvester, type of heavy vehicle employed in cut-to-length logging operations for felling, delimbing and bucking trees. ... Forwarders are a type of vehicles used in cut-to-length logging operations for transporting logs to a roadside landing. ... </nowiki> Rear sprocket of a Leclerc tank Track of a Leclerc tank U.S. M60 Patton tank. ...


Benefits

Some claim logging has positive effects on the environment (though all are anthropocentric ecological inputs) Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  1. removing damaged or diseased trees or both, and
  2. opening up the canopy to promote growth of smaller, healthier trees. Branches, snags, and other non-marketable parts of the tree provide shelter for wildlife. Underbrush that would not otherwise grow due to lack of sunlight thrives, and is an important food source for browsing mammals.
  3. Select cutting can improve the forest and bring to market trees that would otherwise decompose.
  4. In the 19th and early 20th century, logged over areas were sometimes sold or donated to the state, or forfeited for back taxes. Following the maturation of new growth, usually of different tree species, the reclaimed land became the basis of certain outstanding recreation areas, including the White Mountain National Forest.[5]

A Coast Douglas-fir snag provides nest cavities for birds In forest ecology, a snag refers to a standing, partly or completely dead tree, often missing a top or most of the smaller branches. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

Look up Logging in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For the 1922 film starring Oliver Hardy, see The Sawmill. ... Alternative meaning: Chainsaw (computer program) A chainsaw (also spelled chain saw) is a portable mechanical, motorized saw. ... For other uses, see Logarithmic scale. ... Bucking is the process of cutting a felled and delimbed tree into logs. ... Cable logging is a logging method primarily used on the West Coast of North America with yarder, loaders and grapple yarders. ... Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of national laws. ... Shovel logging uses a log loader to swing logs to the road. ... In skyline logging (or skyline yarding) , logs are transported on a suspended steel cable from where the trees are felled to a central area, which is typically next to a road. ... Salvage logging is the practice of felling trees in forest areas that have been damaged by fire. ... Underwater logging is the process of logging trees from underwater forests. ... The Lumberjack World Championships (LWCs) is a sporting event held every summer in the town of Hayward, Wisconsin. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]Just Say No to High Grading
  2. ^ ceres.ca.gov
  3. ^ NIOSH Logging Safety. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2008-1-21.
  4. ^ Forestry Commission Technical Note 11 Harvesting Systems
  5. ^ USDA Forest Service - Comment Form

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Safety and Health Topics: Logging (297 words)
The tools and equipment such as chain saws and logging machines pose hazards wherever they are used.
The combination of these hazards present a significant risk to employees working in logging operations throughout the country, regardless of the type of timber being logged, where it is logged, or the end use of the wood.
Logging procedures are examined, OSHA regulations explained, and links are provided to the specific sections of the standard.
PF: Logging (975 words)
This display the log, in real-time, of inbound packets that were blocked on the wi0 interface.
Syslogd logs in ASCII and is also able to log to a remote logging server.
The logging is not immediate but it can take up to about 5-6 minutes (the cron job interval) before the logged packets appear in the file.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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