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Encyclopedia > Locomotive
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Modelling Railway tracks. ... “railroads” redirects here. ... A rail transport or railroad system is a complex synergy of components which may be classified into two groups: extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street station in 1865. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ... // Asia History of rail transport in India Europe Denmark France Germany Great Britain Ireland Spain Sweden North America Canada United States Oceania Australia See also History of rail transport Categories: History of rail transport ... Two rail welds in continuous welded rail in Wisconsin. ... This page provides an index of articles on Rail transport by country. ... HO scale model railroad. ...

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Great Western Railway No. 6833 Calcot Grange, a 4-6-0 Grange class steam locomotive, at Bristol Temple Meads station, Bristol, England.
Great Western Railway No. 6833 Calcot Grange, a 4-6-0 Grange class steam locomotive, at Bristol Temple Meads station, Bristol, England.
An ALCO RS1 at the Southern Appalachia Railway Museum, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the foreground is a restored Fairmont motor car.
An ALCO RS1 at the Southern Appalachia Railway Museum, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the foreground is a restored Fairmont motor car.

See also: Locomotive (Software). Great Western Railway No. ... Great Western Railway No. ... The original Bristol Temple Meads station, first terminus of the GWR, is the building to the left of this picture The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company, linking South West England, the West Country and South Wales with London. ... A Finnish 4-6-0, built by Tampella in 1915 In the Whyte notation, a 4-6-0 is a railroad steam locomotive that has a two-axle leading truck followed by three driving axles. ... 6833 Calcot Grange at Bristol Temple Meads in British Railways green livery. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... The original station (left) closed in 1965. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x465, 290 KB) ALCO RS1 of the Southern Appalachia Railway Museum -- Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (801x465, 290 KB) ALCO RS1 of the Southern Appalachia Railway Museum -- Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ... The ALCO RS-1 was a 4-axle diesel locomotive built by American Locomotive Company between 1941 and 1950. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... A privately-owned speeder on display at a model railroad show in February 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Locomotore_E412. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Locomotore_E412. ... The E412 class (factory name 112E) is a batch of multi-role electric locomotives built for the mountain lines, particularly for the northern Italian lines of the Brenner pass. ... Modern three-phase AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152) A GG1 An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors which draws current from an overhead wire (overhead lines), a third rail, or an on-board storage device such as a battery or a flywheel energy storage system. ... Trenitalia logo. ... Locomotive is a free Mac OS X application designed to make getting up-and-running with Ruby on Rails quick and easy. ...


A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco - "from a place", ablative of "locus", "place" + Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion"). The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple units or railcars. The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but very rare for freight (see CargoSprinter). Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars. This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ... A railcar (not to be confused with a railway car) is a self-propelled railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. ... This article is about trains in rail transport. ... Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... The CargoSprinter is a sort of multiple unit freight car; it could also be thought of as a container truck that runs on rails. ... A power car is a railroad vehicle that is closely related to the locomotive. ...


Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasingly common in local passenger service is push-pull operation, where a locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes it in the other, and is optionally controlled from a control cab at the opposite end of the train. A single GWR autocoach capable of push-pull operation. ...

Contents

Origins

The first successful locomotives were built by Cornish inventor Richard Trevithick. In 1804 his unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in Wales. Although the locomotive hauled a train of 10 tons of iron and 70 passengers in five wagons over nine miles (14 km), it was too heavy for the cast iron rails used at the time. The locomotive only ran three trips before it was abandoned. Trevithick built a series of locomotives after the Penydarren experiment, including one which ran at a colliery in Tyneside where it was seen by the young George Stephenson.[1] For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick (April 13, 1771 – April 22, 1833) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... “railroads” redirects here. ... Penydarren was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: ) is a town and county borough in Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... This article is about the country. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ...

The Salamanca, the first commercially successful locomotive

The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's rack locomotive, The Salamanca, built for the narrow gauge Middleton Railway in 1812. This was followed in 1813 by the Puffing Billy built by Christopher Blackett and William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery Railway, the first successful locomotive running by adhesion only. Puffing Billy is now on display in the Science Museum in London, the oldest locomotive in existence.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1532x1123, 265 KB) Salamanca von John Blenkinsop, nach einem Modell im deutschen Museum München, , File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Locomotive Middleton Railway Portal:Trains/Did... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1532x1123, 265 KB) Salamanca von John Blenkinsop, nach einem Modell im deutschen Museum München, , File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Locomotive Middleton Railway Portal:Trains/Did... Matthew Murray was a steam engine and machine tool manufacturer, who designed and built the first commercially viable steam locomotive, the twin cylinder The Salamanca in 1812. ... Rack railway track using Von Roll system rack. ... The Salamanca was the first commercially successful steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge railed Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds. ... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1. ... The Middleton Steam Railway is the worlds oldest working railway. ... Puffing Billy was an early steam locomotive, constructed in 1813-1814 by engineer William Hedley, enginewright Jonathan Forster and blacksmith Timothy Hackworth for Christopher Blackett, the owner of Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne. ... William Hedley was the inventor of an early steam locomotive, Puffing Billy. ... The term adhesion railway or adhesion traction describes the most common type of railway, where power is applied by driving some or all of the wheels of the train and thus it relies on the friction between a steel wheel and a steel rail. ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1814 George Stephenson, inspired by the early locomotives of Trevithick and Hedley persuaded the manager of the Killingworth colliery where he worked to allow him to build a steam-powered machine. He built the Blücher, one of the first successful flanged-wheel adhesion locomotives. Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of steam locomotives. His designs improved on the work of the pioneers. In 1825 he built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway which became the first public steam railway. In 1829 he built The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhill Trials. This success lead to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, the United States and much of Europe.[3] George Stephenson George Stephenson For the British politician, see George Stevenson. ... , Killingworth, formerly Killingworth Township, is a town north of Newcastle Upon Tyne, in North Tyneside, United Kingdom. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... A 19th Century engraving of the Blucher This article is about the locomotive Blücher. See also Blücher Blücher was an early railway locomotive built in 1814 by George Stephenson for Killingworth Colliery. ... For the vacuum component, see Vacuum flange. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway by John Dobbin, circa 1825. ... A contemporary drawing of Rocket Rocket as preserved in the Science Museum, London. ... The Rainhill Trials were an important competition in the early days of steam locomotive railways, run in October of 1829 near Rainhill (just outside Liverpool). ...


See also: History of rail transport, Category:Early steam locomotives Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ...


Locomotives vs. multiple units

Advantages of locomotives

There are many reasons why the motive power for trains has been traditionally isolated in a locomotive, rather than in self-propelled vehicles.[4] These include: This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ...

  • Ease: should the locomotive fail, it is easy to replace it with another. Failure of the motive power unit does not require taking the entire train out of service.
  • Maximum utilization of power cars: idle trains waste costly motive power resources. Separate locomotives enable costly motive power assets to be moved around as needed.
  • Flexibility: large locomotives can be substituted for small locomotives where the grades are steeper and more power is needed.
  • Obsolescence cycles: separating the motive power from payload-hauling cars enables one to be replaced without affecting the other. At times locomotives have become obsolete when their cars were not, and vice versa.

Advantages of multiple units

There are several advantages of multiple unit (MU) trains compared to locomotives. This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ...

  • Energy efficiency: Multiple units are more energy efficient than locomotive-hauled trains and more nimble, especially on grades, as much more of the train's weight (sometimes all of it) is placed on driven wheels, rather than suffer the dead weight of unpowered coaches.
  • No need to turn locomotive: Many multiple units have cabs at both ends or are arranged so that a set of cars has cabs at both ends, so that the train may be reversed without uncoupling/re-coupling the locomotive, giving quicker turnaround times, reducing crew costs, and enhancing safety.
  • Reliability: As multiple unit trains have multiple engines, the failure of one engine does not prevent the train from continuing its journey. A locomotive drawn passenger train typically only has one power unit, meaning the failure of this causes the train to be disabled. However, some locomotive hauled passenger trains may utilize more than one locomotive, as do most locomotive hauled freight trains, and are able to continue at reduced speed after the failure of one locomotive.
  • Safety: Multiple units normally have completely independent braking systems on all cars, meaning the failure of the brakes on one car does not prevent the brakes throughout the train from operating safely.

This article is about Multiple Units vehicles. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ...

Classification by motive power

Locomotives may generate their power from fuel (wood, coal, petroleum or natural gas), or they may take power from an outside source of electricity. It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transferred. ...


Steam

Main article: steam locomotive
Walschaerts valve gear in a steam locomotive. In this animation, the red color represents live steam entering the cylinder, while the blue represents expanded (spent) steam being exhausted from the cylinder.
Walschaerts valve gear in a steam locomotive. In this animation, the red color represents live steam entering the cylinder, while the blue represents expanded (spent) steam being exhausted from the cylinder.
A steam locomotive at the Gare du Nord, Paris, France, in 1930
Locomotive 030-219 of Renfe in Miranda de Ebro
Locomotive 030-219 of Renfe in Miranda de Ebro

In the 19th century the first railway locomotives were powered by steam, usually generated by burning coal. Because steam locomotives included one or more steam engine, they are sometimes referred to as "steam engines". The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II.[5] One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... Image File history File links Walschaerts_motion. ... The Walschaert valve gear on a Pennyslvania Railroad K4s. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... A Live Steam Festival displaying equipment ranging from small stationary engines to full-size locomotives. ... Steam Locomotive by Séeberger Brother Source BNF Free of rights Alvailable at http://gallica. ... Steam Locomotive by Séeberger Brother Source BNF Free of rights Alvailable at http://gallica. ... Main entrance to the Gare du Nord The Gare du Nord (English: North Station) is one of the six large terminus stations of the SNCFs main line network in Paris. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 778 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 778 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... RENFE is Spains national railway operator. ... Location Location of Miranda de Ebro in Spain Coordinates : 42°41′ N 2°56′ O Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Miranda de Ebro (Spanish) Spanish name Miranda de Ebro Postal code 09200 Area code 34 (Spain) + 947 (Burgos) Website http://www. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The first steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick; it first ran on 21 February 1804, although it was some years before steam locomotive design became economically practical.[1]. The first commercial use of a steam locomotive was The Salamanca on the narrow gauge Middleton Railway in Leeds in 1812. The locomotive Fairy Queen, built in 1855 runs between New Delhi and Alwar in India and is the oldest steam locomotive in regular (albeit tourist-only) service in the world, and the oldest steam locomotive operating on a mainline. [6].[7] Richard Trevithick Richard Trevithick (April 13, 1771 – April 22, 1833) was a British inventor, engineer and builder of the first working railway steam locomotive. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Salamanca was the first commercially successful steam locomotive, built in 1812 by Matthew Murray of Holbeck, for the edge railed Middleton Railway between Middleton and Leeds. ... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1. ... The Middleton Steam Railway is the worlds oldest working railway. ... For other uses, see Leeds (disambiguation). ... The Fairy Queen, built in 1855, is the worlds oldest steam locomotive in regular operation today, plying between New Delhi to Alwar in India. ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Alwar is famous for its scenic landscape Alwar is a city in the Rajasthan state of western India. ...


The all-time speed record for steam trains is held by an LNER Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific locomotive of the LNER in the United Kingdom, number 4468 Mallard, which pulling six carriages (plus a dynamometer car) reached 126 mph (203 km/h) on a slight downhill gradient down Stoke Bank on 3 July 1938[8]. Aerodynamic passenger locomotives in Germany attained speeds very close to this [9], and this is generally believed[citation needed] to be close to the practicable limit for a direct-coupled steam locomotive. 60034 Lord Farringdon at Aberdeen Ferryhill, 1965. ... A selection of early 20th century locomotive types according to their Whyte notation and their comparative size The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte and came into use in the early 20th century. ... The Pennsylvania Railroads class K4s, a well known 4-6-2 type. ... The London and North Eastern Railway or LNER was the second-largest of the Big Four railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. ... Mallard at York Number 4468 Mallard is a London and North Eastern Railway Class A4 4-6-2 Pacific steam locomotive built in the 1930s by the LNER and designed by Sir Nigel Gresley in England. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Before the middle of the 20th century, electric and diesel-electric locomotives began replacing steam locomotives. Steam locomotives are less efficient than their more modern diesel and electric counterparts and require much greater manpower to operate and service.[10] British Rail figures showed the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was some two and a half times that of diesel power, and the daily mileage achievable was far lower. As labour costs rose, particularly after the second world war, non-steam technologies became much more cost-efficient[citation needed]. By the end of the 1960s-1970s, most western countries had completely replaced steam locomotives in passenger service. Freight locomotives generally were replaced later. Other designs, such as locomotives powered by gas turbines, have been experimented with, but have seen little use. This article is about the defunct entity British Railways, which later traded as British Rail. The History of rail transport in Great Britain is covered in its own article. ...


By the end of the 20th century, almost the only steam power still in regular use in North America and Western European countries was on heritage railways specifically aimed at tourists and/or railroad enthusiasts, known as railfans or train spotters, although some narrow gauge lines in Germany which form part of the public transport system, running to all-year-round timetables retain steam for all or part of their motive power. Steam locomotives remained in commercial use in parts of Mexico into the late 1970s. Steam locomotives were in regular use until 2004 in the People's Republic of China, where coal is a much more abundant resource than petroleum for diesel fuel. India switched over from steam-powered trains to electric and diesel-powered trains in the 1980s, except heritage trains. In some mountainous and high altitude rail lines, steam engines remain in use because they are less affected by reduced air pressure than diesel engines[citation needed]. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... Railfans practicing their hobby at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin. ... This article is about the hobby of train spotting, for other uses see Trainspotting. ... Narrow-gauge railways are railroads (railways) with track spaced at less than the standard gauge of 4 ft 8½ in (1. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


As of 2006 DLM AG (Switzerland) continues to manufacture new steam locomotives.[11]


Diesel locomotives

Main article: Diesel locomotive
EMD GP50 diesel-electric freight locomotives of the Burlington Northern Railroad

Starting in the 1940s, the diesel-powered locomotive began to displace steam power on North American railroads. Following the end of World War II, diesel power began to appear on railroads in many countries, By the 1960s, few major railroads continued to operate steam locomotive [citation needed]. (See Dieselization) A modern Diesel locomotive. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1692x1092, 313 KB)BN 3157, an EMD GP50, leads a westbound train through Eola, Illinois (just east of Aurora). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1692x1092, 313 KB)BN 3157, an EMD GP50, leads a westbound train through Eola, Illinois (just east of Aurora). ... A BN train westbound through Eola, Illinois, led by a GP50. ... Categories: Rail stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | California railroads | Colorado railroads | Idaho railroads | Illinois railroads | Iowa railroads | Kansas railroads | Kentucky railroads | Minnesota railroads | Missouri railroads | Montana railroads | Nebraska railroads | North Dakota railroads | Oregon railroads | South Dakota railroads | Washington railroads | Wisconsin railroads | Wyoming railroads ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle named after German engineer Rudolf Diesel, who invented it in 1876, based on the hot bulb engine, and... For other uses, see Steam (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


As is the case with any vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, diesel locomotives require some type of power transmission system to couple the output of the prime mover to the driving wheels. In the early days of diesel railroad propulsion development, electric, hydraulic and mechanical power transmission systems were all employed with varying degrees of success. Of the three, electric transmission proved to be most practical, and, except for some diesel-hydraulic locomotives manufactured for lower power applications, nearly all modern Diesel-powered locomotives are diesel-electric. The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work. ... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... A hydraulic or hydrostatic drivesystem or hydraulic power transmission is a drive- or transmission system that makes use of a hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive machinery. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ...


Diesel locomotives require considerably less maintenance than steam, with a corresponding reduction in the number of personnel needed to keep the fleet in service. The best steam locomotives spent an average of three to five days per month in the shop for routine maintenance and running repairs [citation needed]. Heavy overhauls were frequent, often involving removal of the boiler from the frame for major repairs. In contrast, a typical diesel locomotive requires no more than eight to ten hours of maintenance per month [citation needed] and may run for many years between heavy overhauls [citation needed]. A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated under pressure. ...


Diesel units are not as polluting as steam power; modern units produce low levels of exhaust emissions. Diesel-electric locomotives are often fitted with "dynamic brakes" that use the traction motors as generators during braking to assist in controlling the speed of a train on a descending grade.


Gas turbine-electric

Main article: Gas turbine-electric locomotive
UP 68, one of Union Pacific's 4,500 hp 'veranda' turbines. From the Don Ross Collection
UP 68, one of Union Pacific's 4,500 hp 'veranda' turbines. From the Don Ross Collection

A gas turbine-electric locomotive, or GTEL, is a locomotive that uses a gas turbine to drive an electrical generator or alternator. The electric current thus produced is used to power traction motors. This type of locomotive was first experimented with in 1920 but reached its peak in the 1950s to 1960s. The turbine (similar to a turboshaft engine) drives an output shaft, which drives the alternator via a system of gears. Aside from the unusual prime mover, a GTEL is very similar to a diesel-electric. In fact, the turbines built by GE used many of the same parts as their diesels[citation needed]. UP 18, preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x600, 162 KB)UP 68, one of the Union Pacifics second generation veranda turbines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1050x600, 162 KB)UP 68, one of the Union Pacifics second generation veranda turbines. ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ... Early 20th century Alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station. ... Traction motor typically refers to those motors that are used to power the driving wheels of a railroad locomotive, electrical multi-unit train (such as a subway or light rail vehicle train), or a tram. ... Schematic diagram showing the operation of a simplified turboshaft engine. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device -- possibly another gear wheel -- so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ... A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... GE Transportation Systems is the division of the General Electric corporation producing railroad locomotives and electrical and propulsion equipment for transit cars. ...


A turbine offers some advantages over a piston engine[citation needed]. The number of moving parts is much smaller, and the power to weight ratio is much higher. A turbine of a given power output is also physically smaller than an equally powerful piston engine, allowing a locomotive to be very powerful without being inordinately large. However, a turbine's power output and efficiency both drop dramatically with rotational speed, unlike a piston engine, which has a comparatively flat power curve. Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... Rotational speed (sometimes called speed of revolution) indicates for example how fast the motor is running. ...


Gas turbine locomotives are very powerful, but also tend to be very loud. Union Pacific operated the largest fleet of such locomotives of any railroad in the world, and was the only railroad to use them for hauling freight[citation needed]. Most other GTELs have been built for small passenger trains, and only a few have seen any real success in that role. After the 1973 oil crisis and the subsequent rise in fuel costs, gas turbine locomotives became uneconomical to operate, and many were taken out of service. This type of locomotive is now rare. The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ... The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum...


Electric

Main article: Electric locomotive
Former Soviet Union electric locomotive VL60pk (ВЛ60пк).
Former Soviet Union electric locomotive VL60pk (ВЛ60пк).

The electric locomotive is supplied externally with electric power, either through an overhead pickup or through a third rail. While the capital cost of electrifying track is high, electric trains and locomotives are capable of higher performance and in some cases lower operational costs than steam or diesel power[citation needed]. Modern three-phase AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152) A GG1 An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors which draws current from an overhead wire (overhead lines), a third rail, or an on-board storage device such as a battery or a flywheel energy storage system. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1136x733, 143 KB) Summary Elektra lokomotivo de tipo VL60k/p (ВЛ60к/п). Lokomotivoj de diversaj tipoj de serio VL60 estis produktataj en Sovetunio ekde jaro 1957 gxis jaro 1967. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1136x733, 143 KB) Summary Elektra lokomotivo de tipo VL60k/p (ВЛ60к/п). Lokomotivoj de diversaj tipoj de serio VL60 estis produktataj en Sovetunio ekde jaro 1957 gxis jaro 1967. ... Modern three-phase AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152) A GG1 An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors which draws current from an overhead wire (overhead lines), a third rail, or an on-board storage device such as a battery or a flywheel energy storage system. ... The overhead lines of a Swiss Federal Railways track. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ...


The world speed record for a wheeled train was set in February 2007 by a French TGV which reached a speed of 575 km/h (357 mph)[12]. JR-Maglev MLX01 at Yamanashi. ...


Some electric locomotives can also operate off battery power to enable short journeys or shunting on non-electrified lines or yards. Battery-powered locomotives are used in mines and other underground locations where diesel fumes or smoke would endanger crews, and where external electricity supplies cannot be used due to the danger of sparks igniting flammable gas. Battery locomotives are also used on many underground railways for maintenance operations, as they are required when operating in areas where the electricity supply has been temporarily disconnected. However, the cost and weight of batteries prohibit using battery-powered locomotives on extended runs[citation needed]. Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ...


See also: Railway electrification system Overhead wire in Coventry, England Overhead wire and its suspension system in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA A railway electrification system is a way of supplying electric power to electric locomotives and multiple units. ...


Magnetic levitation

Main article: Maglev train
Transrapid maglev train on the test track at Emsland, Germany.
Transrapid maglev train on the test track at Emsland, Germany.

The newest technology in trains is magnetic levitation (maglev). These electrically powered trains have an open motor which floats the train above the rail without wheels. This greatly reduces friction. Very few systems are in service and the cost is very high. The experimental Japanese magnetic levitation train JR-Maglev MLX01 has reached 581 km/h (361 mph)[citation needed]. Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train stopping at terminus Longyang Road station Transrapid Shanghai Maglev Train Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev Inside the Shanghai Transrapid maglev VIP section Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. ... Download high resolution version (833x526, 54 KB)A Transrapid train in Germany Copyright: Picture taken from the German Wikipedia, see de:Bild:Transrapid. ... Download high resolution version (833x526, 54 KB)A Transrapid train in Germany Copyright: Picture taken from the German Wikipedia, see de:Bild:Transrapid. ... Emsland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Transrapid maglev in Shanghai Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a radically new form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles via electro-magnetic energy. ... JR-Maglev, MLX01, at Yamanashi JR-Maglev, MLX01 (X means Experimental), is a magnetic levitation train system developed by the Japan Railway Technical Reasearch Institute (association of Japan Railway Group), composed of a maximum 5 cars to run on the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line. ...


The transrapid maglev train connects Shanghai's airport with the city. Transrapid at the Emsland test facility Transrapid is a German monorail system using magnetic levitation. ... Shanghai Pudong International Airport (IATA: PVG, ICAO: ZSPD) (SSE: 600009) (Simplified Chinese上海浦东国际机场, Traditional Chinese 上海浦東國際機場, pinyin ShànghÇŽi PÇ”dōng Guójì JÄ«cháng) is an airport located in the eastern part of Pudong district of Shanghai, China. ...


The first commercial maglev trains ran in the 1980s in Birmingham, United Kingdom, providing a low-speed shuttle service between the airport and the railway station. Despite the interest and excitement, the system was shut down due to a lack of spare parts and replaced by wheeled cablecars a few years later[citation needed]. Birmingham (pron. ...


Hybrid

Main article: Hybrid Locomotive

A hybrid locomotive is a Locomotive that uses an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for propulsion. Hybrid Locomotive is a Locomotive or Multiple Unit Train that uses an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and a fuelled power source for propulsion. ... A rechargeable energy storage system or RESS is a system that stores energy for delivery of electric energy and which is rechargeable. ...


Hybrid trains typically are powered either by Fuel Cell technology or the diesel-electric hybrid which reduces fuel consumption through regenerative braking and switching off the hydrocarbon engine when idling or stationary (as used in automobiles such as the Toyota Prius). A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... Prius may refer to: Hitachi Flora Prius, a personal computer. ...


Experimental

There are other forms of motive power in experimental use.


Parry People Movers make an experimental light rail railcar powered by energy stored in a flywheel. The flywheel is powered from an onboard battery-driven motor or internal combustion engine and is also recharged through regenerative braking. A proposed alternative is to recharge the flywheel from external electric motors installed at station stops. Although this would increase installation costs it would substantially reduce the weight of the vehicles. It would cost less than providing a continuous electrical supply[citation needed]. PPM No. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ... Regenerative braking is any technology which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ...


Parry People Movers have been tested on several railways, including the Ffestiniog Railway, the Welsh Highland Railway and the Welshpool and Llanfair Light Railway. The first mainstream timetable service for the flywheel railcar was launched in February 2006 providing the Sunday service on the short link between Stourbridge junction and Stourbridge Town in the United Kingdom. The Ffestiniog Railway (in Welsh Rheilffordd Ffestiniog) is a narrow-gauge heritage railway, located in North West Wales. ... The route of the WHR. The Welsh Highland Railway (WHR) is a narrow gauge railway in Wales, which originally ran from Dinas near Caernarfon to Porthmadog, with a branch line to Bryngwyn and the slate quarries at Moel Tryfan. ... 823 The Countess and 822 The Earl - the two original W&LLR engines. ... Stourbridge Junction Station is a railway station on the Birmingham, Worcester and Kidderminster Line in West Midlands, England. ... Stourbridge Town is a terminus station near the centre of Stourbridge. ...


Classification by use

The three main categories of locomotives are often subdivided in their usage in rail transport operations. There are passenger locomotives, freight locomotives and switcher (or shunting) locomotives. These categories mainly describe the locomotive's combination of physical size, starting tractive effort and maximum permitted speed. Freight locomotives are normally designed to deliver high starting tractive effort—needed to start trains that may weigh as much as 15,000 tons—and deliver sustained high power, at the sacrifice of maximum speed. Passenger locomotives develop less starting tractive effort but are able to operate at the high speeds demanded by passenger schedules. Mixed traffic locomotives (US English: general purpose or road switcher locomotives) are built to provide elements of both requirements. They do not develop as much starting tractive effort as a freight unit but are able to haul heavier trains than a passenger engine. A rail transport or railroad system is a complex synergy of components which may be classified into two groups: extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors. ... A passenger is a term broadly used to describe any person who travels in a vehicle, but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination. ... Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... A modern US switcher, an EMD SW1500. ... Tractive Effort (abbr. ... Tractive Effort (abbr. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A mixed-traffic locomotive is one capable of hauling both passenger trains and freight trains. ...


Most steam locomotives are reciprocating units, in which the pistons are coupled to the drivers (driving wheels) by means of connecting rods. Therefore, the combination of starting tractive effort and maximum speed is greatly influenced by the diameter of the drivers. Steam locomotives intended for freight service generally have relatively small diameter drivers, whereas passenger models have large diameter drivers (as large as 84 inches in some cases).


With Diesel-electric and electric locomotives, the gear ratio between the traction motors and axles is what adapts the unit to freight or passenger service, although a passenger unit may include other features, such as head end power (aka hotel power) or a steam generator. A number of vehicles use a diesel-electric powerplant for providing locomotion. ... Traction motor typically refers to those motors that are used to power the driving wheels of a railroad locomotive, electrical multi-unit train (such as a subway or light rail vehicle train), or a tram. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Head end power (also known as hotel power) is a method of providing electricity to the carriages of a train, usually the passenger carriages of a long distance hotel train. ... A steam generator is used in trains to provide heat, and sometimes air conditioning (via the steam jet system ) to passenger cars. ...


Some locomotives are designed specifically to work mountain railways, and feature extensive additional braking mechanisms and sometimes rack and pinion. Steam locomotives built for steep rack and pinion railways frequently have the boiler tilted relative to the wheels, so that the boiler remains roughly level on steep grades.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Locomotives

Manufacturers Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1571, 300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Locomotive User:Leonard G. Trains in art ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1571, 300 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Locomotive User:Leonard G. Trains in art ... The railway station of Saint Lazare in Paris by Claude Monet A locomotive or train can play many roles in art, for example: As a work of art in itself in addition to most functional considerations, especially in streamlined steam locomotives and luxury passenger accommodations of the early 20th century... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... DMU, type SA108 of Great Poland Voivodship in Poznań, Poland The Transwa Prospector DEMU capable of up to 200km/h provides a passenger service between Perth, Western Australia and the mining town of Kalgoorlie A Diesel Multiple Unit or DMU is a multiple unit train consisting of multiple carriages powered... Modern three-phase AC locomotive (DBAG Class 152) A GG1 An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors which draws current from an overhead wire (overhead lines), a third rail, or an on-board storage device such as a battery or a flywheel energy storage system. ... Trains of the Singapore MRT. EMUs are often used for rapid transit lines. ... UP 18, preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum. ... The railway station of Saint Lazare in Paris by Claude Monet A locomotive or train can play many roles in art, for example: As a work of art in itself in addition to most functional considerations, especially in streamlined steam locomotives and luxury passenger accommodations of the early 20th century... One of the last mainline steam locomotives built in the UK: British Railways Standard Class 9F 2-10-0 no. ... List of heritage railways is a comprehensive listing of heritage railways. ... A scene on a heritage railway. ... This is a list of the worlds locomotive builders by country, and is still a work in progress. ... The AAR wheel arrangement system is a method of classifying locomotive (or unit) wheel arrangements that was developed by the Association of American Railroads. ... The UIC classification is a comprehensive system for describing the wheel arrangement of locomotives. ... A selection of early 20th century locomotive types according to their Whyte notation and their comparative size The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte and came into use in the early 20th century. ... An articulated locomotive is a steam locomotive with one or more engine units which can move relative to the main frame. ... Locomotive Mileniwm hauling a train out of Caernarfon station December 28, 2004 A Garratt is a type of steam locomotive that is articulated, normally in three parts. ... The French word Autorail describes a single powered vehicle capable of carrying passengers. ... The lickey banker 58100 Big Bertha assisting an express up the Lickey, July or August 1955. ... A duplex locomotive is a steam locomotive that divides the driving force on its wheels by using two pairs of cylinders. ... Piping diagram from 1920 of a Westinghouse E-T Air Brake system. ... Brakes are used on railway trains to bring the train to a standstill. ... A regenerative brake is an apparatus, a device or system which allows a vehicle to recapture and store part of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost to heat when braking. ... The vacuum brake is a braking system used on trains. ...

Beyer-Peacock Locomotive manufacturer with factory in Manchester from 1854 untill 1966. ... Pm36-2 SU42 Fablok is a Polish manufacturer of steam (later diesel) locomotives, based in Chrzanów. ... Neilson and Company was a locomotive manufacturer in Glasgow, Scotland. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group, p.12. 
  2. ^ Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group, pp.20-22. 
  3. ^ Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group, pp.24-30. 
  4. ^ Comparison of locomotive hauled and multiple unit trains.
  5. ^ Hamilton Ellis (1968). The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group, pp.355. 
  6. ^ National Railway Museum of India article on Fairy Queen.
  7. ^ History Wired article on John Bull.
  8. ^ LNER Encyclopedia article on the Gresley A4.
  9. ^ Deutsche Bahn Museum article on the 05 001 locomotive.
  10. ^ 1935 article on the advantages of diesel locomotives.
  11. ^ DLM AG website
  12. ^ French TGV breaks world speed record - article at expactia.com.

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