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Encyclopedia > Lockheed Model 10 Electra
L-10 Electra/C-36
Amelia Earhart's Electra 10E
Type Utility aircraft
Manufacturer Lockheed
Designed by Hall Hibbard
Maiden flight February 23, 1934
Number built 149
Variants Electra Junior
Super Electra
Clarence "Kelly" Johnson testing an Electra model in the University of Michigan's wind tunnel.
Clarence "Kelly" Johnson testing an Electra model in the University of Michigan's wind tunnel.
Electra in Royal Air Force service.
Electra in Royal Air Force service.

The Lockheed L-10 Electra was a twin-engine, all-metal monoplane airliner developed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation in the 1930s to compete with the Boeing 247 and Douglas DC-2. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x324, 52 KB)Amelia Earharts Lockheed L-10 Electra, at Oakland, CA on March 20, 1937. ... Amelia Earhart (1897-1937?) Tyler Allen Rowden is a douchebag Earhart was an influential early female pilot[1]instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, a womens pilots organization[2]. Among her many awards and achievements, Earhart was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross[3... An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... The Lockheed SR-71, remarkably advanced for its time and unsurpassed in many areas of performance The Lockheed U-2 first flew in 1955 providing much needed intelligence on Soviet bloc countries Lockheed Corporation was an aerospace company founded in 1912 which merged with Martin Marietta in 1995 to form... Hall Livingstone Hibbard (July 25, 1903 - June 6, 1996) was an engineer and administrator of the Lockheed Corporation beginning with the companys purchase by a board of investors lead by Robert E. Gross in 1932. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lockheed L-12A was a eight place, six passenger all metal transport designed for use by smaller airlines and private owners. ... The Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra was a civil cargo and passenger aircraft built by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation during the late 1930s. ... Image File history File links Kelly-Johnson_Electra. ... Image File history File links Kelly-Johnson_Electra. ... Kelly Johnson participated in the design of the Lockheed L-10 Electra, testing a model of the design in the wind tunnel of the University of Michigan. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Lockheed L-10 Electra transport in RAF service. ... Lockheed L-10 Electra transport in RAF service. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Lockheed SR-71, remarkably advanced for its time and unsurpassed in many areas of performance The Lockheed U-2 first flew in 1955 providing much needed intelligence on Soviet bloc countries Lockheed Corporation was an aerospace company founded in 1912 which merged with Martin Marietta in 1995 to form... Boeing 247 The Boeing 247 was one of the first modern passenger airliners. ... The Douglas DC-2 was a 14 seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ...

Contents

History

The Electra was Lockheed's first all-metal and twin-engine design. (However, some of Lockheed's wooden designs, such as the Orion had been built by Detroit Aircraft with metal fuselages.) The name Electra came from a star in the Plieades. The prototype made its first flight on February 23, 1934 with Marshall Headle at the controls. The Lockheed Orion Model 9 was a single engine passenger aircraft built in 1931 for commercial airlines. ... Electra is the name of the star 17 Tauri lain in the pleiads. ... The Pleiades are an open cluster dominated by hot blue stars surrounded by reflection nebulosity A shorter exposure shows less nebulosity. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Wind tunnel work on the Electra was undertaken at the University of Michigan. Much of the work was performed by a student assistant, Clarence Johnson. He suggested two changes be made to the design: changing the single tail to double tails (later a Lockheed trademark), and deleting oversized wing fillets. Both of these suggestions were incorporated into production aircraft. Upon receiving his master's degree, Johnson joined Lockheed as a regular employee, ultimately leading the Skunk Works in developing advanced aircraft such as the SR-71 Blackbird. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM or U of M) is a coeducational public research university in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the aeronautical engineer. ... A modern Skunk works project leverages an older: LASRE and SR-71 Blackbird. ... The Lockheed SR-71, unofficially known as the Blackbird and by its crews as the Habu or the sled, was an advanced, long-range, Mach 3 strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works. ...


Aviatrix Amelia Earhart disappeared in an Electra on an attempted around-the-world flight in 1937. Amelia Earhart (1897-1937?) Tyler Allen Rowden is a douchebag Earhart was an influential early female pilot[1]instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, a womens pilots organization[2]. Among her many awards and achievements, Earhart was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross[3... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Later in 1937, H.T. "Dick" Merrill and J.S. Lambie accomplished a round-trip crossing of the Atlantic Ocean; this feat was declared the first round-trip commercial crossing of that ocean, and it won them the Harmon Trophy. On the eastbound trip, they carried newsreels of the crash of the Hindenburg, and on the return trip, the brought photographs of the coronation of King George VI. In 1926 Clifford B. Harmon, a wealthy sportsman and aviator, established the Harmon Trophy, a set of three international trophies to be awarded annually to the worlds outstanding aviator, aviatrix, and aeronaut (balloon or dirigible). ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ...


Many Electras, and descendants of the design (the L-12 Electra Junior and L-14 Super Electra), were pressed into military service during World War II (as the C-36 with the USAAF). By the end of the war, the Electra design was obsolete. USAAF recruitment poster. ...


Variants

The Electra was produced in several variants, for both civilian and military customers. Lockheed built a total of 149 Electras.

Electra 10A
Powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-985-13, 450 hp. each; 101 produced.
  • Three built as Y1C-36 / C-36 / UC-36.
  • Fifteen impressed as C-36A, but later re-designated UC-36A.
  • Three built as XR20-1 / R20-1 for Secretary of the Navy.
  • One built as Y1C-37 / C-37 / UC-37 for Chief of National Guard Bureau
Electra 10B
Powered by Wright R-975-13, 440 hp (340 kW) each; 18 produced
  • Seven impressed as C-36C, but later re-designated UC-36C.
  • One built as XR30-1 for use by the Secretary of Treasury, operated by the US Coast Guard.
Electra 10C
Powered by Pratt & Whitney Wasp SC1, 450 hp (336-kW) each; eight produced for Pan American Airways.
Electra 10-D
Proposed military transport version; none built.
Electra 10-E
Powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 radials of 600 hp (450 kW) each; 15 produced. The version used by Amelia Earhart.
  • Five impressed as C-36B, but later re-designated UC-36B
XC-35
Experimental pressurized research model powered by supercharged Pratt & Whitney XR-1340-43, 550 hp (410 kW) each. The one production model was tested for the War Department by Lieutenant Ben Kelsey. For this work, the Army Air Corps was awarded the 1937 Collier Trophy. The XC-35 is currently in storage in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum.

The Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior was an engine widely used in American aircraft starting in the 1930s. ... The Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp was an engine widely used in American aircraft starting in the 1920s. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... The Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp was an engine widely used in American aircraft starting in the 1920s. ... Amelia Earhart (1897-1937?) Tyler Allen Rowden is a douchebag Earhart was an influential early female pilot[1]instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, a womens pilots organization[2]. Among her many awards and achievements, Earhart was the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross[3... The Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp was an engine widely used in American aircraft starting in the 1920s. ... The Army Air Corps is a component of the British Army. ... The Collier Trophy is the most prestigious award in the aviation field, given once a year to those that have made the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of which has been... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Preserved Electras

Canada is the home of two Model 10As. The first aircraft in the Air Canada (then called Trans-Canada Air Lines) fleet was an Electra L10A, "TCA." Two Electras were delivered to Trans-Canada Air Lines (TCA) in 1937. They were based in Winnipeg and used for pilot training. Trans-Canada Air Lines ordered three more for transcontinental service; "CF-TCC" was one of those three. These former TCA machines and other 10As were acquired by the RCAF during Second World War, and later sold to private operators. Air Canada Boeing 767-300ER landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Trans-Canada Air Lines (also TCA in English, and Air Canada in French) was a Canadian airline and operated as the countrys flag carrier. ...


TCA survived into the 1960s when Ann Pellegreno between June 7 and July 10, 1967 flew TCA on a round-the-world flight to commemorate Amelia Earhart’s last flight in 1937. The Canada Aviation Museum acquired this aircraft after the commemorative flight. Manufactured in 1937, the Museum example was the first new aircraft purchased by Trans-Canada Air Lines and served with the company until transferred to the RCAF in 1939. Sold in 1941 to a private operator, it was flown until 1967 by various owners. Air Canada restored the aircraft in 1968 and donated it to the Museum. The Canada Aviation Museum (French: Musée de laviation du Canada) is the national aviation history museum, located in Ottawa, Ontario. ...

L-10A Electra "CF-TCC" in Trans-Canada Air Lines livery at the Western Canada Aviation Museum.
L-10A Electra "CF-TCC" in Trans-Canada Air Lines livery at the Western Canada Aviation Museum.

TCC was another former Trans-Canada Air Lines original. CF-TCC was found in Florida by a vacationing Air Canada employee in the early 1980s. Arrangements were made for it to be brought back to Winnipeg where it was restored. It was flown across Canada in 1987 to commemorate Air Canada's 50th Anniversary. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 1336 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1712, 1336 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Trans-Canada Air Lines (also TCA in English, and Air Canada in French) was a Canadian airline and operated as the countrys flag carrier. ... The Western Canada Aviation Museum is a museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. ...


Air Canada maintains the aircraft and uses it to promote the airline. The aircraft was placed on display at Expo 86 after recreating the original TCA cross-country flight in 1937 and continues to be displayed at air shows and conferences. In 2006, it was flown from Toronto to Washington DC for the Airlines International Show [1]. For most of the year, TCC resides at the Western Canada Aviation Museum where it is one of the feature aircraft displayed. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Western Canada Aviation Museum is a museum in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. ...


Two Electras are also preserved in New Zealand's Museum of Transport and Technology. The Museum of Transport and Technology (MOTAT) is a museum located in Western Springs, Auckland, New Zealand. ...


Operators

Commercial

1938 Aeroput summer time table Aeroput (Serbian Cyrillic: Аеропут) was the national airline of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Jat Airways is an airline based in Belgrade, Serbia. ... This article deals with the 1930s airline British Airways Ltd. ... Canadian Airlines International Ltd. ... Continental Airlines (IATA: CO, ICAO: COA, and Callsign: Continental) (NYSE: CAL) is a certificated air carrier of the United States. ... Delta Boeing 757-232 at Los Angeles International Airport in August 2003, showing the livery the airline instituted in 2000. ... For the Chinese airline, see China Eastern Airlines. ... Lan (formerly LanChile) is a airline based at Arturo Merino Benitez International Airport in Santiago, Chile, with flights to Latin America, North America, Polynesia, and Europe. ... LOT Polish Airlines (LOT Polskie Linie Lotnicze) is an airline based in Poland. ... National Airways is an airline based in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Northwest Airlines is an airline headquartered in Eagan, Minnesota in the United States of America. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ... Trans-Canada Air Lines (also TCA in English, and Air Canada in French) was a Canadian airline and operated as the countrys flag carrier. ... Union Airways was the first South African commercial airline. ...

Military

The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) was the air force of Canada from 1924 until 1968 when the three branches of the Canadian military were merged into the Canadian Forces. ... RAF redirects here. ... 1. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense, among other duties of coast guards elsewhere. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...

Specifications (Electra 10A)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 38 ft 7 in (11.8 m)
  • Wingspan: 55 ft 0 in (16.8 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 1 in (3.1 m)
  • Wing area: 458 ft (42.6 m)
  • Empty weight: 6,454 lb (2,930 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 10,500 lb (4,760 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: lb (kg)
  • Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney R-985-13 , 450 hp (340 kW) each

Performance

The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft is allowed to try to achieve flight. ... The Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior was an engine widely used in American aircraft starting in the 1930s. ... VNO of an aircraft is the V speed which refers to the velocity of normal operation. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing as limited by its fuel capacity. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...

References

  • Francillon, René J. Lockheed Aircraft since 1913. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-835-6.

External links

  • XC-35 in the collection of the National Air and Space Museum
  • XC-35 from National Museum of the United States Air Force

Related content

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Designation sequence

  • Army: C-32 - C-33 - C-34 - XC-35 - C-36 - C-37 - C-38 - C-39 - C-40
  • Lockheed: L-8 - L-8A - L-9 - L-10 - L-12 - L-14 - L-15

Related lists

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Lockheed (1574 words)
Model 10 Electras were used for long-distance flights, and Major James "Jimmy" Doolittle flew an Electra from Chicago to New Orleans in five hours 55 minutes in 1936—two hours quicker than the previous fastest time.
The Model 10 Electra was followed by the Model 12 Electra Junior executive transport in 1936 that seated six passengers with a two-person crew.
Many Model 12s were used by the military, and the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) used a Model 12 to evaluate a wing deicing system that used hot air from the engine exhaust.
Airline - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3789 words)
The Vickers Viscount and Lockheed L-188 Electra inaugurated turboprop transport.
The model of such an agreement was the Bermuda Agreement between the US and UK following World War II, which designated airports to be used for transatlantic flights and gave each government the authority to nominate carriers to operate routes.
Bilateral agreements are based on the "freedoms of the air," a group of generalized traffic rights ranging from the freedom to overfly a country to the freedom to provide domestic flights within a country (a very rarely granted right known as cabotage).
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