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Encyclopedia > Lockheed Constellation
Constellation

A Qantas Empire Airways L-749 Constellation. Image File history File links 049-connie-gov. ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ...

Type Airliner
Manufacturer Lockheed
Designed by Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
Hall Hibbard
Maiden flight 9 January 1943
Introduced 1943 with USAAF
1945 with TWA
Retired 1967, airline service
1978, military
Primary user Trans World Airlines
Produced 1943-1958
Number built 856
Variants EC-121 Warning Star

The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. A total of 856 aircraft were produced in four models, all distinguished by a distinctive triple-tail design and graceful, dolphin-shaped fuselage. It was used as both a civilian airliner and U.S. military air transport plane, seeing service in the Berlin Airlift and as the presidential aircraft for U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... Lockheed redirects here. ... Kelly Johnson participated in the design of the Lockheed L-10 Electra, testing a model of the design in the wind tunnel of the University of Michigan. ... Hall Livingstone Hibbard (July 25, 1903 - June 6, 1996) was an engineer and administrator of the Lockheed Corporation beginning with the companys purchase by a board of investors lead by Robert E. Gross in 1932. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Air Transport Command was the World War II-era Army Air Corps (later Army Air Force) precursor to what became the Air Force Military Air Transport Service, then Military Airlift Command and eventually the Air Mobility Command. ... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... Lockheed redirects here. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

Contents

Design and development

Excalibur: the Constellation's predecessor

Since 1937, Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine pressurized airliner. In 1939 Trans World Airlines, at the encouragement of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with 3,500 mile (5,630 km) range[1] - well beyond the capabilities of the limited Excalibur design. TWA's requirements led to the L-049 Constellation, designed by such Lockheed engineers as Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard.[2] Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation.[3] This is a list of aviation-related events from 1937: Events March March 5 - Imperial Airways opens a new flying boat base at Hythe, Hampshire. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1939: Events January January 12 - the RAF Auxiliary Air Force Reserve is formed February February 9 - Alex Henshaw sets a new speed record for the round trip between England and Cape Town in 4 days 10 minutes in a Percival Mew... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... Kelly Johnson participated in the design of the Lockheed L-10 Electra, testing a model of the design in the wind tunnel of the University of Michigan. ... Hall Livingstone Hibbard (July 25, 1903 - June 6, 1996) was an engineer and administrator of the Lockheed Corporation beginning with the companys purchase by a board of investors lead by Robert E. Gross in 1932. ... Willis M. Hawkins (December 1, 1913 - September 28, 2004) was an aeronautical engineer for Lockheed for more than fifty years. ...

The military's C-69 prototype was based on the initial L-049 design.
The military's C-69 prototype was based on the initial L-049 design.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1819x1392, 181 KB) Lockheed Constellation - C-69 (military version) prototype, 1943 Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1819x1392, 181 KB) Lockheed Constellation - C-69 (military version) prototype, 1943 Source: http://www. ...

Development of the Constellation

The Constellation's wing was effectively the same as that of the P-38 Lightning, differing only in scale.[4] The distinctive triple tail kept the aircraft's overall height low enough so that it could fit in existing hangars,[3] while new features included hydraulically-boosted controls and a thermal de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges.[1] P-38 redirects here. ... Ice protection systems are designed to keep atmospheric ice from accumulating on aircraft flight surfaces while in flight. ...


With the onset of World War II, the TWA aircraft entering production were converted to an order for C-69 military transport aircraft, with 202 aircraft intended for the United States Army Air Forces. The first prototype (civil registration NX25600) flew on 9 January 1943, a simple ferry hop from Burbank to Muroc Field for testing.[1] Eddie Allen, on loan from Boeing, flew left seat, with Lockheed's own Milo Burcham as copilot. Rudy Thoren and Kelly Johnson were also on board. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1943: Events January January 27 - the USAAF makes its first daylight raid on Germany January 30 - Royal Air Force de Havilland Mosquitos make the first daylight air-raid on Berlin January 30-31 – the H2S radar is used by RAF bombers... Edwards Air Force Base is a base located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, northeast of Lancaster. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... Clarence Johnson (right) congratulates Milo Burcham on the successful first flight of the XP-80 Shooting Star. ...


With only 22 C-69s delivered before the end of hostilities, the military cancelled the remainder of the order. Aircraft already in production were thus finished as civilian airliners, with TWA receiving the first on 1 October 1945. The first transatlantic proving flight departed Washington, DC on 3 December 1945, arriving in Paris on 4 December via Gander and Shannon.[1] is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rumors persist that Hughes himself was influential in the design of the Constellation, but these are untrue. His only input was suggestions on the required performance and cockpit layout. He left the rest of the design work to Lockheed.[3]


Lockheed also proposed its model L-249 which was to be a long range bomber. It received the military designation XB-30 but the aircraft was never developed or built. The Lockheed XB-30 was the design submitted by Lockheed after the request by the United States Army Air Force for a very heavy bomber, the same request that led to the B-29 Superfortress and B-32 Dominator. ...


Operational history

Super Constellation (C-121C) during pilot training in Epinal - Mirecourt, France
TWA was one of the best-known operators. Pictured is an L1049G with optional 609 U.S. gal (2,307 l) tiptanks.
TWA was one of the best-known operators. Pictured is an L1049G with optional 609 U.S. gal (2,307 l) tiptanks.
Super Connie at Air 04, Payerne, Switzerland
Super Connie at Air 04, Payerne, Switzerland

Trans World Airlines opened post-war commercial intercontinental air service on 6 February 1946, with a New York-Paris flight in a Constellation. On 17 June, 1947, Pan American World Airways opened the first ever regularly-scheduled around-the-world service with their L749 Clipper America. The famous flight Pan Am 101 remained in service for 50 years. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 883 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Swiss Super-Constellation during Pilot Trainings in Epinal - Mirecourt, France File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 883 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Swiss Super-Constellation during Pilot Trainings in Epinal - Mirecourt, France File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Lockheed Constellation. ... Lockheed Constellation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 506 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lockheed Constellation User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (2304 × 1536 pixel, file size: 506 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lockheed Constellation User... Trans World Airlines (IATA: TW, ICAO: TWA, and Callsign: TWA), commonly known as TWA, was an American airline company that was acquired by American Airlines in April 2001. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1947: Events March March 14 - Saudi Arabian Airlines begins regular services. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ...


As the first pressurized airliner in widespread use, the Constellation helped to usher in affordable and comfortable air travel for the masses. Some of the more famous operators of Constellations were TWA, Eastern Air Lines, Pan American World Airways, Air France, BOAC, KLM, Qantas, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines, Panair do Brasil, TAP Portugal, Trans-Canada Airlines (later renamed Air Canada), Aer Lingus and VARIG. Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of air into the cabin of an aircraft to increase the air pressure within the cabin. ... This article is about the defunct U.S. air carrier Eastern Air Lines. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is Europes largest airline company. ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... KLM can also refer to KLM (Human Computer Interaction) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English: Royal Dutch Airlines) is an airline subsidiary of Air France-KLM based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ... Deutsche Lufthansa AG (ISIN: DE0008232125) (pronounced ) is the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried (second is Air France - KLM), and the flag carrier of Germany. ... Airbus A319-100 McDonnell Douglas MD-88 Iberia Airlines or Iberia, full name Iberia Airlines of Spain (Spanish: ), (IBEX-35:IBLA) is the largest airline of Spain, based in Madrid and is the Spanish flag carrier. ... Panair do Brasil was Brazils flag airline and Latin Americas largest carrier from the 1940s through the 1960s. ... Boeing 727 with classic livery 1950s-1980 Airbus A321-200 with former livery 1980-2005 Airbus A321-200 Airbus A320-200 taking off A319 in Faro, Algarve. ... Air Canada Boeing 767 Air Canada Airbus A330 Another Air Canada A330 Air Canada is Canadas flag air carrier and recognised as one of the worlds safest airlines. ... Air Canada (TSX: AC.A, TSX: AC.B) is Canadas largest airline and flag carrier. ... Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland. ... Varig Boeing 737-300 Varig (Viação Aérea RIo Grandense) is an airline owned by Gol Transportes Aéreos based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...


Initial difficulties

The Constellation suffered three accidents in the first ten months of airline service, temporarily curtailing its career as a passenger airliner.[5] On 18 June 1946, the engine of a Pan American aircraft caught fire and fell off. The flight crew was able to make an emergency landing with no loss of life. However, on 11 July of the same year a Transcontinental and Western Air aircraft fell victim to in-flight fire, crashing in a field and taking the lives of five of the six on board.[5] The accidents prompted the suspension of the Constellation's airworthiness certificate until Lockheed could modify the design to avoid repeats of the problems. is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Constellation proved prone to engine failures (thanks to her R3350s), earning the nickname "World's Finest Trimotor." in some circles.[6] Wright R-3350-57 The R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. ...


Records

Sleek and powerful, Constellations set a number of records. On 17 April 1944, the second production L049, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye flew from Burbank, California to Washington D.C. in 6 hours and 57 minutes (c. 2,300 miles at an average 330.9 mph). On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field to give Orville Wright his last plane flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight. He commented that the Constellation's wingspan was longer than the distance of his first flight.[2] is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1944: Events January January 11 - in one of the largest air raids to date, 570 USAAF bombers strike Brunswick, Halberstadt, and Oschersleben. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Fairborn and Dayton, Ohio. ... Orville Wright (August 19, 1871 - January 30, 1948), the younger of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ...


On 29 September 1957, an L1649A Starliner flew from Los Angeles to London in 18 hours and 32 minutes (approximately 5,420 miles at 292.4 mph). The L1649A still holds the record for the longest-duration non-stop passenger flight — during TWA's inaugural London to San Francisco flight on 1-2 October 1957, the aircraft stayed aloft for a remarkable 23 hours and 19 minutes (approximately 5,350 miles at 229.4 mph) is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1957: Events January January 18 - Three Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses make the worlds first round the world, non-stop flight by turbojet-powered aircraft. ... (Redirected from 1 October) October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Obsolescence

The advent of jet airliners, with the de Havilland Comet, Boeing 707, and Convair 880, rendered the piston-engined Constellation obsolete. The first routes lost to jets were the long overseas routes, but Constellations continued to fly domestic routes. The last scheduled passenger flight of a four-engined piston-engined airliner in the United States was made by a TWA L749 on 11 May 1967 from Philadelphia to Kansas City, MO.[7] Many Constellations continued to serve as fast freighters for years to come. This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The first Convair 880 The Convair 880 was a jet airliner produced by the Convair division of General Dynamics. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from Canadian Golden Centennaires aerobatic team is formed and performs all year to celebrate the Canadian centennial year. ...


Timeline

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1939: Events January January 12 - the RAF Auxiliary Air Force Reserve is formed February February 9 - Alex Henshaw sets a new speed record for the round trip between England and Cape Town in 4 days 10 minutes in a Percival Mew... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1943: Events January January 27 - the USAAF makes its first daylight raid on Germany January 30 - Royal Air Force de Havilland Mosquitos make the first daylight air-raid on Berlin January 30-31 – the H2S radar is used by RAF bombers... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1943: Events January January 27 - the USAAF makes its first daylight raid on Germany January 30 - Royal Air Force de Havilland Mosquitos make the first daylight air-raid on Berlin January 30-31 – the H2S radar is used by RAF bombers... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1946: // Events January January 1 - a British South American Airways Avro Lancastrian becomes the first commercial flight to depart Heathrow Airport January 10 - a Sikorsky R5 sets an unofficial helicopter altitude record of 6,400 m (21,000 ft) at Stratford... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1947: Events March March 14 - Saudi Arabian Airlines begins regular services. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1950: Events Arrow Air is founded March March 20 - Royal Air Force Avro Lincoln bombers are sent to Singapore to be used against the Communist guerillas of Malaya in the Malayan Emergency. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1956: Events March March 10 - Lt Cdr Peter Twiss sets a new airspeed record in the Fairey Delta FD.2, also becoming the first person to exceed 1,000 mph. ...

Variants

Main article: List of models of the Lockheed Constellation
Super Constellation at Charles Prince Airport, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1975. Used as a flying club headquarters.
Super Constellation at Charles Prince Airport, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1975. Used as a flying club headquarters.

The Constellation was produced in both civil and military versions. The initial military versions carried the Lockheed designation of L-049; as World War II came to a close, some were completed as civil L-049 Constellations. The first purpose-built passenger Constellation was the more powerful L-649, followed by the L-1049 Super Constellation and L-1649 Starliner. Military versions included the C-69 and C-121 for the Army Air Forces/Air Force and the R7O R7V-1 WV-1 (L-1049G) WV-2 (L-1049H) (famously Willie Victor) and many variant EC-121 designations for the Navy [8][9] The Lockheed Constellation was a civil airliner and military transport in operation in the 1940s and 1950s. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 296 pixelsFull resolution (2558 × 948 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Super Constellation being used as flying club headquarters at Salisbury Airport, Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe) 1975 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 296 pixelsFull resolution (2558 × 948 pixel, file size: 433 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Super Constellation being used as flying club headquarters at Salisbury Airport, Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe) 1975 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ...


Operators

Main article: List of Lockheed Constellation operators

Constellations were used by dozens of airlines and air forces around the world. After TWA's initial order was filled following World War II, customers rapidly accumulated, with over 800 aircraft built. In military service, the US Navy and Air Force operated the EC-121 Warning Star variant until 1978, nearly 40 years after work on the L-049 began. Pakistan International Airlines was the first airline from an Asian country to fly the Super Constellation. The Lockheed Constellation was used by dozens of airlines and militaries around the world. ... The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... Pakistan International Airlines Corporation, more commonly known as Pakistan International Airlines or PIA (Urdu: پی آئی اے يا پاکستان انٹرنیشنل ایرلاینز), is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan, based in Karachi. ...


Surviving examples

President Dwight D. Eisenhower flew in two Constellations, named Columbine II and Columbine III.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower flew in two Constellations, named Columbine II and Columbine III.
  • Two Constellations, the VC-121E Columbine III, used as Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential aircraft, and an EC-121 Warning Star are fully restored and on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio. Several former Air Force One craft are on display at the Pima Air Museum, Tucson, used by President Eisenhower and his successors.[10]
  • A military C-121A (Bataan) is on display at Planes of Fame in Valle, Arizona. This plane is in flying condition.
  • Swiss watch manufacturer Breitling has sponsored a restoration of a Constellation that has since been featured in its ads.[11]
  • The Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) secured and restored a former USAF C-121C Super Constellation (54-0157). The aircraft was subsequently painted in pseudo-QANTAS livery (with the usual QANTAS lettering along the fuselage replaced with the word "CONNIE") and registered in Australia as VH-EAG. The aircraft is currently based in Wollongong.[12]
N4257U on display at the Combat Air Museum in Topeka, Ks.
N4257U on display at the Combat Air Museum in Topeka, Ks.
  • An L-1049G (Super G) Constellation that was built originally for cargo carrier Slick Airways was restored in 1986 by the "Save-a-Connie" organization, now the Airline History Museum, and repainted in the 1950s livery of TWA to resemble its original "Star of America" Constellation. The aircraft appeared at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport at the original TWA terminal designed by Eero Saarinen to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the airline. With the paint job said to have been donated by retired TWA workers in Kansas City, the "Star of America" continues to appear at air shows and was even used in The Aviator, the 2005 film depicting the life of TWA's one-time owner Howard Hughes---the man often credited with helping design and develop the original Constellation series. As of 2008 The Airline History Museum has come into financial difficulties, with the Connie, grounded for two years and due for engine overhaul, her future remains uncertain.
  • One Super Constellations is parked on an unused runway in the Rafael Hernandez International airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. It was struck by a runaway DC-4 at Aguadilla-Borinquen Airport, on 3 February 1992, resulting in damage to the right wing and main spar.
  • N4257U c/n 4336 Final registration - N4257U, Delivered to USAF October 1954 as RC-121D 52-3418, Redesignated EC-121D 1962, Converted to EC-121T but upper radome not removed, Reassigned to USAF Reserves at Homestead AFB, FL by July 1974, Retired and flown to Davis Monthan AFB for storage 7 April 1976, Reassigned to the Combat Air Museum, Topeka, KS, March 1981 as N4257U and ferried to Topeka, KS June 1981 with Frank Lang in command, On display at the Combat Air Museum, Topeka, Ks.
  • ZS-DVH c/n 1042 (L1649A) of Trek Airways on display at OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa at the South African Airways Technical area.
  • The Dutch National air museum Aviodrome acquired a Constellation which was painstakingly restored and painted in KLM livery of its day. Thanks to a donation by Korean Air, who donated two airworthy engines, this bird made its second maiden flight in March 2008. Renamed Flevoland, she's the only flying example of the short version of the Constellation.

United States Air Force Museum photograph. ... United States Air Force Museum photograph. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Riverside, Ohio, just east of Dayton. ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... The Pima Air & Space Museum is the worlds largest non-government funded aerospace museum. ... Tucson (pronounced ) is the seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, located 118 miles (188 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles (98 km) north of the U.S.-Mexico border. ... One of the museums flyable P-51 Mustangs. ... Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ... Breitling logo Breitling is a brand of Swiss watches from the Canton of Jura. ... Saarinens Gateway Arch frames The Old Courthouse, which sits at the heart of the city of Saint Louis, near the rivers edge. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation) The Aviator is an Academy Award-winning 2004 American biographical drama film, directed by Martin Scorsese, and based largely on the book Howard Hughes: The Secret Life by Charles Higham. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Entrance of the Museum The aviodrome is a large aviation museum in The Netherlands located on Lelystad Airport since 2003. ... KLM can also refer to KLM (Human Computer Interaction) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English: Royal Dutch Airlines) is an airline subsidiary of Air France-KLM based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Korean Air (formerly Korean Air Lines) (KRXS: 003490) (Korean Air Daehan Hanggong) is the flag carrier airline of Korea, its global headquarters are located in Seoul, Korea. ...

Specifications (L-1049G Super Constellation)

Data from Great Aircraft of the World[13] and Quest for Performance[14] Image File history File links L-1049G_3-view. ...


General characteristics

  • Crew: 5 flight crew, varying cabin crew
  • Capacity: typically 62-95 passengers (109 in high-density configuration)
  • Length: 116 ft 2 in (35.42 m)
  • Wingspan: 126 ft 2 in (38.47 m)
  • Height: 24 ft 9 in (7.54 m)
  • Wing area: 1,654 ft² (153.7 m²)
  • Empty weight: 79,700 lb (36,150 kg)
  • Useful load: 65,300 lb (29,620 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 137,500 lb (62,370kg)
  • Powerplant: 4× Wright R-3350-DA3 Turbo Compound 18-cylinder supercharged[citation needed] radial engines, 3,250 hp (2,424 kW) each
  • Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0211

Performance

See also

Related development The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft can achieve flight. ... Wright R-3350-57 The R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone was one of the most powerful radial aircraft engines produced in the United States. ... For other meanings, see supercharger (disambiguation) A supercharger (sometimes called a blower), a positive displacement or centrifugal pump, is a gas compressor used to pump air into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. ... The radial engine is an internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders point outward from a central crankshaft like the spokes on a wheel. ... In aerodynamics, the zero-lift drag coefficient is a dimensionless parameter which relates an aircrafts zero-lift drag force to its size, speed, and flying altitude. ... In aerodynamics, the zero-lift drag coefficient is a dimensionless parameter which relates an aircrafts zero-lift drag force to its size, speed, and flying altitude. ... The low aspect ratio wing of a Piper PA-28 Cherokee In aerodynamics, the aspect ratio is an airplanes wings span divided by its standard mean chord (SMC). ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... Stall speed is an aerodynamic term. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... In aerodynamics, wing loading is the loaded weight of the aircraft divided by the area of the wing. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio (ell-over-dee in the US, ell-dee in the UK), is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, compared to the drag it creates by moving through the air. ... 1930 transcontinental air speed record in his PA-6 Pitcairn Mailwing named Yankee Clipper From left to right are: Frank Hawks and Robert Buck at the Trenton, New Jersey Air Meet in 1930 Last flight for TWA on January 28, 1974 Robert Nietzel Buck (born January 29, 1914, in Elizabeth...

  • EC-121 Warning Star
  • P-38 Lightning

Comparable aircraft The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... P-38 redirects here. ...

Related lists The Boeing 377 Stratocruiser was airliner version of the 367 Boeing Stratofreighter, which in turn was the transport version of B-29 Superfortress. ... The Douglas DC-6 is a piston-powered airliner and transport aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1946 to 1959. ... The Douglas DC-7 is an aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company from 1953 to 1958. ...

This is, as far as possible, a complete list of aircraft produced or proposed by the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation from its founding as the Lockheed Aircraft Company in 1926 to its merging with Martin Marietta to form the Lockheed Martin Corporation in 1995. ... The Lockheed Constellation was a civil airliner and military transport in operation in the 1940s and 1950s. ... This list of military aircraft of the United States includes prototype, pre-production and operational types. ... This list of military aircraft of the United States includes prototype, pre-production and operational types. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Taylor 1993, p. 606–607.
  2. ^ a b Yenne 1987, p. 44–46.
  3. ^ a b c Boyne 1998, p. 135-137.
  4. ^ Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly". Kelly: More Than My Share of it All. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 1985. ISBN 0-87474-491-1.
  5. ^ a b "The Star of Lisbon." Time, 22 June 1946.
  6. ^ Stringfellow and Bowers 1992, p. 120 caption.
  7. ^ Germain 1998, p. 89.
  8. ^ Swanborough, Gordon and Bowers, Peter M. United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1976. ISBN 0-87021-968-5.
  9. ^ Fahey, James C. The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, volumes 1-4, 1939-45. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1965.
  10. ^ Pima Museum iCrew Digital Productions, 2006.
  11. ^ Super Connie
  12. ^ Historical Aircraft Restoration Society Super Constellation
  13. ^ Cacutt 1989, p. 314-322.
  14. ^ Loftin, L.K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.

Kelly Johnson participated in the design of the Lockheed L-10 Electra, testing a model of the design in the wind tunnel of the University of Michigan. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN 0-31224-438-X.
  • Cacutt, Len, ed. “Lockheed Constellation.” Great Aircraft of the World. London: Marshall Cavendish, 1989. ISBN 1-85435-250-4.
  • Germain, Scott E. Lockheed Constellation and Super Constellation. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-000-0.
  • Marson, Peter J. The Lockheed Constellation Series. Tonbridge, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 1982. ISBN 0-85130-100-2.
  • Smith, M.J. Jr. Passenger Airliners of the United States, 1926-1991. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1986. ISBN 0-933126-72-7.
  • Stringfellow, Curtis K. and Bowers, Peter M. Lockheed Constellation: A Pictorial History. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-379-8.
  • Taylor, Michael J.H., ed. “Lockheed Constellation and Super Constellation.” Jane’s Encyclopedia of Aviation. New York: Crescent, 1993. ISBN 0-517-10316-8.
  • Yenne, Bill, Lockheed. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1987. ISBN 0-51760-471-X.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of altitude records reached by different aircraft types. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ...

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