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Encyclopedia > Local government in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

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Politics and government of
United Kingdom
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Her Majesty's Government
Sovereign (Queen Elizabeth II)

The Crown
The Privy Council
Cabinet
A logo of Her Majestys Government. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Prime Minister (Gordon Brown MP)
Chancellor (Alistair Darling MP)
Foreign Secretary (David Miliband MP)
Home Secretary (Jacqui Smith MP)
Justice Secretary (Jack Straw MP)
Full list of members
Parliament
State Opening of Parliament

House of Lords
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Alistair Maclean Darling (born November 28, 1953) is a British politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer since June 28, 2007. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... David Wright Miliband (born 15 July 1965) is a British politician who is the current Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [1] and Member of Parliament for the constituency of South Shields, Tyne and Wear. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department (the Home Secretary) is the chief United Kingdom government minister responsible for law and order in England and Wales; his or her remit includes policing, the criminal justice system, the prison service, internal security, and matters of citizenship and immigration. ... Jacqueline Jill Smith (born 3 November 1962) is a British politician who has been Home Secretary since 28 June 2007 and is the current Member of Parliament for Redditch, since 1997. ... The Secretary of State for Justice is a United Kingdom cabinet position. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Gordon Brown is currently serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...

Lord Speaker (Baroness Hayman)

House of Commons
The Lord Speaker (or Lady Speaker) will be a new position in the British Parliament created once the Constitutional Reform Acts provisions about the Speakership of the House of Lords comes into effect. ... Hélène Valerie Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC, née Middleweek (born 26 March 1949) is a Labour policitian. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...

Speaker (Michael Martin MP)
Leader (Harriet Harman MP)
Prime Minister's Questions

Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition
In the United Kingdom, the Speaker of the House of Commons is the presiding officer of the House of Commons, and is seen historically as the First Commoner of the Land. ... Michael John Martin MP (born 3 July 1945) is the current Speaker of the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Harriet Ruth Harman QC, MP (born July 30, 1950, London) is a British Solicitor and Labour politician. ... Prime Ministers Questions (PMQs) (officially Questions to the Prime Minister) is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom, where every Wednesday when the House of Commons is sitting the Prime Minister spends half an hour answering questions from Members of Parliament (MPs). In Canada, this convention is known as... Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, or the Official Opposition in the United Kingdom is the largest opposition party in the House of Commons. ...

Leader (David Cameron MP)
Shadow Cabinet
Bureaucracy
Government departments

The Civil Service The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... Her Majestys Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministers and Secretaries of State. ... Her Majestys Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. ...

Judiciary
Courts of the United Kingdom
Courts of England and Wales
Courts of Northern Ireland
Courts of Scotland

Constitution
Human rights The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland another. ... Schematic of court system for England and Wales The Courts of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they are constituted and governed by the Law of England and Wales and are subordinate to the Parliament of the... The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system — England and Wales have one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. ... The Courts of Scotland are the civil, criminal and heraldic courts responsible for the administration of justice in Scotland. ... The United Kingdom has a long and established tradition of respect for its citizens human rights. ...

Constituent countries
Politics of Scotland
Scottish Government
Scottish Parliament

Politics of Wales
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Politics of Scotland forms a distinctive part of the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Scotland one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Government is an unofficial term often used to describe the Scottish Executive. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ...

Welsh Assembly Government
National Assembly for Wales

Politics of Northern Ireland
Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... // Population 1,685,267 Place of birth Northern Ireland: 1,534,268 (91. ...

Northern Ireland Executive
Northern Ireland Assembly

Politics of England
The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ...

English Regional Assemblies

Reserved matters
Local government
Greater London Authority Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... In Scotland reserved matters, also referred to as reserved powers, are those subjects over which power to legislate is retained by Westminster, as explicitly stated in the Scotland Act 1998. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...

Elections
Parliament constituencies

Political parties
Last election
Next election
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Other
Foreign relations

Politics of the European Union
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There is no single system of local government in the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom is made up of constituent countries, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Each has a different system of local government. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...

Contents

Structure

Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

See also: Local government in Scotland

These three parts of the United Kingdom each have devolved legislature and government - the Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive, the National Assembly for Wales and Welsh Assembly Government, and the Northern Ireland Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive respectively. These bodies are part of the national, rather than local, tier of government in the UK. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Devolution or home rule is the granting of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ... Official logo of the Welsh Assembly Government The Welsh Assembly Government (WAG) (Welsh: , LlCC) was firstly an executive body of the National Assembly for Wales, consisting of the First Minister and his Cabinet from 1999 to 2007. ... The logo of the Northern Ireland Assembly, a six flowered linen or flax plant. ... The Northern Ireland Executive as established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 is the (currently suspended) executive body for Northern Ireland, answerable to the Northern Ireland Assembly. ...


They each use a pattern of unitary authorities, meaning there is a single tier of local government. There are 32 council areas in Scotland, 22 counties and county boroughs in Wales, and 26 districts in Northern Ireland. A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as Council Areas of Scotland which are all governed by unitary authorities designated as Councils which have the option under the Local Government (Gaelic Names) (Scotland) Act 1997 (as chosen by Na h-Eileanan an Iar) of being known... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ...


The rest of this article excludes the situation in Scotland, see Local government in Scotland. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


England

The pattern in England is more complex. Unlike the other three constituent countries England has no separate governing body for the whole of it other than that of the Government of the United Kingdom (for the issue of an English legislature, see devolved English parliament). It is subdivided into 9 regions. One of these, London, has an elected Assembly and Mayor, but the others have a relatively minor role, with unelected regional assemblies and Regional Development Agencies. map showing top-level local authorities in England File links The following pages link to this file: Subdivisions of England Local government in the United Kingdom Categories: GFDL images ... map showing top-level local authorities in England File links The following pages link to this file: Subdivisions of England Local government in the United Kingdom Categories: GFDL images ... For local government purposes, England is divided into three types of areas - non-unitary authorities, unitary authorities, and London boroughs. ... The agencies responsible for the government of the United Kingdom consist of a number of ministerial departments (usually headed by a Secretary of State) and non-ministerial departments headed by senior civil servants. ... A devolved English Parliament, giving separate decision-making powers to representatives for voters in England similar to the representation given by the Welsh Assembly, Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly, is currently an issue in British politics. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The London Assembly is an elected body that supervises the Greater London Authority and the Mayor of London. ... Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London The Mayor of London is an elected politician in London, United Kingdom. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... Regional Development Agencies are Non-Departmental Public Bodies, sponsored by Central Government Departments, for the development of each of the UKs Government Office regions. ...


Excluding Greater London, England has two different patterns of local government in use. In some areas there is a county council responsible for some services within a county, with several district councils responsible for other services. These councils are elected in separate elections. Some areas have only one level of local government, and these are dubbed unitary authorities. In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... Non-metropolitan districts or commonly Shire districts are a type of local government district in England. ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ...


Councils of counties are called 'X County Council', whereas district councils can be 'District Council', 'Borough Council', or 'City Council' depending upon the status of the district. Unitary authorities may be called County Councils, Metropolitan Borough Councils, Borough Councils,City Councils, District Councils, or sometimes just Councils. These names do not change the role or authority of the council.


Overall responsibility for issues such as transport in Greater London is vested in the Greater London Authority. London is then divided into 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which have powers between a normal district and a unitary authority. The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ...

Administrative divisions of England. ... The region, also known as Government Office Region, is currently the highest tier of local government subnational entity of England in the United Kingdom. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are one of the four levels of English administrative division used for the purposes of local government. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is a county level entity which is not a metropolitan county. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... Non-metropolitan districts or commonly Shire districts are a type of local government district in England. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains thirty-two London boroughs. ... A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ...

Councils and councillors

Councils have historically had no split between executive or legislature. Functions are vested in the council itself, and then exercised usually by committees or subcommittees of the council. The post of leader was recognised, and leaders typically chair several important committees, but had no special authority. The chair of the council itself is an honorary position with no real power. A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ...


Under section 15 the Local Government and Housing Act 1989, committees must roughly reflect the political party makeup of the council; before it was permitted for a party with control of the council to 'pack' committees with their own members. Political Parties redirects here. ...


This pattern was based on that established for municipal boroughs by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and then later adopted for county councils and rural districts. A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... The Municipal Reform Act 1835 required members of town councils (municipal corporations) to be elected by ratepayers and councils to publish their financial accounts. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ...


In 2000 Parliament passed the Local Government Act 2000 to require councils to move to an executive-based system, either with the council leader and a cabinet acting as an executive authority, or with a directly-elected mayor, either with a mayor and cabinet drawn from the councillors; or a mayor and council manager. There is a small exception to this whereby smaller district councils (population of less than 80,000) can adopt a modified committee system. The principal purposes of the Local Government Act 2000 are: to give powers to local authorities to promote economic, social and environmental well-being within their boundaries to require local authorities to shift from their traditional committee-based system of decision-making to an executive model, possibly with a directly... A Cabinet-style Council is a type of United Kingdom for Local Councils in recent years. ... In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor (Provost and Lord Provost in Scotland) had long been ceremonial posts, with little or no duties attached to it. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ...


Most councils are using the council leader and cabinet option, whilst 52 smaller councils have been allowed to propose alternative arrangements based on the older system (Section 31 of the Act), and Brighton and Hove invoked a similar provision (Section 27(2)(b)) when a referendum to move to a directly-elected mayor was defeated. Brighton and Hove is a city on the south coast of England. ...


There are now twelve directly-elected mayors, in districts where a referendum was in favour of them. Many of the mayors are independents (notably in Hartlepool and Middlesbrough, which in parliamentary elections are usually Labour Party strongholds). Since May 2002 only a handful of referendums have been held, and they have all been negative apart from Torbay. Of the mayors, all but Stoke-on-Trent's are mayor and cabinet-based. Having won the 2005 General Election and a third term of office, the government is approaching the issue in a new way and is considering introducing new Elected Mayors on the basis of larger 'City Region' areas which will mean a reorganisation of the local authorities affected into larger units with wider powers. In any case, the issue may be given fresh impetus with a number of Mayoral referendums being triggered by campaigns receiving the necessary 5% support of the local authority electorate. Referendums (or referenda) are only occasionally held by the government of the United Kingdom. ... , Hartlepool is a North Sea port in North East England. ... Middlesborough redirects here. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Torbay (IPA: ) is an east-facing bay, at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south-west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ...


The Executive, in whichever form, is held to account by the remainder of the Councillors acting as the 'Overview and Scrutiny function' - calling the Executive to account for their actions and to justify their future plans. As a relatively new concept within local government, this is arguably an under-developed part of local municipal administration. In a related development, the Health and Social Care Act 2001, Police and Justice Act 2006, and 2006 local government white paper set out a role for local government Overview and Scrutiny in creating greater local accountability for a range of public sector organisations. Overview and Scrutiny is a function of local authorities in England and Wales. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Overview and Scrutiny is a function of local authorities in England and Wales. ...


Officers

Councillors cannot do the work of the council themselves, and so are responsible for appointment and oversight of officers, who are delegated to perform most tasks. Local authorities nowadays have to appoint a 'Chief Executive Officer', with overall responsibility for council employees, and who operates in conjunction with department heads. The Chief Executive Officer position is weak compared to the council manager system seen in other countries (and in Stoke). The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ...


In some areas, much of the work previously undertaken directly by council employees has been privatised. Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ...


Functions and powers

Districts are responsible for leisure, environmental health, housing — including the provision of social housing and housing benefit, rubbish collection, and local roads. Counties are responsible for more strategic services such as education, libraries, main roads, social services, trading standards and transport. Unitary authorities exercise all these functions. Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... Housing Benefit is a means tested social security benefit in the UK that is intended to help people with low incomes and low savings pay for rented accommodation. ...


All sorts of councils also have a general power to 'promote economic, social and environmental well-being' of their area. However, like all public bodies, they are limited by the doctrine of ultra vires, and may only do things that common law or an Act of Parliament specifically or generally allows for - in contrast to the earlier incorporated municipal corporations which were treated as natural persons and could undertake whatever activities they wished to. Ultra vires is a Latin phrase that literally means beyond the power. ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...


Councils may promote Local Acts in Parliament to grant them special powers. For example, Kingston upon Hull, had for many years a municipally-owned telephone company, Kingston Communications. Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Kingston Communications PLC is a telecommunications provider based in Kingston upon Hull serving primarily the East Yorkshire area. ...


Joint-boards

Local authorities sometimes provide services on a joint basis with other authorities, through bodies known as joint-boards. Joint-boards are not directly elected but are made up of councillors appointed from the authorities which are covered by the service.


Typically joint-boards are created to avoid splitting up certain services when unitary authorities are created, or a county or regional council is abolished. A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ...


In other cases, if several authorities are considered too small (either in terms of geographic size or population) to run a service effectively by themselves, joint-boards are established. Typical services run by joint-boards include policing, fire services, public transport and sometimes waste disposal authorities. Firefighter with an axe A firefighter, sometimes still called a fireman though women have increasingly joined firefighting units, is a person who is trained and equipped to put out fires, rescue people and in some areas provide emergency medical services. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ...


If a county is too small to justify its own police force, a joint police force is used which covers several counties, for example the West Mercia Constabulary covers Shropshire, Telford and Wrekin, Herefordshire and Worcestershire. West Mercia Constabulary is the Home Office police force responsible for policing the counties of Shropshire (including Telford and Wrekin), Herefordshire and Worcestershire in England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Telford and Wrekin is a unitary district with borough status in the West Midlands region of England. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ...


In the six metropolitan counties the metropolitan borough councils, also appoint members to joint county-wide Passenger Transport Authorities to oversee public transport, and joint waste disposal authorities, which were created after the county councils were abolished. The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... In the United Kingdom, Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. ... Bangkok Skytrain. ...


Joint-boards were used extensively in Greater London when the Greater London Council was abolished, to avoid splitting up some London wide services. These functions have now been taken over by the Greater London Authority. Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ...


Similar arrangements exist in Berkshire where the county council was abolished, and in some former Scottish regions such as Strathclyde, where the regional councils have been abolished. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The nine Regions of Scotland were established under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 as the uppermost tier of local government in Scotland. ... Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic) was one of the regional council areas of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. ...


If a joint body is legally required to exist it is known as a joint-board. However local authorities sometimes create joint bodies voluntarily and these are known as joint-committees [1].


Corporation of London

The City of London covers a square mile (2.6 km²) in the heart of London. It is governed by the Corporation of London, which has a unique structure. The Corporation has been broadly untouched by local government reforms and democratisation. The business vote was abolished for other parts of the country in 1969, but due to the low resident population of the City this was thought impractical. In fact, the business vote was recently extended in the City to cover more companies. Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Coat of arms of the City of London as shown on Blackfriars station. ...


Funding

Local councils are funded by a combination of central government grants, Council Tax (a locally set tax based on house value), Business Rates, and fees and charges from certain services including decriminalised parking enforcement. The proportion of revenue that comes from Council Tax is low, meaning that if a council wishes to increase its funding modestly, it has to put up Council Tax by a large amount. Central government retains the right to 'cap' Council Tax if it deems it to be too much. This is an area of debate in British politics at the moment, with councils and central government blaming each other for council tax rises. Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation-state. ... The Council Tax is the main form of local taxation in England, Scotland and Wales. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Business rates are a United Kingdom tax charged to businesses and other occupiers of non-domestic property. ... Vehicle clamping Vehicle removal Decriminalised Parking Enforcement (DPE) is the name given in the United Kingdom to the civil enforcement of car parking regulations. ...


Council Tax is collected by the district-level council. Authorities such as the GLA, parish councils, county councils, passenger transport authorities, fire authorities, police authorities, and national parks authorities can make a precept. This shows up as an independent element on council tax bills, but is collected by the district and funnelled to the precepting authority. Some joint ventures are instead funded by levy. The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 km² (610 sq. ... Police authority - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A Precept (from the Latin præcipere, to teach) is a commandment, instruction, or order intended as an authoritative rule of action. ... Look up Levy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Elections

England and Wales

The area which a council covers is divided into one or more electoral divisions - known in district and parish councils as 'wards', and in county councils as 'electoral divisions'. Each ward can return one or more members - multi-member wards are quite common. There is no requirement for the size of wards to be the same within a district, so one ward can return one member and another ward can return two. Metropolitan borough wards must return a multiple of three councillors, whilst until the Local Government Act 2003 multiple-member county electoral divisions were forbidden. A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods... The Local Govenment Act 2003 is notable for being the parliamentary act that repealed Section 28. ...


In the election, the candidates to receive the most votes win – the multi-member plurality system. There is no element of proportional representation, so if four candidates from the Mauve Party poll 2,000 votes each, and four candidates from the Taupe Party poll 1,750 votes each, all four Mauve candidates will be returned, and no Taupe candidates will. Although this has been said by some to be undemocratic,[1] minor and local single-issue parties do tend to do much better at local elections than they do in general elections, so the case for reform is perhaps less clear. In any event, the system is not likely to change for the foreseeable future. Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... Single-issue politics involves political campaigning or political support based on one essential policy area or idea. ...


The term of a councillor is usually four years. Councils may be elected wholly, every four years, or 'by thirds', where a third of the councillors get elected each year, with one year with no elections. Recently the 'by halves' system, whereby half of the council is elected every two years, has been allowed. All Welsh councils are elected all at once on a four-year cycle, the year after the Welsh Assembly elections. This article is about the country. ... Type Unicameral Presiding Officer Dafydd Elis-Thomas Members 60 Political groups Labour Plaid Cymru Conservative Liberal Democrats Last elections May 3, 2007 Meeting place Senedd, Cardiff, Wales Web site http://www. ...


Sometimes wholesale boundary revisions will mean the entire council will be re-elected, before returning to the previous elections by thirds or by halves over the coming years.


Scotland and Northern Ireland

In Scotland, the Labour-Liberal Democrat Scottish Executive coalition agreed to introduce the single transferable vote for local government elections from 2007 onwards as part of its programme for government for the 2003-2007 session of the Scottish Parliament. Proportional representation for local government was a long-standing objective of the Liberal Democrats, and the party made it a non-negotiable condition of their signing up to a second coalition with Labour. Legal effect was given to the parties' agreed policy by the Local Governance (Scotland) Act 2004. Wards will elect three or four members each, and elections will continue to take place on the same day as those to the Holyrood legislature. This article is about the country. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, are a liberal political party based in the United Kingdom. ... The Executives logo, shown with English and Scottish Gaelic caption The term Scottish Executive is used in two different, but closely-related senses: to denote the executive arm of Scotlands national legislature (i. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ...


Elections take place every four years, the same year as the elections to the Scottish Parliament. This recently replaced a three-year cycle. The last elections took place in 2003 (see United Kingdom local elections, 2003), and the next elections are due in 2007 (see United Kingdom local elections, 2007). For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... Local elections in various parts of the United Kingdom were held on May 1, 2003, on the same day as the Scottish Parliamentary Election, 2003 and the Welsh Assembly Election, 2003. ... Entrance to a polling station in the market town of Haverhill, Suffolk on 3 May 2007. ...


In Northern Ireland, local elections also use STV, with several multi-member electoral areas in each district. As in Scotland, elections take place for the whole council every four years. The last elections took place in 2005 (see United Kingdom local elections, 2005), and the next elections are due in 2009 (see United Kingdom local elections, 2009). Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 districts for local government purposes. ... Elections for local government were held in the United Kingdom on May 5, 2005 along with the 2005 general election. ...


Parishes and communities

Below the district level, a district may be divided into several civil parishes. In Wales and Scotland parishes are instead known as 'communities'. Collectively these are known as 'local councils'.[citation needed] A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... Community councils (CCs) are the most local official representative bodies in Scotland and Wales. ...


Some civil parishes are deemed too small to have a feasible parish council. So, instead, they hold parish meetings which all residents can attend and normally speak at. Furthermore, several parishes that form a single contiguous area may share either a parish council or a parish meeting, even though the constituent parishes still maintain their otherwise separate identity, and even have separate parish wards that can elect parish councillors. A parish meeting, in England, or a community meeting, in Wales, is a meeting to which all the electors in a civil parish or a Welsh community are entitled to attend. ...


Local councils have various local responsibilities. Typical activities undertaken by a parish council include allotments, parks, public clocks, and entering Britain in Bloom. They also have a consultative role in planning. A typical allotment plot, Essex, England Allotment gardens are characterized by a concentration in one place of a few or up to several hundreds of land parcels that are assigned to individual families. ... Britain in Bloom is a horticultural competition in the United Kingdom. ...


The absence or presence of local councils does not count towards whether a district is unitary or not. Councils such as districts, counties and unitaries are known as principal local authorities in order to differentiate them in their legal status from parish and town councils, which are not uniform in their existence.


Local councils tend not to exist in metropolitan areas but there is nothing to stop their establishment. For example, Birmingham has a parish, New Frankley. However, parishes have not existed in Greater London since 1965 but a recent government white paper and the 2005 Labour Party election manifesto signalled that the legislative ban would be lifted to enable their creation. This article is about the British city. ... New Frankley is the only civil parish in Birmingham, England. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In some districts, the rural area is parished and the urban is not - such as in the borough of Shrewsbury and Atcham, where the town of Shrewsbury is unparished and has no local councils, while the countryside around the town is parished. In others, there is a more complex mixture, as in the case of Crewe and Nantwich, where Nantwich is parished, Crewe is not, and many parishes share a parish council with neighbouring parishes. Shrewsbury and Atcham is a local government district with borough status in Shropshire, England. ... Crewe and Nantwich is one of six local government districts in the administrative county of Cheshire, England. ... Nantwich is a market town in south Cheshire, England, in the Borough and parliamentary constituency of Crewe and Nantwich. ... Map sources for Crewe at grid reference SJ705557 Crewe is a town in south Cheshire, in the north west of England. ...


Boundaries

Responsibility for minor revisions to local government areas falls to a different body in each part of the UK: the Boundary Committee for England, the Local Government Boundary Commission for Scotland, the Local Government Boundary Commission for Wales and the Local Government Boundary Commission for Northern Ireland. The Boundary Committee for England is an independent body in England responsible for defining borders for local elections; and for conducting reviews of local government areas. ... The Local Government Boundary Commission for Scotland is an independent body in Scotland responsible for reviewing electoral arrangements for local elections. ... The Local Government Boundary Commission for Wales (known in Welsh as Comisiwn Ffiniau Llywodraeth Leol i Gymru) is an independent body in Wales responsible for defining borders for local elections. ...


Revisions are usually undertaken to avoid borders straddling new development, to bring them back into line with a diverted watercourse, or to align them with roads or other features. A waterway is any navigable body of water. ...


Sizes

Sizes of council areas vary widely. The most populated unitary authority area in England is Birmingham (a metropolitan borough) with 977,087 people (2001 census), and the least populated non-metropolitan unitary area is Rutland with 34,563. However, these are outliers, and most English unitary authorities have a population in the range 150,000 to 300,000. A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... This article is about the British city. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... Oakham Castle Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ...


The smallest non-unitary district in England is Teesdale at 24,457 people, and the largest Northampton at 194,458. All but 9 non-unitary English districts have less than 150,000, though. Teesdale is a local government district in County Durham, England. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ...


Names

Where a district is coterminous with a town, the name is an easy choice to make. In some cases, a district is named after its main town, despite there being other towns in the district. Confusingly, such districts sometimes have city status, and so for example the City of Canterbury contains several towns apart from Canterbury, which have distinct identities. Similarly Chester contains a number of large villages and extensive countryside, which is quite distinct from the main settlement of Chester. Historically, city status was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... The City of Canterbury is a local government district with city status in Kent, England. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Chester is a local government district in Cheshire, North West England, with the status of a city. ... , For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...


They can be named after traditional subdivisions (Spelthorne), rivers (Eden, Arun), a modified version of their main town's name (Harborough, Wycombe), or after a geographical feature in the district (Cotswold, Cannock Chase). Purely geographical names can also be used (South Bucks, Suffolk Coastal, North West Leicestershire). Spelthorne is a local government district and borough in Surrey, England. ... Eden is a local government district in Cumbria, England. ... For other uses, see Arun (disambiguation). ... Harborough is a local government district of Leicestershire, England, named for its main town, Market Harborough. ... Wycombe is an local government district in Buckinghamshire in south central England. ... Cotswold is a local government district in Gloucestershire in England. ... Cannock Chase is a local government district in England. ... South Bucks is one of four local government districts in Buckinghamshire, in south central England. ... Suffolk Coastal is a local government district in Suffolk, England. ... North West Leicestershire is a local government district in Leicestershire, England. ...


In Great Britain, councils have a general power to change the name of the district, and consequently their own name. In England and Wales this is exercised under section 74 of the Local Government Act 1972. Such a resolution must have two thirds of the votes at a meeting convened for the purpose. The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ...


Ceremonial functions

The boroughs are in many cases descendants of boroughs set up hundreds of years ago, and so have accreted a number of traditions and ceremonial functions. Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In borough councils not to have adopted a directly-elected mayor; the chair of the council is the mayor. In certain cities the mayor is known as the Lord Mayor. Councils may make people honorary freemen or honorary aldermen. In the United Kingdom, the office of Mayor or Lord Mayor (Provost and Lord Provost in Scotland) had long been ceremonial posts, with little or no duties attached to it. ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ...


History

Local government in a recognisably modern form emerged during the late 19th century. Most importantly, the Local Government Act 1888 created county councils and county boroughs across England and Wales, the following year this was extended to Scotland, and by 1898 to Ireland. The history of local government in the United Kingdom has its origins in the Middle Ages. ... The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... This article is about the country. ...


Further reforms in the 1890s divided counties in England, Wales and Ireland into various lower-tier districts, including rural districts, urban districts, municipal boroughs, and in the County of London, metropolitan boroughs. In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ... In the British Isles an urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area. ... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... The County of London was an administrative county and ceremonial county of England from 1889 to 1965. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ...


The system created in the late 19th century, survived largely unchanged for most of the 20th century. The first major reform took place in 1965 when Greater London was created with a new Greater London Council replacing the old London County Council. Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... London County Council emblem is still seen today on buildings, especially housing, from that era London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London from 1889 until 1965, when it was replaced by the Greater London Council. ...


Another large scale reform took place in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972. This abolished county boroughs and created a uniform two-tier system everywhere. In England it created Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties, which were sub-divided into non-metropolitan and metropolitan districts, and merged some smaller counties such as Rutland (into Leicestershire), Herefordshire and Worcestershire (into Hereford and Worcester). A number of new counties were created including Avon, Humberside and Cleveland. Several of the new counties created were called metropolitan counties which had a different division of powers between county and district councils. In Wales the Act created a set of entirely new counties for local government purposes. The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ... Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... Non-metropolitan districts or commonly Shire districts are a type of local government district in England. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... Oakham Castle Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Leicestershire ( IPA: (RP), IPA: (locally)), abbreviation Leics. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... The County of Avon was a short-lived non-metropolitan county and ceremonial county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... The Counties of Wales can variously refer to: the 13 traditional counties of Wales the 8 preserved counties of Wales, used for ceremonial purposes such as Lord-Lieutenancy the modern administrative counties of Wales This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise...


In 1975 Scotland's counties were abolished and replaced with two-tier Regions and districts. The nine Regions of Scotland were established under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 as the uppermost tier of local government in Scotland. ...


From 1974 (1975 in Scotland) to 1986, the whole of England, Scotland and Wales had a two-tier system, with district councils and county (or in Scotland, regional) councils. This was changed in 1986 by the abolition of metropolitan county councils and the Greater London Council. The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ...


The 1990s saw local government reform, instituted by the then Conservative Major government. Scotland and Wales moved to a fully unitary system in 1996, whilst expansion of unitary government in England happened haphazardly, leaving parts of the country unitary, and other parts two-tier — a system similar to that which prevailed between 1890 and 1974 in the whole of Great Britain. The structure of local government in the United Kingdom underwent large changes in the 1990s. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...


Unitary local government was inserted as a precondition for the introduction of any elected Regional Assemblies under the Labour government's former plans to introduce such bodies, prior to the rejection by referendum in the North East in November 2004. The government then said that it had no plans to introduce unitary local government in England but since the 2005 General Election the government has floated the idea of voluntary mergers of local councils, avoiding a costly reorganisation but achieving desired reform. For instance, the guiding principles of the government's 'New Localism' demand levels of efficiency not present in the current over-duplicated two-tier structure. Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... The United Kingdom general election of 2005 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2005 and won by the Labour Party, led by Tony Blair. ...


The system in Northern Ireland dates from 1973; before then a system was used identical to that used on the mainland before 1974. It does not resemble the systems on the mainland in that the 26 district councils are mainly responsible for environmental services, with education and social services being provided at the provincial level through area boards run from the various civil service departments. The Review of Public Administration, which ran from 2002 to 2005, examined the options for reducing the number of district councils in the province while passing powers down to new councils and has proposed seven new 'super councils'. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Future in England

The Government released a Local Government White Paper on 26 October 2006, Strong and Prosperous Communities, which deals with the structure of local government. [2][3][4][5] The White Paper does not deal with the issues of local government funding or of reform or replacement of the Council Tax, which is awaiting the final report of the Lyons Review.[6] A Local Government Bill has been introduced in the 2006-2007 session of Parliament.[7] is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Council Tax is the main form of local taxation in England, Scotland and Wales. ...


The White Paper emphasises the concept of "double devolution", with more powers being granted to councils, and powers being devolved from town halls to community levels. It proposes to reduce the level of central government oversight over local authorities; by removing centrally-set performance targets, and statutory controls of the Secretary of State over parish councils, bye-laws, and electoral arrangements. The White Paper proposes that the existing prohibition on parish councils in Greater London will be abolished, and making new parishes easier to set up. Parish councils can currently be styled parish councils, town councils or city councils: the White Paper proposes that "community council", "neighbourhood council" and "village council" may be used as well. A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ...


It invites local authorities to submit consensus-based proposals for unitary authority status, to be submitted before 25 January, 2007. Selected submissions will be subjected to a public consultation from March until June: the government will make final announcements in July 2007. Elections to the new authorities would take place in 2008, with them taking up their powers on April 1, 2009. [8] It has been suggested that the 2007 council elections might be suspended because of this, to avoid electing councils which would be replaced by new councils the following year.[9] is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Entrance to a polling station in the market town of Haverhill, Suffolk on 3 May 2007. ...


The White Paper proposes to strengthen the council executives, and provides an option between a directly-elected mayor; a directly-elected executive; or an indirectly elected leader; with a fixed 4-year term. It promises that the Department for Transport will put forward proposals for a reform of the Passenger Transport Authorities. In the United Kingdom, Passenger Transport Executives {PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. ...


Various local councils have indicated they will seek unitary authority status. Four medium-sized towns and historic county boroughs, overlooked by the 1990s review: Ipswich, Oxford, Norwich and Exeter [10] are hoping for unitary status on their present boundaries, and commissioned a report jointly to press their case. [11] Norwich has announced its intention to respond to the invitation,[12] as have Ipswich and Exeter[13][14]. Cambridge, a similarly-sized town which never achieved county borough status, is also considering its position.[15] County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... Ipswich is a local government borough in Suffolk, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Norwich (pronounced IPA: ) is a city in East Anglia, in Eastern England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ...


In Lancashire, Preston and South Ribble desired to form a single unitary authority although Preston's bid is for it alone. [16] [17] The City of Lancaster also is considering seeking unitary status on its present boundaries (having supported a merger with South Lakeland and Barrow-in-Furness to form a Morecambe Bay unitary authority during the referendums review).[18] Blackpool has advocated a merger with the Fylde and Wyre districts, which they do not support.[19]. Pendle and Burnley have also tried to form a unitary authority with Rossendale however Rossendale rejected this and the overall decision now lies with the Boundaries Commison Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... South Ribble is a local government district and borough in Lancashire, England. ... Logo The City of Lancaster (2002 population: 133,914) is a local government district with city status in Lancashire, England. ... South Lakeland is a local government district in Cumbria, England. ... Barrow-in-Furness is a local government district and borough in Cumbria, England. ... Morecambe Bay at low tide from Hest Bank, looking towards Grange-over-Sands. ... Fylde is a local government district with borough status in Lancashire, England. ... This article is about the district of Wyre in England. ... Pendle is a local government district and borough of Lancashire, England, on the North Yorkshire and West Yorkshire borders. ... For other meanings see Burnley (disambiguation) , Burnley is a large town in the borough of Burnley in Lancashire, England, with a population of 73,021. ... Rossendale is a local government district with borough status. ...


The Local Government Chronicle suggests that the non-metropolitan counties of Cornwall, Shropshire, Durham, Cumbria and Northumberland may fit the government's criteria, and that the government is unlikely to favour carving out unitary authorities from existing two-tier counties.[20] Shropshire County Council, as well as two of the five districts of Shropshire, have stated that they wish for a move to unitary status.[21] [22] The issue is being considered in Durham and Cumbria.[23][24] In Cumbria the idea of a North Cumbria authority covering the Eden, Copeland, Carlisle and Allerdale districts has seen some support.[25] The issue is also being considered in Northumberland, with the County Council in favour of one Northumberland unitary authority. Alan Beith, the MP for Berwick at the far north of Northumberland, has suggested instead a three unitary solution, with authorities for the largely rural north and south-west, and an authority for the urban south-east (Wansbeck and Blyth Valley).[26] Local Government Chronicle (LGC) is a British weekly magazine for municipal officials. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Berwick-upon-Tweed is a border town, now in England, formerly in Scotland. ... Wansbeck is a local government district in south-east Northumberland, England. ... Blyth Valley is a borough and district in south-east Northumberland, England, bordering the North Sea and Tyne and Wear. ...


A report released by the IPPR's Centre for Cities in February 2006, City Leadership: giving city regions the power to grow, proposed the creation of two large city-regions based on Manchester and Birmingham : the Birmingham one would cover the existing West Midlands metropolitan county, along with Bromsgrove, Cannock Chase, Lichfield, North Warwickshire, Redditch and Tamworth, whilst the Manchester one would cover the existing Greater Manchester along with the borough of Macclesfield. [27] No firm proposals of this sort appear in the White Paper. Reportedly, this had been the subject of an internal dispute within the government.[28] The Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank in the United Kingdom, with close links to the ruling Labour Party. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a population of around 2,600,000 people. ... Bromsgrove is a local government district in the West Midlands of England. ... Cannock Chase is a local government district in England. ... Lichfield is a local government district in Staffordshire, England. ... North Warwickshire is a local government district and borough in Warwickshire, England. ... Redditch is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire, England. ... For other places named Tamworth, see Tamworth (disambiguation). ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England which has a population of 2. ... Macclesfield is a local government district, borough and parliamentary constituency in Cheshire England. ...


On January 26, 2007, the government confirmed that 26 proposals for unitary authorities had been received.[29] Various county councils have proposed they should become unitary authorities : these being Bedfordshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumbria, Durham, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Shropshire, Somerset and Wiltshire. Districts seeking to become unitary authorities on their own are Bedford, Exeter, Ipswich, Lancaster, Oxford, Preston. Pendle and Burnley have proposed merging as a unitary authority. is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Bedfordshire (abbreviated Beds) is a county in England that forms part of the East of England region. ... For other uses, see Cheshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan or shire county, located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county in that region and also partly in North East England. ... Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Bedford is a local government district and borough in the East of England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... Logo The City of Lancaster (2002 population: 133,914) is a local government district with city status in Lancashire, England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... This article is about Preston, Lancashire. ... Pendle is a local government district and borough of Lancashire, England, on the North Yorkshire and West Yorkshire borders. ... Burnley is a local government district with borough status in Lancashire in North West England. ...


On March 27, 2007, the government announced that the proposals by Bedfordshire, Bedford, Cornwall, Cheshire, Cumbria, Durham, Exeter, Ipswich, North Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Norwich, Shropshire, Somerset and Wiltshire to become unitary authorities would go into the next phase, as would the proposal of Chester for a two-unitary authority Cheshire and by the districts of Northumberland for a two-unitary Northumberland.[30] is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On July 25, 2007, the government announced that the proposal for Somerset to become a unitary authority had been rejected [31]. Wiltshire's was accepted with effect from next year[31]. The District councils are planning to go to court.[32] On the same day, the government announced that Cheshire would be split into two unitary authorities: City of Chester and West Cheshire, and Cheshire East.[33][34] is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The City of Chester and West Cheshire is the name for a new unitary authority in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. ... Cheshire East is the name for a new unitary authority in the ceremonial county of Cheshire. ...


References

  1. ^ Polly Toynbee comment From The Guardian
  2. ^ "Councils to get fresh law powers", BBC News, 26 October 2006. 
  3. ^ (26 October 2006) Strong and Prosperous Communities, Cm 6939. Department for Communities and Local Government. 
  4. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 26 October 2006, columns 1657-1659
  5. ^ "White Paper proposes stronger mayors and more power to English communities", CityMayors, October 30, 2006. 
  6. ^ "Council tax system to be reformed", July 2, 2004. 
  7. ^ "Kelly offers councils more freedom under tougher leaders", The Guardian, October 27, 2006. 
  8. ^ "Invitation to councils in England", Department for Communities and Local Government, October 26, 2006. 
  9. ^ "Council polls could be scrapped", BBC News, February 8, 2006. 
  10. ^ "Council Submits Unitary Case To Minister", Exeter City Council, May 9, 2006. 
  11. ^ "Four Councils Unite In Bid For Unitary Status", Exeter City Council, May 9, 2006. 
  12. ^ "City welcomes new council plans", Norwich Evening News, October 26, 2006. 
  13. ^ "Ipswich's solo bid sparks council wars", East Anglia Daily Times, October 27, 2006. 
  14. ^ "£14 m cost' of city independence", BBC News, October 27, 2006. 
  15. ^ "Rows loom over chance for city to go it alone", October 26, 2006. 
  16. ^ "Preston and South Ribble bid for the future", Preston City Council, September 1, 2006. 
  17. ^ "Councils to support joint venture", BBC News, September 1, 2006. 
  18. ^ "Lancaster City Council welcomes Local Government White Paper", Lancaster City Council, October 26, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Councillors' snub for 'City of the Fylde' bid", Blackpool Today, November 14, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Only five may get unitary go-ahead", Local Government Chronicle, October 11, 2006. 
  21. ^ "One Council for Shropshire", Shropshire County Council, November 11, 2006. 
  22. ^ "Councillors backing unitary body", Shropshire Star, November 18, 2006. 
  23. ^ "White Paper paves way for councils shake-up", The Northern Echo, October 27, 2006. 
  24. ^ "Cumbria needs a unity of purpose", October 27, 2006. 
  25. ^ "MP backs council merger idea", Times & Star, October 30, 2001. 
  26. ^ "Leader voices fears for residents with shake-up", Berwick Today, November 2, 2006. 
  27. ^ (February, 2006) City Leadership: executive summary. Institute for Public Policy Research. 
  28. ^ "Government pushes for elected mayor in Brum", Birmingham Post, October 26, 2006. 
  29. ^ "Twenty-six councils bid to become unitary authorities", 24dash.com, January 26, 2007. 
  30. ^ "Woolas announces sixteen successful bids for unitary status to improve local services", March 27, 2007. 
  31. ^ a b "Unitary authority plan rejected", BBC News, 2007-07-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. 
  32. ^ http://www.gazetteandherald.co.uk/display.var.1572139.0.worst_unitary_fears_confirmed.php
  33. ^ BBC News, 25 July 2007 - County split into two authorities. Retrieval Date: 25 July, 2007.
  34. ^ Macclesfield borough council press release 25 July 2007. Retrieval Date: 25 July, 2007.

For other uses, see Guardian. ... The Northern Echo is a regional newspaper serving the north-east of England. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

This is a list of articles relating to local government in the United Kingdom and does not include specific entities or authorities: 1990s UK local government reform Administrative county Administrative counties of England Administrative counties of Scotland Ceremonial counties of England Civil parish Community County County borough County corporate County...

External links

  • Communities and Local Government - Local Government
  • Info4local.gov.uk
  • Local Government Association for England and Wales
  • Local.gov.uk
  • Convention of Scottish Local Authorities
  • Local Government Information Unit
  • Local government corruption report from BBC Radio 4 File on Four.
  • Local government news aggregator
  • City Mayors site
  • The Local Channel - Glossary of local government terms.
  • Centre for Cities
  • Direct Gov - List of local councils

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

Directory

See Subdivisions of England for list of English local authority areas. For local government purposes, England is divided into three types of areas - non-unitary authorities, unitary authorities, and London boroughs. ...


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