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Encyclopedia > Local area network


A local-area network is a computer network covering a small geographic area, like a home, office, or group of buildings e.g. a school. The defining characteristics of LANs, in contrast to wide-area networks (WANs), include their much higher data-transfer rates, smaller geographic range, and lack of a need for leased telecommunication lines. LAN may refer to: Local area network, a computer network covering a small local area, such as a home or office Lansing Capital City Airport (IATA airport code LAN) Light At Night, the medical term for sleeping with the light on. ... A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... A wide area network or WAN is a computer network covering a wide geographical area, involving vast array of computers. ... A leased line is a symmetric telecommunications line connecting two locations. ...


Ethernet over unshielded twisted pair cabling, and Wi-Fi are the two most common technologies currently, but ARCNET, Token Ring and many others have been used in the past. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Twisted pair. ... Wi-Fi (IPA: ) is the common name for a popular wireless technology used in home networks, mobile phones, video games and more. ... ARCNET (also CamelCased as ARCnet, an acronym from Attached Resource Computer NETwork) is a local area network (LAN) protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. ... Token-Ring local area network (LAN) technology was developed and promoted by IBM in the early 1980s and standardised as IEEE 802. ...

Contents

History

The first LAN put into service occurred in 1964 at the Livermore Laboratory to support atomic weapons research. LANs spread to the public sector in the late 1970s and were used to create high-speed links between several large central computers at one site. Of many competing systems created at this time, Ethernet and ARCNET were the most popular. ARCNET (also CamelCased as ARCnet, an acronym from Attached Resource Computer NETwork) is a local area network (LAN) protocol, similar in purpose to Ethernet or Token Ring. ...


The development and proliferation of CP/M and then DOS-based personal computers meant that a single site began to have dozens or even hundreds of computers. The initial attraction of networking these was generally to share disk space and laser printers, which were both very expensive at the time. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”. CP/M is an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ...


In reality, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical layer and network protocol implementations, and confusion over how best to share resources. Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system. A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for the 40 or so competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. Netware dominated[1] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other senses of this word, see protocol. ... Network operating system (NOS): Software that (a) controls a network and its message (e. ... NetWare is a network operating system developed by Novell, Inc. ... Windows NT (New Technology) is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... A typical Windows 3. ...


Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share, Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server. None of these were particularly successful. Banyan VINES (for Virtual Integrated NEtwork Service) is a computer network operating system and the set of computer network protocols it uses to talk to client machines on the network. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... 3Com (NASDAQ: COMS) is a manufacturer best known for its computer network infrastructure products. ... The LAN Manager (not to be confused with NTLM) was an advanced Network Operating System (NOS) from Microsoft developed in cooperation with 3Com. ... IBM LAN Server started as a close cousin of Microsoft LAN Manager and first shipped in early 1988. ...


In this same timeframe, Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Intergraph, NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. Although this market segment is now much reduced, the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX, AppleTalk, NBF and other protocols used by the early PC LANs. Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... A computer workstation, often colloquially referred to as workstation, is a high-end general-purpose microcomputer designed to be used by one person at a time and which offers higher performance than normally found in a personal computer, especially with respect to graphics, processing power and the ability to carry... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ... Intergraph was founded in 1969 as M&S Computing, Inc. ... For other meanings, see Next. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... See also Ericsson IPX Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the OSI-model Network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol stack. ... AppleTalk is a proprietary suite of protocols developed by Apple Inc for computer networking. ... NetBIOS Frames or NBF protocol is an unrouted (non-routable) network- and transport-level data protocol most commonly used as one of the layers of Microsoft Windows networking. ...


Technical aspects

Although switched Ethernet is now the most common data link layer protocol and IP as a network layer protocol, many different options have been used, and some continue to be popular in niche areas. Smaller LANs generally consist of a one or more switches linked to each other - often with one connected to a router, cable modem, or DSL modem for Internet access. Ethernet is a large, diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies that operate at many speeds for local area networks (LANs). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... The network layer is third layer out of seven in OSI model and it is the third layer out of five in TCP/IP model. ... This article concerns communication between pairs of electronic devices. ... This article is about a computer networking device. ... An outdated model of the Motorola Surfboard cable modem A cable modem is a type of modem that provides access to a data signal sent over the cable television infrastructure. ... Westell Model 6100 ADSL modem An asymmetric digital subscriber line transceiver, also known as an ADSL modem or DSL modem, is a device used to connect a single computer to a DSL phone line, in order to use an ADSL service. ...


Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic via VLANs. Larger LANS also contain a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, sensors and so on.[2] Based on an algorithm invented by Radia Perlman while working for Digital Equipment Corporation[1][2], Spanning Tree Protocol Is an OSI layer-2 protocol which ensures a loop free topology for any bridged LAN. The Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), is defined in the IEEE Standard 802. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service, abbreviated QoS, refers to resource reservation control mechanisms. ... A virtual LAN, commonly known as a VLAN, is a logically segmented network mapped over physical hardware. ...


LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or by 'tunneling' across the Internet using VPN technologies. Depending on how the connections are made, secured, and the distance involved they become a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), a Wide Area Network (WAN), or a part of the internet. A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a private communications network usually used within a company, or by several different companies or organizations, communicating over a public network. ...


See also

A computer network is an interconnection of a group of computers. ... The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer component of the Ethernet standard. ... A large (approximately 300 people) LAN party in a sports hall in northern Germany A LAN party is a temporary, sometimes spontaneous, gathering of people together with their computers, which they network together primarily for the purpose of playing multiplayer computer games. ... Metropolitan area networks, or MANs, are large computer networks usually spanning a city. ... A network card, network adapter or NIC (network interface controller) is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. ... Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i. ...

References

  1. ^ Has Microsoft Ever Read the History Books? - IT Channel - IT Channel News by CRN and VARBusiness
  2. ^ A Review of the Basic Components of a Local Area Network (LAN). NetworkBits.net. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  • LAN design and sizing
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Local area network
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is local area network? - a definition from Whatis.com - see also: LAN (432 words)
A local area network may serve as few as two or three users (for example, in a home network) or as many as thousands of users (for example, in an FDDI network).
A LAN server may also be used as a Web server if safeguards are taken to secure internal applications and data from outside access.
In some situations, a wireless LAN may be preferable to a wired LAN because it is cheaper to install and maintain.
ANSDIT - The letter "L" (1604 words)
Communication within a local area network is not subject to external regulations; however, communication across the LAN boundary may be subject to some form of regulation.
In a local area network, the protocol that governs the exchange of frames between data stations independent of how the transmission medium is shared.
The simulation of a ring network by passing a token between data stations in a predefined sequence, even though the network's physical architecture may be different, such as a bus network.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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