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Encyclopedia > Local Government Commission for England (1992)
Map showing counties and unitary authorities from 1998. Pink (non-metropolitan) and green (metropolitan and London) areas were left unchanged. Yellow areas are unitary authorities created as a result of the review, whilst blue areas are remaining two-tier counties reduced by the creation of unitary authorities.
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Map showing counties and unitary authorities from 1998. Pink (non-metropolitan) and green (metropolitan and London) areas were left unchanged. Yellow areas are unitary authorities created as a result of the review, whilst blue areas are remaining two-tier counties reduced by the creation of unitary authorities.

The Local Government Commission for England was established under the Local Government Act 1992 replacing the Local Government Boundary Commission for England.[1] The Act allowed the Secretary of State to order the Commission to undertake 'structural reviews' in specified areas, to create unitary authorities in the two-tier shire counties of England. The Commission, chaired by John Banham, conducted a review of all the non-metropolitan counties of England from 1993 to 1994, making various recommendations on their future. The Secretary of State for the Environment was a UK cabinet position. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is an administrative county which is not a metropolitan county. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... Sir John Banham is a British business leader. ...


After much political debate, and several legal challenges, the Commission's proposals resulted in the abolition of Berkshire county council and the counties of Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester and Humberside (created in 1974). Combined with a second wave of reviews in 1995, under the chairmanship of David Cooksey, the Commission's proposals led to creation of unitary authorities covering many urban areas of England, including major cities like Bristol, Hull, Leicester, Nottingham, Stoke-on-Trent and Plymouth. Reforms in the rest of Great Britain followed a different course. Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... The County of Avon was a short-lived non-metropolitan county and ceremonial county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and located at With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most populous city... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... The structure of local government in the United Kingdom underwent large changes in the 1990s. ...


The Commission continued in existence reviewing electoral arrangements in English local authorities, rewarding based on population changes, until it was replaced by the Boundary Committee for England in 2002.[2] The process known as redistricting in the United States and redistribution in many Commonwealth countries is the changing of political borders (in many countries, specifically the electoral district/constituency boundaries) usually in response to periodic census results. ... The Boundary Committee for England is an independent body in England responsible for defining borders for local elections; and for conducting reviews of local government areas. ...

Contents


Start

Initially the Secretary of State was Michael Heseltine, who had been a junior local government minister during the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, and expressed enthusiasm for unitary local government. Prior to the 1972 Act, local government in England had been a mixed system, with large urban areas being covered by unitary authorities called county boroughs, and the rest of the country having administrative county councils and many smaller district councils, with different competencies. The 1972 Act abolished county boroughs, making them districts in two-tier counties. This, and the consequent loss of education, social services and libraries to county control, was strongly regretted by the larger towns outside the new metropolitan counties, such as Bristol, Plymouth, Stoke, Leicester and Nottingham.[3][4] The abolition of metropolitan county councils in 1986 left the metropolitan boroughs operating as unitary authorities. Michael Heseltine walks out of the cabinet meeting having resigned, January 9, 1986 Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British Conservative politician and businessman. ... The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... The division into counties is one of the larger divisions of England. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ...


Heseltine announced in 1991 that the government would be looking at the creation of unitary authorities in the non-metropolitan counties as part of a more general review of local government, including the abolition of the Community Charge, or poll tax,[5] and oversaw the passage of the 1992 Act through Parliament. A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ...


Heseltine was replaced by Michael Howard in April 1992 after the 1992 general election. Whilst Heseltine had expressed a wish for most of the country to become unitary authorities, Howard issued revised guidance on the basis that the "two-tier structure may be appropriate in some areas", and that the costs of reorganisation might be too much for the recession-hit UK economy to take.[6][7] The Rt. ... The UK general election, 1992 was held on April 9, 1992, and was the fourth victory in a row for the Conservatives. ... The recession of the late nineteen-eighties was an economic recession that hit much of the world beginning in 1987. ...


The Commission, chaired by John Banham (named to the post in November 1991[7]), started the reviews in July 1992. The process was originally supposed to take some years, with the shire counties being considered in five waves, or 'tranches', and it was hoped that the reforms would come into effect from 1994 (the first batch) to 1998 (the fifth batch).[8] The process took longer than expected, with the Commission unable to recruit enough staff until November 1992.[9] The first tranche of reviews, covering Avon, Cleveland, Derbyshire, County Durham, Gloucestershire, the Isle of Wight, Humberside, Lincolnshire, North Yorkshire and Somerset was nearly done by the end of 1993. Banham had said that the Commission was expecting 'early wins' in Cleveland, Humberside and Avon : three counties created in 1974 based on rivers that not achieved public acceptance.[10][11] Sir John Banham is a British business leader. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Cleveland is an area in the north east of England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England, and boasts some of Englands most attractive scenery. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county within the Government Office Region of Yorkshire and the Humber in northern England, United Kingdom and also a larger ceremonial county, partly in the North East England region. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


The first recommendation published, in 1993, was the quite uncontroversial one to make Isle of Wight a unitary authority. The island had been split between South Wight and Medina boroughs, with an Isle of Wight County Council, since 1974.[12] The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... South Wight was a borough on the Isle of Wight, created in the local government reform of 1974, alongside the Medina borough which covered the north of the island. ... Medina was a borough on the Isle of Wight in England from 1974. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Acceleration

The Commission's final recommendations for Derbyshire from 1993. Area 9, Derby, would form a unitary authority, as would areas 6, 7 and 8. The rest of the county would remain two-tier. Ultimately only Derby would form a unitary authority.
The Commission's final recommendations for Derbyshire from 1993. Area 9, Derby, would form a unitary authority, as would areas 6, 7 and 8. The rest of the county would remain two-tier. Ultimately only Derby would form a unitary authority.

Three more final reports, for Cleveland, Derbyshire and Durham, were published in November 1993. In both Derbyshire and Durham, unitary authorities would be created covering the large urban areas, but the rest of the county would remain two-tier in structure.[13][11][14] Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... North East Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. ... Chesterfield is a historic market town and local government district in Derbyshire, a county in England. ... Bolsover is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. ...


These proposals, and the long time it took to produce them, were not to the liking of the new Secretary of State, John Selwyn Gummer (who had taken over in May). He greatly accelerated the programme of work, directing the Commission to start reviews of the remaining shire counties the next month, and that they should be finished by the end of 1994.[15] He also revised the guidance given, making it clear that wholly unitary solutions should be preferred, particularly ones smaller than existing counties but larger than existing districts.[16] He further announced that Derbyshire and Durham would be referred back to the Commission for consideration under the new guidance. Gummer accepted the Commission's proposal to abolish Cleveland.[17] This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


Lancashire and Derbyshire County Councils, fearing their abolition under the new guidance, took a case to the High Court, seeking a judicial review that it was illegal. On January 28, the High Court ruled in their favour, deleting the sentence in dispute, implying that the Commission should consider retaining the status quo, either in part or wholly, as an option as well.[18][19] Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of England and Wales: see Courts of England and Wales. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review a law or an official act of a government employee or agent for constitutionality or for the violation of basic principles of justice. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The commission recommended that Avon and Humberside should be abolished and broken up into four unitary authorities each. It also recommended that the rump Somerset be broken up into three unitary authorities (West, South and Mid). It suggested that North Yorkshire be split into three unitary authorities - one for York, and two others to be called 'West Riding of Yorkshire' and 'North Riding of Yorkshire' (the proposed West Riding would have taken in only a small part of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire, whilst the proposed North Riding would have included most of the historic North Riding of Yorkshire). It recommended no change in Lincolnshire and Gloucestershire. The County Councils of Avon, Cleveland and Somerset sought judicial review over the issue, but the High Court found the proposals within the law.[20] The County of Avon was a short-lived non-metropolitan county and ceremonial county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ...


The government accepted most of these recommendations, but also kept the status quo in Somerset ("after taking account of the number and strength of the representations which I received opposing the recommendations"), and in North Yorkshire retained a rump two-tier North Yorkshire without York ("in the light of the strong representations which I have received opposing the Commission's recommendations for North and West Riding"). The government did not accept the recommendations of the Commission on Gloucestershire, and announced its intention to refer the county back. These changes were implemented in 1996.[21][22][23][24] 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


Remaining tranches

The Commission's draft recommendations for Cambridgeshire. The purple area is Huntingdonshire, the yellow area the proposed Peterborough & The Fens authority, and the pink area the proposed City & County of Cambridgeshire authority.
The Commission's draft recommendations for Cambridgeshire. The purple area is Huntingdonshire, the yellow area the proposed Peterborough & The Fens authority, and the pink area the proposed City & County of Cambridgeshire authority.

Reviews continued throughout 1994, with draft proposals published for consultation, outlining the Commission's preferred option and other options. For example, in Cambridgeshire, the Commission outlined three options for a split of the county into unitary authorities, the preferred option being a three-way split between the "City & County of Cambridgeshire" (consisting of Cambridge, South Cambridgeshire, East Cambridgeshire), Huntingdonshire and Peterborough & The Fens.[25] Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... South Cambridgeshire is a mostly rural district of Cambridgeshire, England. ... East Cambridgeshire is a local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. ... Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a part of England around Huntingdon, which is currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. ... The City of Peterborough is a cathedral city and Unitary Authority in the East of England, UK. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Fenland is a local government district in Cambridgeshire, England. ...


In final reports delivered in October 1994, the Commission recommended Buckinghamshire and Bedfordshire county councils to be abolished, to be replaced with four and three unitary authorities respectively. In other counties, it backed down from more radical draft proposals, and it recommended no change in Cambridgeshire, Cheshire, Cumbria, Lancashire, Kent and Oxfordshire. In Hampshire it recommended that Southampton, Portsmouth and New Forest become unitary authorities.[26][27][28][29] Map of Bucks (1904) This article is about the English county. ... Bedfordshire is a county in England and forms part of the East of England region. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester) [1] is a... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in south-east England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Portsmouth is a city of about 189,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... New Forest is a local government district in Hampshire, England. ...


A further batch of reports was delivered in December, recommending that Norfolk, Northamptonshire, Northumberland, Suffolk, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Sussex should remained unchanged. In Hereford and Worcester, Worcestershire would become a two-tier county whilst Herefordshire become a unitary authority. In Leicestershire, Leicester and Rutland would become unitary authorities, with the rest of the county remaining two-tier - a pattern followed also in County Durham (Darlington), Devon (Plymouth and Torbay), East Sussex (Brighton & Hove), Essex (Southend-on-Sea), Nottinghamshire (Nottingham), Staffordshire (Stoke-on-Trent) and Wiltshire (Thamesdown). The Commission recommended the abolition of two county councils - Berkshire (which was to have five unitary authorities) and Dorset (which was to have four).[30] Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Northumberland is a county in northern England. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Leicestershire (abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Darlington is a local government district and borough in North East England. ... Devon is a large county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... Torbay is an east facing bay at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... Brighton & Hove is a unitary authority and city in East Sussex on the south coast of England. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Southend-on-Sea is a resort town in Essex, England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... The article on the town of Swindon is here. ...


The final batch of recommendations was published in January 1995, and recommended no change for Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Hertfordshire and Shropshire, and the creation of a unitary city of Derby with the remainder of Derbyshire remaining two-tier.[31] Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ...


Implementation and Cooksey commission

On March 2, 1995, Gummer announced to the Commons that the government would not fully accept the Commission's proposals and certain districts would be referred to the Commission for a further review.[32] He also announced John Banham's resignation in protest at this.[33][34][35] March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


For Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Dorset the government did not accept the Commission's recommendations for an entirely unitary structure, and decided to only make Luton, Milton Keynes, Bournemouth and Poole unitary, with the rest of those counties remaining two-tier.[36][37][38] Map of Bucks (1904) This article is about the English county. ... Bedfordshire is a county in England and forms part of the East of England region. ... For other uses, see Dorset (disambiguation). ... Luton is a town and local government district in England, located 33 miles (50km) north of central London. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a borough in England. ... Bournemouth is a seaside resort on the south coast of England. ... For people with Poole as surname, see Poole (disambiguation) Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination in the traditional county of Dorset in southern England. ...


The proposal to abolish Berkshire County Council was accepted by the government. The Commission had recommended five unitary authorities in Berkshire, based on the districts of Newbury, Reading, Wokingham, Slough, with Bracknell Forest and Windsor and Maidenhead districts merging to form a "Royal East Berkshire". Gummer decided to make each district a unitary authority.[38] The proposal for an entirely unitary structure had been strongly supported by the County Council earlier, though with time and a change in political composition of the Council altered, it changed its mind,[39] and took this decision to court, seeking to have the entire Order declared invalid. The High Court ruled in their favour, but the Court of Appeal quashed this decision. This the implementation of unitary authorities of Berkshire to be delayed until 1998 rather than 1997.[40][41] West Berkshire is a local government district in Berkshire, South East England, governed by a unitary authority (West Berkshire Council). ... Reading is a town and unitary authority (the Borough of Reading) in the English county of Berkshire. ... Wokingham is a local government district in Berkshire, England. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in the county of Berkshire in the south of England. ... Bracknell Forest is a Unitary authority and borough in Berkshire in southern England. ... The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead is a unitary authority in Berkshire, South East England. ...


In Hampshire, where the Commission had proposed unitary authorities for Portsmouth, Southampton and New Forest - the first two were accepted by the government but it did not accept the case regarding New Forest, which remained as a two-tier district.[38] Portsmouth is a city of about 189,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... New Forest is a local government district in Hampshire, England. ...


In many counties that were to remain unchanged, the government had reservations about specific districts. Gummer identified as candidates on his March 2 statement the districts of Basildon, Blackburn, Blackpool, Broxtowe, Dartford, Exeter, Gedling, Gillingham, Gloucester, Gravesham, Halton, Huntingdonshire, Northampton, Peterborough, Rochester upon Medway, Rushcliffe, Thurrock, Warrington.[36] Shadow Environment Secretary Frank Dobson suggested that Cambridge, Ipswich, Norwich, Oxford and The Wrekin be added to this list: Norwich and the Wrekin were. Spelthorne was added at the request of the local MP, David Wilshire.[42] The Basildon district is a local govenment district in Essex, England. ... Blackburn with Darwen (Dwrgwyn) is a borough in Lancashire, North West England. ... Blackpool is a seaside town in north-western England. ... Broxtowe is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England, west of the city of Nottingham. ... Dartford is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at , . In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... Gedling is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent in the United Kingdom, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in south-west England, close to the Welsh border. ... Gravesham is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... Halton is a borough in North West England, administered by a unitary authority. ... Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a part of England around Huntingdon, which is currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. ... Northampton Guildhall, built 1861-4, E.W. Godwin, architect Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in central England upon the River Nene, and the county town of Northamptonshire. ... The City of Peterborough is a cathedral city and Unitary Authority in the East of England, UK. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Rushcliffe is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Thurrock is a unitary authority in England. ... Warrington is the largest town and borough in the county of Cheshire, in the North-West of England. ... The Right Honourable Frank Gordon Dobson (born March 15, 1940) is a British politician and member of Parliament for Holborn and St. ... Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk and the main settlement in the local government district of the borough of Ipswich in East Anglia, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. ... Shown within Norfolk Geography Status: City (1195) Government Region: East of England Administrative County: Norfolk Area: - Total Ranked 322nd 39. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Telford and Wrekin is a borough in the West Midlands region of England. ... Spelthorne is a local government district and borough in Surrey, England. ... David Wilshire (born 16 September 1943, Bristol) is a politician in the United Kingdom. ...


The commission published draft proposals on these districts in September 1995, recommending that Blackpool, Blackburn, Halton Northampton, Peterborough, Thurrock, Warrington and the Wrekin should become unitary authorities, and also that Rochester upon Medway and Gillingham should be joined as one unitary authority.[43]


The final recommendations deleted Northampton from this list, deciding that "as with Exeter and Gloucester, the separation of Northampton from its county would have a significant and detrimental effect".[44][45][46] The government announced its acceptance of these recommendations in March 1996,[47] and these changes were implemented in 1998. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


The Commission decided against unitary status for the three districts around Nottinghamshire, Gedling, Broxtowe and Rushcliffe, noting that of the three, only Rushcliffe Borough Council supported a change. It considered but came down against unifying Dartford and Gravesham as a unitary authority (supported by Dartford but rejected by Gravesham). Exeter was considered too small. The Commission noted that Gloucester's proximity of Cheltenham would cause issues and that the two towns should be considered together. The Commission rejected the case of Huntingdonshire (the constituency of the Prime Minister, John Major), noting that there was "no exceptional county allegiance" and doubting the capacity of Huntingdonshire and the viability of the remaining Cambridgeshire. The Commission noted that tight boundaries for Norwich would cause a problem for unitary government, but that an extension would likely be strongly opposed. In Spelthorne the Commission was concerned about the lack of "internal coherence of the area" and its size.[46] Dartford is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... Gravesham is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in south-west England, close to the Welsh border. ... Cheltenham (or Cheltenham Spa) is a spa town and borough in Gloucestershire, England, near Gloucester and Cirencester. ... Sir John Major, KG, CH (born 29 March 1943) is an English politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1990 to 1997. ...


Whilst finding against a Basildon unitary authority, the Commission recommended the removal of Billericay and Wickford from Basildon district and their addition to Brentwood and Rochford districts, leaving Basildon district focused on the Basildon New Town. The boundary alterations proposed between Basildon, Rochford and Brentwood were never implemented.[46] Statistics Population: 40,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TQ675945 Administration District: Basildon Shire county: Essex Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Essex Historic county: Essex Services Police force: Essex Police Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town... Wickford is a town in the South of the English county of Essex, with a population of more than 30,000. ... Brentwood is a local government district and borough in Essex, England. ... Rochford is a local government district in Essex, England. ...


The Commission also recommended boundary revisions between Peterborough and Huntingdonshire to incorporate the entire southern township of Peterborough in the city, and also boundary changes between Spelthorne and Runnymede as a result of changes in the path of the River Thames.[46][47] The Peterborough changes were implemented as part of the Order for Peterborough, coming into force in 1998,[48] and the alterations to the boundary between Runnymede and Spelthorne were implemented on April 1, 1997.[49] Spelthorne is a local government district and borough in Surrey, England. ... Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey. ... The Thames (pronounced []) is a river flowing through southern England and connecting London with the sea. ...


The Commission was directed in 1996 to review local government in Sefton, as a result of local demand for Southport to be separated from Sefton in Merseyside.[50] The final report recommended no change in the existing structure of local government in Sefton.[51][52] Sefton is a metropolitan borough on Merseyside, North West England, administered by Sefton Council. ... For other uses, see Southport (disambiguation). ... Sefton is a metropolitan borough on Merseyside, North West England, administered by Sefton Council. ... Arms of the former Merseyside Metropolitan County Council Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ...


Table

County Commission recommendations Government reaction Date in force
Avon four unitary authorities (Bristol, North Somerset, Bath and North East Somerset, South Gloucestershire)[53] accepted[22] 1996[54]
Bedfordshire three unitary authorities (Bedford, Luton and Mid & South Beds)[55] Luton unitary authority only; two-tier remainder[36] 1997[56]
Berkshire five unitary authorities (existing districts, with merger of Bracknell Forest and Windsor and Maidenhead as Royal East Berkshire)[57] six unitary authorities (one for each district)[38] 1998[58]
Buckinghamshire four unitary authorities[59] Milton Keynes unitary authority only; two-tier remainder[36] 1997[60]
Cambridgeshire no change[25] Huntingdonshire and Peterborough referred back; Peterborough accepted[46] 1998[48]
Cheshire no change[61] Halton and Warrington referred back; both accepted[46] 1998[62]
Cleveland four unitary authorities (Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar and Cleveland, Stockton-on-Tees)[63] accepted 1996[64][65]
Cornwall no change[66] accepted n/a
Cumbria no change[67] accepted n/a
Derbyshire Derby and North East Derbyshire (North East Derbyshire, Bolsover, Chesterfield); two-tier reminder[68] referred back under new guidelines n/a
Derby unitary authority; two-tier remainder[69] accepted[38] 1997[70]
Devon Plymouth and Torbay unitary authorities; two-tier remainder[71] Exeter referred back; rejected[46] 1998[72]
Dorset four unitary authorities (Bournemouth, Poole, East Dorset and West Dorset)[73] Bournemouth and Poole unitary authorities only; two-tier remainder[38] 1997[74]
Durham Darlington unitary authority; two-tier remainder[63] referred back under new guidelines n/a
Darlington unitary authority; two-tier remainder[75] accepted[36] 1997[76]
East Sussex Brighton and Hove unitary authority; two-tier remainder[77] accepted[38] 1997[78]
Essex Southend-on-Sea unitary authority; two-tier remainder[79] Basildon and Thurrock referred back; Thurrock accepted[46] 1998[80]
Gloucestershire no change[53] n/a
no change[81] Gloucester referred back; rejected[46] n/a
Hampshire Southampton, Portsmouth and New Forest unitary authorities; remainder two-tier[82] Southampton and Portsmouth unitary authorities only; two-tier remainder[38] 1997[83]
Hereford and Worcester Herefordshire unitary authority; two-tier Worcestershire[84] accepted[38] 1998[85]
Hertfordshire no change[86] accepted n/a
Humberside four unitary authorities (East Riding of Yorkshire, Hull, North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire)[87] accepted[22] 1996[88]
Isle of Wight one unitary authority accepted 1995[89]
Kent no change[90] Dartford, Gillingham, Gravesham and Rochester upon Medway referred back; Dartford and Gravesham rejected, Gillingham and Rochester joined to form Medway Towns unitary authority[46] 1998[91]
Lancashire no change[92] Blackpool and Blackburn referred back; accepted[46] 1998[93]
Leicestershire Leicester and Rutland unitary authorities; two-tier remainder[94] accepted[38] 1997[95]
Lincolnshire no change[87] accepted[22] n/a
Norfolk no change[96] Norwich referred back; rejected[46] n/a
North Yorkshire three unitary authorities (West Riding of Yorkshire, North Riding of Yorkshire, York)[87] York unitary authority accepted; two-tier remainder[22] 1996[97]
Northamptonshire none[98] Northampton referred back; rejected[46] n/a
Northumberland none[99] accepted n/a
Nottinghamshire Nottingham unitary authority; two-tier remainder[100] Broxtowe, Gedling, Rushcliffe referred back; rejected[46] 1998[101]
Oxfordshire no change[102] accepted n/a
Shropshire no change[103] The Wrekin referred back; accepted[46] 1998[104]
Somerset three unitary authorities (West, Mid and South)[53] rejected; two-tier status quo kept[22] n/a
Staffordshire Stoke-on-Trent unitary authority; two-tier remainder[105] accepted[38] 1998[106]
Suffolk no change[107] accepted n/a
Surrey no change[108] Spelthorne referred back; rejected[46] n/a
Warwickshire no change[109] accepted n/a
West Sussex no change[110] accepted n/a
Wiltshire Thamesdown unitary authority; two-tier remainder[111] accepted[38] 1998[112]

† since the government rejected the Commission's proposal for a West Riding of Yorkshire authority to include parts of North Yorkshire and the Goole area of Humberside, Goole became part of the new East Riding of Yorkshire instead. The County of Avon was a short-lived non-metropolitan county and ceremonial county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and located at With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most populous city... North Somerset is a unitary authority in England, historically part of the county of Somerset but now administered independently. ... Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority that was created on April 1, 1996 following the abolition of the County of Avon. ... South Gloucestershire is a local government area in South West England. ... Bedfordshire is a county in England and forms part of the East of England region. ... Bedford is a local government district and borough in the East of England. ... Luton is a town and local government district in England, located 33 miles (50km) north of central London. ... Mid Bedfordshire is a local government district in Bedfordshire, England. ... South Bedfordshire is a local government district in Bedfordshire, England. ... Luton is a town and local government district in England, located 33 miles (50km) north of central London. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... Bracknell Forest is a Unitary authority and borough in Berkshire in southern England. ... The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead is a unitary authority in Berkshire, South East England. ... Map of Bucks (1904) This article is about the English county. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a borough in England. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... Huntingdonshire (abbreviated Hunts) is a part of England around Huntingdon, which is currently administered as a local government district of Cambridgeshire. ... The City of Peterborough is a cathedral city and Unitary Authority in the East of England, UK. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of Cambridgeshire. ... The Cheshire Plain - photo taken adjacent to Beeston Castle The Cheshire Plain - photo taken towards Merseyside The Cheshire Plain panorama - photo taken from Mid-Cheshire Ridge Cattle farming in the county Black-and-white timbered buildings on Nantwich High Street Cheshire (or, archaically, the County of Chester) [1] is a... Halton is a borough in North West England, administered by a unitary authority. ... Warrington is the largest town and borough in the county of Cheshire, in the North-West of England. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Hartlepool is a local government district and borough in North East England. ... Middlesbrough is a borough and local government district in North-East England named after the town of Middlesbrough, with a resident population in 2001 of 134,855. ... Redcar and Cleveland is a unitary authority in the former county of Cleveland, consisting of Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Guisborough, and small towns such as Brotton, Skelton, and Loftus. ... Stockton-on-Tees is a local government district and borough in north-east England, with a resident population in 2001 of 178,408 rising to 185,880 in 2005 estimates. ... Cornish Flag Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England, and boasts some of Englands most attractive scenery. ... Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... North East Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. ... Bolsover is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. ... Chesterfield is a market town and local government district in Derbyshire, a county in England. ... Derby (pronounced dar-bee ) is a city in the East Midlands of England. ... Devon is a large county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... Torbay is an east facing bay at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at , . In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... For other uses, see Dorset (disambiguation). ... Bournemouth is a seaside resort on the south coast of England. ... For people with Poole as surname, see Poole (disambiguation) Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination in the traditional county of Dorset in southern England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Darlington is a local government district and borough in North East England. ... Darlington is a local government district and borough in North East England. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... Brighton and Hove is a city on the south coast of England. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Southend-on-Sea is a resort town in Essex, England. ... The Basildon district is a local govenment district in Essex, England. ... Thurrock is a unitary authority in England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in south-west England, close to the Welsh border. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Portsmouth is a city of about 189,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... New Forest is a local government district in Hampshire, England. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom and part of the East of England Government Office region. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England, in the United Kingdom. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... St Clements Church, Worlaby North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in England, established in April 1996, one of the first unitary councils. ... North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the north east of England, bordering onto North Lincolnshire and Lincolnshire. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Dartford is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent in the United Kingdom, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Gravesham is a local government district and borough in Kent, England. ... This article is about Medway in England. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Blackpool is a seaside town in north-western England. ... Blackburn with Darwen (Dwrgwyn) is a borough in Lancashire, North West England. ... Leicestershire (abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Shown within Norfolk Geography Status: City (1195) Government Region: East of England Administrative County: Norfolk Area: - Total Ranked 322nd 39. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county within the Government Office Region of Yorkshire and the Humber in northern England, United Kingdom and also a larger ceremonial county, partly in the North East England region. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Northampton Guildhall, built 1861-4, E.W. Godwin, architect Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in central England upon the River Nene, and the county town of Northamptonshire. ... Northumberland is a county in northern England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ... Broxtowe is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England, west of the city of Nottingham. ... Gedling is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Rushcliffe is a local government district with borough status in Nottinghamshire, England. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in south-east England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is an English county in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. ... Telford and Wrekin is a borough in the West Midlands region of England. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... Spelthorne is a local government district and borough in Surrey, England. ... Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... The article on the town of Swindon is here. ... The Goole skyline showing the docks and the salt and pepper pots - the twin water towers Goole is a town and port located on the River Ouse in the East Riding of Yorkshire, in northeast England. ...


Timetable

On April 1, 1995, the Isle of Wight became a unitary authority.

Two small areas were ceded from Surrey and Buckinghamshire to Berkshire, giving it a border with Greater London.[113] April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... Map of Bucks (1904) This article is about the English county. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London and forms one of the nine regions of England. ...

On April 1, 1996, the unpopular counties of Avon, Humberside and Cleveland were split into unitary authorities. Avon became Bath and North East Somerset, North Somerset, South Gloucestershire and Bristol. Each of Cleveland's four districts became a unitary authority. The part of Humberside north of the River Humber and traditionally part of Yorkshire became part of the new East Riding of Yorkshire, apart from Hull, which constituted a unitary authority itself. In the Lincolnshire part of Humberside, two new unitary authorities, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire, were formed. Also at this time, the City of York was expanded and separated from North Yorkshire.
On April 1, 1997, the districts of Bournemouth, Darlington, Derby, Leicester, Luton, Milton Keynes, Poole, Portsmouth, Rutland and Southampton became unitary authorities. Brighton and Hove were merged to form the Brighton and Hove unitary authority.
On April 1, 1998, Blackpool, Blackburn with Darwen (a renamed Blackburn), Halton, Nottingham, Peterborough, Plymouth, Stoke-on-Trent, Southend-on-Sea, Swindon (Thamesdown), Telford and Wrekin (The Wrekin), Torbay, Thurrock and Warrington became unitary authorities. Rochester upon Medway and Gillingham were merged to form the Medway unitary authority.

Also, Hereford and Worcester was abolished and replaced by the unitary authority of Herefordshire and the shire county of Worcestershire. Berkshire was split into six unitary authorities, but not formally abolished. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority that was created on April 1, 1996 following the abolition of the County of Avon. ... North Somerset is a unitary authority in England, historically part of the county of Somerset but now administered independently. ... South Gloucestershire is a local government area in South West England. ... Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and located at With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most populous city... East Yorkshire Holderness Kingston upon Hull Beverley Boothferry Scunthorpe Glanford Great Grimsby Cleethorpes The Arms of Humberside County Council Humberside was a non-metropolitan county of England from April 1, 1974 until April 1, 1996. ... Humber is also the name of one of the ranges of cars manufactured by the Rootes Group Humber is also the name of a river in Newfoundland, Canada, as well as a river and a college, both in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Look up Yorkshire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England, in the United Kingdom. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... St Clements Church, Worlaby North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in England, established in April 1996, one of the first unitary councils. ... North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the north east of England, bordering onto North Lincolnshire and Lincolnshire. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county within the Government Office Region of Yorkshire and the Humber in northern England, United Kingdom and also a larger ceremonial county, partly in the North East England region. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bournemouth is a seaside resort on the south coast of England. ... Darlington is a local government district and borough in North East England. ... This article is about the city of Derby in England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... Luton is a town and local government district in England, located 33 miles (50km) north of central London. ... The Borough of Milton Keynes is a borough in England. ... For people with Poole as surname, see Poole (disambiguation) Poole is a coastal town, port and tourist destination in the traditional county of Dorset in southern England. ... Portsmouth is a city of about 189,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Southampton is a city and major port situated on the south coast of England. ... Brighton is located on the south coast of England and together with its immediate neighbour Hove forms the city of Brighton & Hove. ... This article is about the English town of Hove. ... Brighton and Hove is a city on the south coast of England. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Blackpool is a seaside town in north-western England. ... Blackburn with Darwen (Dwrgwyn) is a borough in Lancashire, North West England. ... Halton is a borough in North West England, administered by a unitary authority. ... Nottingham is a city (and county town of Nottinghamshire) in the East Midlands of England. ... Peterborough is a city in the East of England. ... Plymouth is a city in the southwest of England, or alternatively the Westcountry, and is situated within the traditional county of Devon. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ... Southend-on-Sea is a resort town in Essex, England. ... The article on the town of Swindon is here. ... Telford and Wrekin is a borough in the West Midlands region of England. ... Torbay is an east facing bay at the western most end of Lyme Bay in the south west of England, situated roughly midway between the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. ... Thurrock is a unitary authority in England. ... Warrington is the largest town and borough in the county of Cheshire, in the North-West of England. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent in the United Kingdom, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... The Medway Towns is the name given to a conurbation located to the north of Kent in England: until 1998 it was part of that county (see below). ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ...

Other changes

The local government reform did not affect police force areas, or fire and rescue service areas, but resulted in the setting of many more joint boards for such authorities. The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ...


In addition to having their county councils abolished, Avon, Humberside and Cleveland were abolished as non-metropolitan counties. This, and the fact that many of the new unitary authorities were in themselves non-metropolitan counties, led to the concept of ceremonial counties for the Lieutenancy, which would include the areas made part of unitary authorities.[114][115] In Avon, Bristol became a ceremonial county in itself, with the other parts allocated to Somerset and Gloucestershire. Cleveland was simply partitioned between County Durham and North Yorkshire, along the line of the River Tees. Humberside was split between Lincolnshire and the new ceremonial East Riding of Yorkshire (including Hull). In 1997, Rutland became a ceremonial county as well as a unitary authority, to be followed in 1998 by Herefordshire and Worcestershire. The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and located at With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most populous city... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... North Yorkshire is a non-metropolitan county within the Government Office Region of Yorkshire and the Humber in northern England, United Kingdom and also a larger ceremonial county, partly in the North East England region. ... The Tees is an English river which rises on the eastward slope of Cross Fell in the Pennine Chain and flows eastwards for about 87 miles (137 km) before emptying into the North Sea between Hartlepool and Redcar. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England, in the United Kingdom. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county and unitary district (known as County of Herefordshire) in the West Midlands region of England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ...


References

  1. ^ Local Government Act 1992. 1992 c. 19. part II.
  2. ^ The Local Government Commission for England (Transfer of Functions) Order 2001 SI 2001/3962
  3. ^ Redcliffe-Maud, Lord [1974]. English Local Government Reformed, Wood, Bruce. ISBN 0-19-888091-X.
  4. ^ Wood, Bruce [1976]. The Process of Local Government Reform: 1966-1974. George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-350052-8.
  5. ^ Budget Britain: but will it fly? The Economist. March 21, 1991.
  6. ^ County councils offered reprieve. The Times. June 3, 1992.
  7. ^ a b High cost of reform forces rethink over single-tier councils. The Times. April 21, 1992.
  8. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 3 June 1992, columns 545-546
  9. ^ Commission blames ministers for delays in council reform. The Times. September 29, 1992.
  10. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords, 23 January 1995, column 930
  11. ^ a b Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 11 November 1993, column 376
  12. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 2 November, 1993, columns 104-105
  13. ^ Derbyshire likely to be carved up for third time. The Independent. November 15, 1993.
  14. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 29 November 1993, column 376
  15. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 22 November 1993, column 9
  16. ^ Ministers decide to wipe out county councils. The Independent. November 22, 1993.
  17. ^ Gummer rejects council review structure plans. The Independent. November 30, 1993.
  18. ^ Gummer out of order. The Times. January 29, 1994.
  19. ^ Review guidance was unlawful. The Independent. January 29, 1994.
  20. ^ Judge opens way for abolition of counties. The Times. June 29, 1994.
  21. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 18 January, 1994, columns 579-582
  22. ^ a b c d e f Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 25 October, 1994, column 536
  23. ^ Gummer retreats and spares shire councils. The Guardian. October 26, 1994.
  24. ^ Counties saved by pressure from shire Tories. The Times. October 26, 1994.
  25. ^ a b Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire. October 1994.
  26. ^ Shake-up of councils rejected. The Guardian. October 27, 1994.
  27. ^ Six shires likely to survive review. The Independent. October 27, 1994.
  28. ^ Red rose county to fight abolition. The Guardian. June 15, 1994.
  29. ^ Pressure for change rejected in all but three shire counties. The Times. October 27, 1994.
  30. ^ Shire campaigners welcome liberation. The Times. December 16, 1994.
  31. ^ English councils revamp ends as 'tidy-up' and not revolution. January 12, 1995.
  32. ^ Gummer tells commission to redraw shire map. The Times. March 3, 1995
  33. ^ Banham resigns over shires rows. The Times. March 3, 1995.
  34. ^ Gummer tells commission to redraw shire map. The Times. March 3, 1995.
  35. ^ Shire hall shake-up set to turn back time. The Independent. March 3, 1995.
  36. ^ a b c d e Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 2 March, 1995, columns 1183-1187
  37. ^ Gummer reprieve for two councils. The Independent. February 25, 1995.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 21 March 1995, columns 123-128
  39. ^ Berkshire to lose county council in shake-up of shires. The Independent. March 22, 1995.
  40. ^ Court rules against Gummer on shire. The Times. October 7, 1995.
  41. ^ End nears for council. The Guardian. January 25, 1996.
  42. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords, 22 June, 1995, columns WA30-WA31
  43. ^ Ten towns and cities 'should have wider role'. The Independent. September 27, 1995
  44. ^ Councils fight on for unitary status: Three authorities miss out on all-purpose target. The Guardian. September 27, 1995.
  45. ^ Nine cities 'need greater powers' . The Independent. December 20, 1995.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of: Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester Upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin. December 1995.
  47. ^ a b Parliamentary Debates, House of Lords, 14 March 1996, columns WA71-WA74
  48. ^ a b The Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 SI 1996/1878
  49. ^ The Runnymede and Spelthorne (Borough Boundaries) Order 1996 SI 1996/1684.
  50. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 2 April 1996, column 172
  51. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Sefton. November 1997
  52. ^ Southport fails to escape Scousers' group. The Times. November 26, 1997.
  53. ^ a b c Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Avon, Gloucestershire and Somerset. December 1993.
  54. ^ The Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995. SI 1995/493.
  55. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Bedfordshire. October 1994.
  56. ^ The Bedfordshire (Borough of Luton) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1776
  57. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Berkshire. December 1994.
  58. ^ The Berkshire (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1879
  59. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Buckinghamshire. October 1994.
  60. ^ The Buckinghamshire (Borough of Milton Keynes) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1769
  61. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cheshire. October 1994.
  62. ^ The Cheshire (Boroughs of Halton and Warrington) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1863.
  63. ^ a b Local Government Commission for England. Final recommendations on the future local government of Cleveland and Durham. November 1993
  64. ^ The Cleveland (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/187
  65. ^ The Cleveland (Further Provision) Order 1995 SI 1995/1747
  66. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cornwall. January 1995.
  67. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cumbria. October 1994.
  68. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Derbyshire. November 1993.
  69. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Derbyshire. January 1995.
  70. ^ The Derbyshire (City of Derby) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1773
  71. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Devon. December 1994.
  72. ^ The Devon (City of Plymouth and Borough of Torbay) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1865]
  73. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Dorset. December 1994.
  74. ^ The Dorset (Boroughs of Poole and Bournemouth) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1771
  75. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of County Durham. December 1994.
  76. ^ The Durham (Borough of Darlington) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1772
  77. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of East Sussex. December 1994.
  78. ^ The East Sussex (Boroughs of Brighton and Hove) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1770
  79. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Essex. December 1994.
  80. ^ The Essex (Boroughs of Colchester, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock and District of Tendring) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 SI 1996/1875
  81. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Gloucestershire. January 1995.
  82. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Hampshire. October 1994.
  83. ^ The Hampshire (Cities of Portsmouth and Southampton) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1775
  84. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Hereford and Worcester. December 1994.
  85. ^ The Hereford and Worcester (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 SI 1996/1867
  86. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Hertfordshire. January 1995.
  87. ^ a b c Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of North Yorkshire, Humberside and Lincolnshire. January 1994.
  88. ^ The Humberside (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/600
  89. ^ The Isle of Wight (Structural Change) Order 1994 SI 1994/1210
  90. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Kent. October 1994.
  91. ^ The Kent (Borough of Gillingham and City of Rochester upon Medway) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1876
  92. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Lancashire. October 1994.
  93. ^ The Lancashire (Boroughs of Blackburn and Blackpool) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1868
  94. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Leicestershire. December 1994.
  95. ^ The Leicestershire (City of Leicester and District of Rutland) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/507
  96. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Norfolk. December 1994.
  97. ^ The North Yorkshire (District of York) (Structural and Boundary Changes) Order 1995 SI 1995/610
  98. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Northamptonshire. December 1994.
  99. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Northumberland. December 1994.
  100. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Nottinghamshire. December 1994.
  101. ^ The Nottinghamshire (City of Nottingham) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1877
  102. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Oxfordshire. October 1994.
  103. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Shropshire. January 1995.
  104. ^ The Shropshire (District of The Wrekin) (Structural Change) Order 1996 SI 1996/1866
  105. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Staffordshire. December 1994.
  106. ^ The Staffordshire (City of Stoke-on-Trent) (Structural and Boundary Changes) Order 1995 SI 1995/1779
  107. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Suffolk. December 1994.
  108. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Surrey. December 1994.
  109. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Warwickshire. December 1994.
  110. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of West Sussex. December 1994.
  111. ^ Local Government Commission for England. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Wiltshire. December 1994.
  112. ^ The Wiltshire (Borough of Thamesdown) (Structural Change) Order 1995 SI 1995/1774
  113. ^ The Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Surrey (County Boundaries) Order 1994 SI 1994/330
  114. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 3 March 1995, columns 318-319
  115. ^ Parliamentary Debates, House of Commons, 29 February 1996, column 653

 
 

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