FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Local Government Act 1972

The Local Government Act 1972 (1972 c. 70) is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that reformed local government in England and Wales, on April 1, 1974. In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... The United Kingdom is made up of four parts - England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ...


Its pattern of two-tier administrative county and district councils remains in use today in large parts of England, although the Metropolitan County Councils were abolished in 1986 and it was replaced with unitary authorities in many areas in the 1990s. In Wales, it established a similar pattern of administrative counties and districts. These have since been entirely replaced with a system of unitary authorities. In Scotland, the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 established a similar system of two-tier regions and districts in 1975 — this was also replaced by a system of unitary council areas in 1996. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... The Districts of England are the lowest level of local government in England, except for civil parishes. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single-tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... In 1974 Wales was divided for local government purposes into districts. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 (1973 c. ... The nine Regions of Scotland were established under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 as the uppermost tier of local government in Scotland. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... The council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ...


Elections were held to the new authorities in 1973, and they acted as 'shadow authorities' until the handover date. Elections to non-metropolitan county councils were held on April 12, those to non-metropolitan district councils were held on June 7. [1] April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...

Contents


Background

Elected County councils had been established in England and Wales for the first time in 1888, covering areas known as administrative counties. Some large towns, known as county boroughs were politically independent from the counties they were physically situated in. The county areas were two-tier, with many municipal borough, urban district and rural districts within them, each with its own council. In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) is a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... In the British Isles an urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area. ... In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ...


Apart from the creation of new county boroughs, the most significant change since 1899 (and the establishment of metropolitan boroughs in the County of London) had been the establishment in 1965 of Greater London and its thirty-two London boroughs, covering a much larger area than the previous county. Two pairs of small administrative counties were also merged at this time, to form Huntingdon and Peterborough and Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely. However, the Local Government Commission was routinely having its recommendations ignored (such as its proposal to abolish Rutland as a county authority). 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A Metropolitan Borough (or Metropolitan District) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... The County of London (in red), super imposed upon todays Greater London area, to show the difference in size with post-1965 Borough boundaries The County of London was an administrative county of England from 1888 to 1965. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... For more coverage on London, visit the London Portal. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains 32 London Boroughs, of which 12 (plus the City of London) make up Inner London and 20 Outer London. ... Huntingdonshire and Peterborough was a short-lived administrative county in England. ... Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely was an administrative county in England, created in 1965 by merging Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely county council areas, thus reconstructing the traditional Cambridgeshire. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ...


It was generally agreed that there were significant problems with the structure of local government. Despite mergers, there was still a proliferation of small district councils in rural areas, and in the major conurbations the borders had been set before the pattern of urban development had become clear. For example, the area that was to become the seven boroughs of the metropolitan county of West Midlands, local government was split between three administrative counties (Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire), and eight county boroughs (Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Solihull, Walsall, Warley, West Bromwich, and Wolverhampton). The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Map sources for Dudley at grid reference SO9390 Dudley is a town in the West Midlands, England. ... Map sources for Solihull at grid reference SP1579 Solihull (IPA: , or , or some combination of the two; occasionally ) is a town in the West Midlands in England with a population of 198,000(2001 census). ... Map sources for Walsall at grid reference SP0198 Walsall Art Gallery Walsall is an industrial town in the West Midlands of England. ... Warley was a county borough formed in 1966 by the combination of the existing county borough of Smethwick with the towns of Oldbury and Rowley Regis. ... Map sources for West Bromwich at grid reference SO9992 West Bromwich is a town in the English county of West Midlands, five miles north west of Birmingham. ... Wolverhampton is an industrial, commercial and university city and metropolitan borough in the English West Midlands, traditionally part of the county of Staffordshire. ...


The Redcliffe-Maud commission was set up in 1966. In 1969 it recommended a system of single-tier unitary authorities for the whole of England, apart from three metropolitan areas of Merseyside, Selnec (Greater Manchester) and West Midlands (Birmingham and the Black Country), which were to have both a metropolitan council and district councils. Local government in England as proposed by the report. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... The Black Country is a loosely-defined area of conurbation to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton in the English West Midlands, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ...


This report was accepted by the Labour Party government of the time, but the Conservative Party won the 1970 general election, and on a manifesto that committed them to 'two-tiers everywhere'. The Labour Party has historically been the principal left wing political party of the United Kingdom since its formation in the early 20th century (see British politics). ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right-of-centre in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on June 18, 1970, and resulted in a surprise loss of power for Labour under Harold Wilson, who was replaced as Prime Minister by the Conservative leader, Edward Heath. ...


The Act

The Act abolished previous existing local government structures, and created a two-tier system of counties and districts everywhere. Some of the new counties were designated metropolitan counties, containing metropolitan boroughs instead. The allocation of functions differed between the metropolitan and the non-metropolitan areas (the so-called 'shire counties') — for example, education and social services were the responsibility of the shire counties, but in metropolitan areas was given to the districts. The distribution of powers was slightly different in Wales than in England, with libraries being a county responsibility in England — but in Wales districts could opt to become library authorities themselves. The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... A Metropolitan Borough (or Metropolitan District) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is an administrative county which is not a metropolitan county. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ...


Although called two-tier, the system was really three-tier, as it retained civil parish councils, although in Wales they were renamed community councils. In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... Community councils (CCs) are the most local official representative bodies in Scotland and Wales. ...


The Act introduced 'agency', where one local authority (usually a district) could act as an agent for another authority. For example, since road maintenance was split depending upon the type of road, both types of council had to retain engineering departments. A county council could delegate its road maintenance to the district council if it was confident that the district was competent. Some powers were specifically excluded from agency, such as education. An agent is an autonomous entity with an ontological commitment and agenda of its own. ...


The Act abolished various historic relics such as aldermen. Many existing boroughs that were too small to constitute a district, but too large to constitute a civil parish, were given Charter Trustees. An alderman is a member of a municipal legislative body in a town or city with many jurisdictions. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... In the United Kingdom, Charter Trustees are set up to maintain the continuity of a town charter or city charter after a district with the status of a borough or city has been abolished, until such time as a parish council is established. ...


Most provisions of the Act came into force at midnight on April 1, 1974. Elections to the new councils had already been held, in 1973, and the new authorities were already up and running as 'shadow authorities', following the example set by the London Government Act 1963. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1973 calendar). ... The London Government Act 1963 was an Act of the UK parliament which led to the official recognition of the conurbation known as Greater London. ...


The new local government areas

The Act specified the composition and names of the English and Welsh counties, and the composition of the metropolitan and Welsh districts. It did not specify any names of districts, nor indeed the borders of the non-metropolitan districts — these were specified by Statutory Instrument after the passing of the Act (specifically by the The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972, SI 1972/2038). Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


In England there were 46 counties and 296 districts, in Wales there were 8 and 37. Six of the English counties were designated as metropolitan counties. The new English counties were based clearly on the traditional ones, albeit with several substantial changes. The 13 traditional counties of Wales, however, were abandoned entirely for administrative purposes, and 8 new ones instituted. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Wales has thirteen traditional counties (or vice counties). ...


In England prior to the passing of the Act there had been 1086 urban and rural districts and 79 county boroughs. The number of districts was reduced about fourfold.


England

Three new administrative counties were formed focused on old county boroughs as follows —: Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Liverpool waterfront by night, as seen from the Wirral. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Ferry across the Mersey, June 2005 The River Mersey is a river in the north west of England. ... Wirral is a metropolitan borough in Merseyside, North West England, which occupies the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula, more commonly known as The Wirral. ... Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a palatine county in North West England. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... Stockports Town Hall Stockport is a town in Greater Manchester, in North West England. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of Bolton, the motto is Latin for Overcome your hinderance Bolton is a town in the Greater Manchester urban area in England, although most Boltonians regard it as still part of Lancashire. ... South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. ... For other uses, see Sheffield (disambiguation). ... Map sources for Rotherham at grid reference SK4392 Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England, built upon the River Don near the confluence of the Don and the Rother. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England and consists of the estuary areas of the rivers Tyne and Wear. ... Tyneside is a conurbation in northern England, covering part of the area of Tyne and Wear. ... Newcastle upon Tyne, often shortened to Newcastle, is a city and unitary authority situated on the north bank of the River Tyne, in North East England. ... Northumberland is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in northern England. ... Sunderland is an industrial area and port in the City of Sunderland metropolitan borough in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... Wolverhampton is an industrial, commercial and university city and metropolitan borough in the English West Midlands, traditionally part of the county of Staffordshire. ... The Black Country is a loosely-defined area of conurbation to the north and west of Birmingham, and to the south and east of Wolverhampton in the English West Midlands, around the South Staffordshire coalfield. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England, corresponding roughly to the core of the West Riding of the traditional county of Yorkshire. ... Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds in West Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Bradford is the major settlement in the City of Bradford Metropolitan District, in the county of West Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Huddersfield is a large town in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees within the County of West Yorkshire in England. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ...

Two were formed from mergers —: Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Bristol is a unitary authority with city and ceremonial county status in South West England. ... For other uses, see Bath (disambiguation). ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire. ... Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in northern England based on Middlesbrough, Stockton and Redcar, along the banks of the River Tees with a resident population of over 465,000 in 2005. ... Map sources for Guisborough at grid reference NZ6115 Guisborough is a small market town near Middlesbrough in North East England, part of the administrative county of Redcar and Cleveland. ... Hartlepool (pronounced HART-le-pool) is a town and North Sea port in North East England. ... Humberside as an administrative county between 1974 and 1996. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district in the United Kingdom. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a city and unitary authority situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Location within the British Isles Scunthorpe (popularly known as Scunny) is the administrative centre of the unitary authority of North Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. ... Great Grimsby (typically known simply as Grimsby) is a seaport on the river Humber in the north of England, which has a population of around 90,000 (140,000 including Cleethorpes). ...

Other changes to administrative boundaries were —: Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Westmorland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Cumberland is one of the 39 traditional counties of England. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Furness is a peninsula in north-west England. ... The White Yorkshire rose. ... Sedbergh Rural District was a rural district in the West Riding of Yorkshire in England from 1894 to its abolition in 1974. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Herefordshire is a traditional and ceremonial county and unitary district in the West Midlands region of England in the United Kingdom. ... Worcestershire (pronounced ; abbreviated Worcs) is a county located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ...

The only counties to survive entirely unchanged were Cornwall, Hertfordshire, Isle of Wight, Shropshire and Wiltshire. Apart from these, Devon, Essex, Kent, Northamptonshire were only changed by the inclusion of county boroughs. Bournemouth is a seaside resort on the south coast of England. ... Christchurch is a town in the county of Dorset in southern England on the English Channel coast. ... Dorset (pronounced Dorsit, sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the southwest of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Startforth Rural District is a former rural district in the Pennines of northern England. ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire. ... Categories: Stub | Suffolk ... West Suffolk was created along with East Suffolk in 1888 as an administrative county of England in its own right. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA Airport Code: LGW, ICAO Airport Code: EGKK) is Londons second airport and the second largest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Parts of Kesteven is a traditional subdivision of Lincolnshire, England. ... Parts of Holland is an area in south-east Lincolnshire, England. ... Lindsey was a unit of local government until 1974 in Lincolnshire, England, covering the northern part of the county. ... Humberside as an administrative county between 1974 and 1996. ... Huntingdonshire and Peterborough was a short-lived administrative county in England. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... Mid Sussex is a local government district in South East England - part of the county of West Sussex. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Map sources for Great Yarmouth at grid reference TG5207 Great Yarmouth is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Bolton Abbey North Yorkshire is a Shire county within the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. ... The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three traditional subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... The East Riding of Yorkshire is a local government district in the United Kingdom. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Leicestershire (abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... The Districts of England are the lowest level of local government in England, except for civil parishes. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in the county of Berkshire in the south of England. ... Eton is a town in Berkshire, England, lying on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor and connected to it by Windsor Bridge. ... Map of Bucks (1904) Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... The rural district of Tintwistle was a rural district in Cheshire, England from 1894 to 1974. ... Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a palatine county in North West England. ... Derbyshire (pronounced Dar-bee-shur) is a county in the East Midlands of England, which boasts some of Englands most attractive scenery. ... The Vale of White Horse is a local government district of Oxfordshire in England. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... The River Thames at Abingdon with St. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in south-east England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... A borough is a political division originally used in England. ... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ... The West Riding as an administrative county prior to its abolition in 1974. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Barnoldswick (colloquially known as Barlick) is a Yorkshire town with an approximate population of 12,000. ... Earby is a Lancashire town near Colne. ... Location within the British Isles Warrington is the largest town and borough in the county of Cheshire, North West England. ... Arms of the former Widnes Municipal Borough Council Widnes is a town in the unitary authority of Halton, Cheshire, England. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a palatine county in North West England. ... Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... Motto: Onen hag oll (Cornish: One and all) Geography Status Ceremonial and (smaller) Non-metropolitan county Region South West England Population - Total (2004 est. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom, officially part of the East of England Government region. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... The inner harbour, Brixham, south Devon, at low tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ...


Many proposals made by the government were actually later withdrawn in favour of more traditional boundaries. The metropolitan counties were significantly trimmed from their original conception before they ended up in the Draft Bill, and were trimmed further before they ended up in the Statute Book. For example, Merseyside lost Skelmersdale, Ellesmere Port and Runcorn, while Greater Manchester lost Glossop and Wilmslow, West Midlands lost Kidderminster and Telford (but gained Coventry) and Tyne and Wear lost Easington. The Act as passed actually included Charlwood and Horley (along with Gatwick Airport) from Surrey into West Sussex, but the 'Charlwood and Horley Act 1974' reversed this. Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Location within the British Isles Skelmersdale is a New Town, by far the largest town in the district of West Lancashire. ... Arms of the former Ellesmere Port Borough Council Location within the British Isles Ellesmere Port is an industrial town in the district of Ellesmere Port and Neston, Cheshire, England, situated in the south of the Wirral Peninsula on the estuary of the River Mersey, to the north of Chester. ... Location within the British Isles Arms of the former Runcorn Urban District Council Runcorn is an industrial town in the unitary authority of Halton, Cheshire, England on the southern banks of the River Mersey at the site of the rivers first bridge crossing. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... Location within the British Isles Glossop is a town in the Peak District of Derbyshire, England, about 13 miles east of Manchester. ... Image:Wilmslow - Cheshire dot. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... Map sources for Kidderminster at grid reference SO825765 Kidderminster is a town in the Wyre Forest district of Worcestershire, England. ... Map sources for Telford at grid reference SJ6909 Telford is a new town in Shropshire, England, part of the unitary authority of Telford and Wrekin. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England and consists of the estuary areas of the rivers Tyne and Wear. ... Easington is the name of several places in England: Easington, Buckinghamshire Easington, County Durham Easington (district), County Durham Easington, Oxfordshire Easington, East Riding of Yorkshire Easington, North Riding of Yorkshire Easington, West Riding of Yorkshire Easington Colliery, County Durham Easington Lane, County Durham This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... Charlwood is a small village in southeastern Surrey, on the northwest perimeter of Gatwick Airport. ... Horley is a town on the border between Surrey, UK, and West Sussex, UK. It is situated between Reigate, Redhill and Gatwick. ... Gatwick Airport (IATA Airport Code: LGW, ICAO Airport Code: EGKK) is Londons second airport and the second largest airport in the UK after Heathrow. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ...


Cleveland and Avon also experienced trimming at the edges, with Cleveland losing Whitby and Avon losing Frome. Other rejected reforms included the inclusion of Lowestoft with Norfolk, Colchester with Suffolk, and Long Eaton with Nottinghamshire. Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Map sources for Whitby at grid reference NZ898109 Whitby is a historic town in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... For the various rivers and a lake with this name, see Frome (disambiguation) Map sources for Frome at grid reference ST797538 Frome (pronounced ) is a small town in Somerset, England, near the Mendip Hills, with a population of 24,510 (2001 census). ... Map sources for Lowestoft at grid reference TM5492 Sunrise at Ness Point, Lowestoft. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Colchester is a town and main settlement of the Colchester borough of Essex in the East of England. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Long Eaton is a town in Derbyshire, England, effectively a suburb of Nottingham. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ...


The government stood firm on the existence or abolition of county councils. The Isle of Wight (originally scheduled to be merged back into Hampshire as a district) was the only local campaign to succeed, despite protests from Rutland and Herefordshire. The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Rutland is traditionally Englands smallest county and is bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire, and southeast by Northamptonshire. ... Herefordshire is a traditional and ceremonial county and unitary district in the West Midlands region of England in the United Kingdom. ...


Wales

In Wales the new administrative counties generally bore no relation to the traditional counties. Apart from the Glamorgans, all the names were Welsh language names, with no English equivalent. The names were taken from ancient British kingdoms. For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Wales has thirteen traditional counties (or vice counties). ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...


In the south, Gwent was a successor authority to Monmouthshire, covering virtually the same territory, and also including Newport county borough. Glamorgan was split into South Glamorgan (with Cardiff), West Glamorgan (with Swansea) and Mid Glamorgan (with Merthyr Tydfil). In West and Mid Wales, two huge counties were established. Dyfed was a merger of Cardiganshire Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire. Powys was formed from the merger of Brecknockshire, Radnorshire and Montgomeryshire, with those entities retained as districts. In the north, Gwynedd and Clwyd were established, the former covering Anglesey, Caernarvonshire and most of Merionethshire, the latter covering Flintshire and most of Denbighshire. Gwent is the area of south-easternmost Wales, bordering on the Welsh Marches of southwest England. ... Monmouthshire (Welsh: Sir Fynwy) is both a principal area and a traditional county in south-east Wales. ... Newport (Welsh: Casnewydd) is the third largest city in Wales (after Cardiff and Swansea). ... Glamorgan or Morgannwg is a maritime traditional county of Wales, UK, and was previously a medieval kingdom or principality. ... South Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... The Norman Keep, Cardiff Castle. ... West Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... Swansea (Welsh: Abertawe, mouth of the Tawe) is a city and county in South Wales, situated on the coast immediately to the east of the Gower Peninsula. ... Mid Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... Merthyr Tydfil (Welsh: Merthyr Tudful) is a town and county borough in the traditional county of Glamorgan, south Wales, with a population of about 55,000. ... Dyfed was one of the ancient kingdoms (or principalities) of Wales prior to the Norman Conquest. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county in Wales. ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Carmarthenshire (Welsh: Sir Gaerfyrddin) is a county in Wales. ... Powys is an administrative county in Wales, over 2000 sq. ... Brecknockshire, also known as Breconshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Frycheiniog is an inland traditional county of Wales, bounded N. by Radnorshire, E. by Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, S. by Monmouthshire and Glamorgan, and W. by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. ... Radnorshire (Welsh: Sir Faesyfed) is an inland traditional county of Wales, bounded to the north by Montgomeryshire and Shropshire, to the east by Herefordshire, to the south by Brecknockshire and to the west by Cardiganshire. ... Montgomeryshire (Welsh: Sir Drefaldwyn) is an inland traditional county of Wales. ... In 1974 Wales was divided for local government purposes into districts. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Clwyd is a preserved county of Wales, formed from the traditional counties of Denbighshire and Flintshire, and parts of Merionethshire. ... Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Môn, pronounced (IPA), roughly unniss mawn), is an island and county at the northwestern extremity of north Wales. ... Caernarfonshire, also known as Carnarvonshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Gaernarfon, is a maritime traditional county of Wales, bounded N. by the Irish Sea, E. by Denbighshire, S. by Cardigan Bay and Merionethshire, and W. by Caernarfon Bay and the Menai Straits, which separates it from Anglesey. ... Merionethshire (Meirionnydd in Welsh) is a traditional county of Wales. ... Flintshire (Welsh Sir y Fflint) is a county in northern Wales. ... Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in North Wales. ...


Map

  1. Northumberland
  2. Tyne and Wear
  3. County Durham
  4. Cleveland
  5. North Yorkshire
  6. Cumbria
  7. Lancashire
  8. Merseyside
  9. Greater Manchester
  10. West Yorkshire
  11. South Yorkshire
  12. Humberside
  13. Lincolnshire
  14. Nottinghamshire
  15. Derbyshire
  16. Cheshire
  17. Shropshire
  18. Staffordshire
  19. West Midlands
  20. Warwickshire
  21. Leicestershire
  22. Northamptonshire
  23. Cambridgeshire
  1. Norfolk
  2. Suffolk
  3. Essex
  4. Hertfordshire
  5. Bedfordshire
  6. Buckinghamshire
  7. Oxfordshire
  8. Gloucestershire
  9. Hereford and Worcester
  10. Avon
  11. Wiltshire
  12. Berkshire
  13. Greater London *
  14. Kent
  15. East Sussex
  16. West Sussex
  17. Surrey
  18. Hampshire
  19. Isle of Wight
  20. Dorset
  21. Somerset
  22. Devon
  23. Cornwall
  1. Gwent
  2. South Glamorgan
  3. Mid Glamorgan
  4. West Glamorgan
  1. Dyfed
  2. Powys
  3. Gwynedd
  4. Clwyd

metropolitan county
* 'administrative area' created in earlier legislation Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Northumberland is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in northern England. ... Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan county in the North East of England and consists of the estuary areas of the rivers Tyne and Wear. ... County Durham is a county in north-east England. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Bolton Abbey North Yorkshire is a Shire county within the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. ... Cumbria is a county in the North West region of England. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England, corresponding roughly to the core of the West Riding of the traditional county of Yorkshire. ... South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. ... Humberside as an administrative county between 1974 and 1996. ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the East Midlands of England. ... Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. ... Derbyshire (pronounced Dar-bee-shur) is a county in the East Midlands of England, which boasts some of Englands most attractive scenery. ... Cheshire (or archaically the County of Chester) is a palatine county in North West England. ... Shropshire (abbreviated Salop or Shrops) is a traditional, ceremonial and administrative county in the West Midlands region of England. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... Warwickshire (pronounced either /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃə/ or /ˈwɔːɹɪkˌʃɪə/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Leicestershire (abbreviated Leics) is a landlocked county in central England. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... Norfolk (pronounced IPA: ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ... Suffolk (pronounced SUF-fk) is a large traditional and administrative county in the East Anglia region of eastern England. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom, officially part of the East of England Government region. ... Bedfordshire is a county in England and forms part of the East of England region. ... Map of Bucks (1904) Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is a county in South East England. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in south-east England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... For more coverage on London, visit the London Portal. ... Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Surrey is a county in southern England, part of the South East England region and one of the Home Counties. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Dorset (pronounced Dorsit, sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the southwest of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Somerset is a county in the south-west of England. ... The inner harbour, Brixham, south Devon, at low tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordering on Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Motto: Onen hag oll (Cornish: One and all) Geography Status Ceremonial and (smaller) Non-metropolitan county Region South West England Population - Total (2004 est. ... Image File history File links EnglandAndWales1974Numbered. ... For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... Gwent is the area of south-easternmost Wales, bordering on the Welsh Marches of southwest England. ... South Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... Mid Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... West Glamorgan is a ceremonial preserved county of Wales, one of the divisions of the traditional county of Glamorgan. ... Dyfed was one of the ancient kingdoms (or principalities) of Wales prior to the Norman Conquest. ... Powys is an administrative county in Wales, over 2000 sq. ... Gwynedd is an administrative county in Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Clwyd is a preserved county of Wales, formed from the traditional counties of Denbighshire and Flintshire, and parts of Merionethshire. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ...

Division of functions

Functions previously exercisable by local authorities were distributed broadly as so:

  • Sanitary authorities: districts, and London boroughs
  • Water and sewerage: districts, London boroughs (provision for joint boards in London)
  • Town and country planning: districts and counties
  • Traffic: counties (main roads) and districts
  • Gipsy sites: counties (?)
  • Education: non-metropolitan counties and metropolitan districts
  • Housing: districts
  • Social services: non-metropolitan counties and metropolitan districts
  • Police: counties
  • Fire services: counties
  • Food and drugs: counties and London boroughs, some Welsh districts
  • Weights and measures: counties and London boroughs, some Welsh districts
  • Passenger transport authorities: metropolitan counties
  • Other bus services: non-metropolitan counties and non-metropolitan districts
  • Licensed premises: districts
  • Cinemas: districts
  • Theatres: districts
  • Rent tribunals: non-metropolitan counties and metropolitan districts
  • Public libraries and museums: non-metropolitan counties, London boroughs and metropolitan districts, some Welsh districts
  • Youth employment services: non-metropolitan counties and metropolitan districts
  • Moneylenders licences: districts
  • Pawnbroker licences: districts
  • Dog licences: districts
  • Game licences: districts
  • Crematoria: districts, London boroughs, parishes, communities

In many areas both authorities had some powers. For some powers, certain Welsh districts were allowed greater powers by the Secretary of State. Sanitary Districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. ...


Reaction and aftermath

Despite assurances that the Act was not attempting to amend historic loyalties, it nonetheless used the term 'county' instead of 'administrative county' and redefined the ceremonial counties used for purposes such as Lieutenancy to these. Both of these decisions have been criticised strongly by groups seeking to preserve awareness of traditional counties. The Act allowed the Duchy of Lancaster to appoint Lord-Lieutenants for the shrunken Lancashire along with all of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ... The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... The British Isles are divided into the following traditional counties (also vice counties or historic counties). ... A not-so-nice duchy. ... Red Lancashire rose Lancashire is a county in the North of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ...


Other causes of outrage were the adoption of the new administrative counties by the makers of atlases, and the Royal Mail in many cases adopting the changes. Whilst previous changes had been localised and so caused localised annoyance only, the 1974 reforms led to a wider movement (see Association of British Counties). Royal Mail is the national postal service in the United Kingdom. ... ABC map of counties, based approximately on reputed boundaries from first edition Ordnance Survey maps c. ...


Some of the reaction against the Act came not from people concerned with the preservation of traditional counties, but instead was motivated solely by opposition to change. The Isle of Wight, for example, is historically part of Hampshire, yet resisted efforts to reintegrate it administratively — the county borough councils regretted the loss of their status. Especially stung was the City and County of Bristol, which had had its own Lord Lieutenant for centuries. The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of Southampton off the southern English coast. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... County borough was a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom to refer to a borough or a city independent of county administration. ... Bristol is a unitary authority with city and ceremonial county status in South West England. ... Ensign of the Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ...


The system established, however, was not to last. In England, the county councils of the metropolitan counties (and the Greater London Council) were abolished in 1986 by Margaret Thatcher's government, effectively re-establishing county borough status for the metropolitan boroughs. A further local government reform in the 1990s led to the creation of many new unitary authorities, and the complete abolition of Avon, Cleveland, Hereford and Worcester and Humberside. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician and a former barrister and chemist. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ... A unitary authority is a type of local authority, which has a single-tier and is responsible for all local government functions within its area. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Wyre Forest Bromsgrove Redditch Wychavon Worcester Malvern Hills Leominster Hereford South Herefordshire The County of Hereford and Worcester was an English administrative county created by the Local Government Act 1972 from the traditional counties of Herefordshire and Worcestershire. ... Humberside as an administrative county between 1974 and 1996. ...


In Wales the two-tier system was abolished entirely in 1996, and replaced with the current principal areas of Wales. The 1974 administrative counties have been retained as preserved counties for various purposes, notably as ceremonial counties, albeit with substantive border revisions. For an explanation of often confusing terms such as Great Britain, Britain, United Kingdom and England, see British Isles (terminology). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... The Preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy. ...


External links

  • (Partial) Text of the Local Government Act 1972
  • Text of S.I 1972/2039 - The Order establishing the districts in England

References

  • Local Government Act 1972
  • English Local Government Reformed (1974), John Redcliffe-Maud, Bruce Wood

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference for Local Government Act 1972 - Search.com (4608 words)
A Local Government Commission for England was set up in 1958 to review local government arrangements throughout the country, and had some successes, such as merging two pairs of small administrative counties to form Huntingdon and Peterborough and Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely, and the creation of several contigous county boroughs in the Black Country.
However, the Local Government Commission was routinely having its recommendations ignored in favour of the status quo, such as its proposal to abolish Rutland, or to reorganise Tyneside.
Despite assurances that the Act was not attempting to amend loyalties, it nonetheless used the term 'county' instead of 'administrative county' and redefined the boundaries of ceremonial counties used for purposes such as Lieutenancy to these.
Local Government Act 1972 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2141 words)
70) is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that reformed local government in England and Wales, on April 1, 1974.
For example, the area that was to become the seven boroughs of the metropolitan county of West Midlands, local government was split between three administrative counties (Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Worcestershire), and eight county boroughs (Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Solihull, Walsall, Warley, West Bromwich, and Wolverhampton).
Despite assurances that the Act was not attempting to amend historic loyalties, it nonetheless used the term 'county' instead of 'administrative county' and redefined the ceremonial counties used for purposes such as Lieutenancy to these.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m