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Encyclopedia > Loanword

A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related process whereby it is the meaning or idiom that is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In linguistics, meaning is the content carried by the words or signs exchanged by people when communicating through language. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... The lexical items in a language are both the single words (vocabulary) and sets of words organized into groups, units or chunks. Some examples of lexical items from English are cat, traffic light, take care of, by the way, and dont count your chickens before they hatch. The entire... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Although loanwords are typically far less numerous than the "native" words of most languages (creoles and pidgins being an obvious exception), they are often widely known and used, since their borrowing served a certain purpose, for example to provide a name for a new invention. // A creole language, or just creole, is a well-defined and stable language that originated from a non-trivial combination of two or more languages, typically with many distinctive features that are not inherited from either parent. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An invention is an object, process, or technique which displays an element of novelty. ...

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Distinction between borrowing and inheriting

As languages develop, in most cases the bulk of the vocabulary of a language is inherited from its ancestral language. Words that are inherited from ancestral language, the "native" words of the language, are not considered to have been borrowed. Borrowing is when words are added to a language from any language other than the ancestral language or, on the other hand, when words from one language are taken into another language, especially during translation processes.

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Classes of borrowed words

Certain classes of loanwords are more common; function words, such as pronouns, numbers, words referring to universal concepts, are usually not borrowed. Examples of these words being borrowed have been attested, however. Function words are words that have little lexical meaning or have ambiguous meaning, but instead serve to express grammatical relationships with other words within a sentence, or specify the attitude or mood of the speaker. ...


Words referring to exotic concepts or ideas are usually borrowed. What is "exotic" can vary from language to language. Thus, English names for creatures not native to Great Britain are almost always loanwords, and most of the technical vocabulary referring to classical music is borrowed from Italian. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...

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Beyond words

Idiomatic expressions and phrases, sometimes translated word-for-word, can be borrowed, usually from a language that has "prestige" at the time. Often, a borrowed idiom is used as a euphemism for a less polite term in the original language. In English, this has usually been Latinisms from the Latin language and Gallicisms from French. If the phrase is translated word-for-word, it is known as a calque. An idiom is an expression whose meaning is not compositional — that is, whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of the individual words of which it is composed. ... A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Gallicism is a mode of speech peculiar to the French; a French idiom; also, in general, a French mode or custom. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...

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Loanwords in English

See also: Lists of English words of international origin

English has many loanwords. In 1973, a computerised survey of about 80,000 words in the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary (3rd edition) was published in Ordered Profusion by Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff. Their estimates for the origin of English words were as follows: . ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...

This survey shows no information about the frequency of words, however. If the frequency of words is considered, words from Old and Middle English occupy the vast majority. Old French is a term sometimes used to refer to the langue doïl, the continuum of varieties of Romance language spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of Belgium and Switzerland during the period roughly from 1000 to 1300 A.D... Anglo-French is a term that may be used in several contexts: Nationality, eg. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... A proper name [is] a word that answers the purpose of showing what thing it is that we are talking about writes John Stuart Mill in A System of Logic (1. ...


The reasons for English's vast borrowing include:

This lack of restrictions makes it comparatively easy for the English language to incorporate new words. Compare this with Japanese, where the English word "club" (itself originally from Old Norse) was turned into "kurabu" because of Japanese's inflexible syllable structure. However, the English pronunciation of a loanword will often differ from the original pronunciation to such a degree that a native speaker of the language it was borrowed from will not be able to recognize it as a loanword when spoken. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous population of Neustria and Danish or Norwegian Vikings who began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Phonotactics (in Greek phone = voice and tactic = course) is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...

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Affixes

The majority of English affixes, such as "un-", "-ing", and "-ly", were present in older forms in Old English. There are, however, a few English affixes that have been borrowed. One example, possibly the most prolific, is the suffix -er (agentive suffix, not the comparative suffix), which was borrowed (ultimately) from Latin. The verbal suffix '-ize' comes (via, Old French, via Latin) ultimately from Ancient Greek and became utilized liberally in America, often to the chagrin of the British.

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Other languages

Direct loans, expressions translated word-by-word, or even grammatical constructions and orthographical conventions from English are called anglicisms. Similarly, loans from Swedish are called sveticisms or svecisms. In French, the result of perceived over-use of English loanwords and expressions is called franglais. Denglish is English influence on German. English loanwords in French include 'le weekend', 'le job' and 'le biftek' (beefsteak). This has so outraged French purists that much time and energy is spent by various French institutions keeping the language pure; probably a futile endeavor. An anglicism is a word borrowed from English into another language. ... Franglais, a portmanteau made by mixing the words français (French) and anglais (English), is a slang term for types of speech, although the word has different overtones in the English and French languages. ... Germish (in German Denglisch) also referred to as Denglish, Engleutsch, Germlish, Genglish or Ginglish describes language based on the German grammar that includes a jumble of English and pseudo-English idioms, or vice versa. ...


English often borrows words from the cultures and languages of the British Colonies. For example there are at least twenty words from Hindi, including syce/sais, dinghy, chutney, pundit, wallah, pajama/pyjamas, bungalow and jodhpur. Other examples include trek, aardvark, lager and veld from Afrikaans, shirang, amok (Malay) and sjambok (Afrikaans via Malay).

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Reborrowing

It is possible for a word to travel from one language to another and then back to the originating language in a different form, a process called reborrowing. A specific example of this is anime which is borrowed from the Japanese アニメ, which is a shortened version of アニメーション (animeshon), which is in turn borrowed from the English animation. Reborrowing is the process where a word travels from one language to another and then back to the originating language in a different form or with a different meaning. ... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Speigel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) Anime ) (IPA pronunciation: in Japanese, but typically or in English) is an abbreviation of the word animation. Outside Japan, the term most popularly refers to animation... The main cast of the anime Cowboy Bebop (1998) (L to R: Spike Spiegel, Jet Black, Ed Tivrusky, Faye Valentine, and Ein the dog) Anime ) (IPA pronunciation: in Japanese, but typically or in English) is an abbreviation of the word animation. Outside Japan, the term most popularly refers to animation... 12 frames per second is the typical rate for an animated cartoon. ...

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See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
UC Santa Cruz - Linguistics - Research - SLUG Pubs - SLUG Pubs - Katayama 1998 (384 words)
I claim that consonant gemination occurring in Japanese loanwords is driven by an attempt to preserve the moraicity of coda consonants.
Loanword phonology has been a challenging topic to pursue due to our vague understanding of underlying representations of loanwords, which has often stipulated special markings on inputs to derive systematic phonological patterns.
It will be shown that examination of loanwords results in the discovery of constraints or constraint rankings which are masked in the native vocabulary of the language.
LOANWORD - Encyclopedia.com (1154 words)
College students' evaluative reactions to Arabic loanwords used in the context of the Iraq war.
Not all loanwords given by Perry are to be found in Haim...
Basically, that's because of kanji, or loanwords' lack of it to be precise.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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