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Encyclopedia > Lloyd Hall

Lloyd Augustus Hall (June 20, 1894 - January 2, 1971) was an African American chemist who contributed to the science of food preservation. By the end of his career, Hall had amassed 59 United States patents, and a number of his inventions were also patented in foreign countries. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


Major contributions

Hall devoted much of his efforts to the technologies behind curing meat, particularly to improving a curing salt marketed by Griffith Laboratories known as squirrels. This product originated with German chemist Karl Max Seifert, developer of a process whereby solutions of sodium chlorine and one or more secondary salts were sprayed onto hot metal and rapidly dried, producing crystals of the secondary salts encased inside a shell of sodium chloride. Seifert patented the process in 1934 and sold the rights to Griffith Laboratories.[1] In polymer chemistry and Process Engineering, curing refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by chemical additives, ultraviolet radiation or heat. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Genera Several, see text Squirrel is the common name for rodents of the family Sciuridae. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The adaptation of this process specifically for meat curing was then patented by company owner Enoch L. Griffith, who proposed nitrates and nitrites, well-known curing agents, as the secondary salts.[2] Although Lloyd Hall did not "invent" this product as is commonly thought, and never claimed to have done so, he took the lead role in its further development, adding hygroscopic agents such as corn sugar and glycerine to inhibit caking of the powder. Most of his patents in meat curing dealt with either preventing caking of the curing composition, or remedying undesired effects caused by the anti-caking agents. Trinitrate redirects here. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ...

Hall also investigated the role of spices in food preservation. It was common knowledge that certain seasonings had anti-microbial properties, but Hall and co-worker Carroll L. Griffith found that some spices carried many bacteria, as well as yeast and mold spores. To counter these problems, they patented in 1938 a means to sterilize spices through exposure to ethylene oxide gas, a fumigant. Ethylene oxide is still used for spice sterilization in some countries, but health concerns led to its being banned for this purpose in the European Union and Japan. Hall and Griffith later promoted the use of ethylene oxide for the sterilization of medical equipment,[3] helping to advance an idea that had been around for several years.[4] For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with approximately 1,500 species described. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Oxirane” redirects here. ...

Hall also invented new uses of antioxidants to prevent food spoilage, especially the onset of rancidity in fats and oils. Aware that unprocessed vegetable oils frequently contained natural antioxidants such as lecithin that slowed their spoilage, he developed means of combining these compounds with salts and other materials so that they could be readily introduced to other foods. Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by oxidation. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Lecithin is mostly a mixture of glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids (e. ...


After retiring from Griffith in 1959, Hall consulted for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. From 1962 to 1964, he sat on the American Food for Peace Council. He died in 1971 in Pasadena, California.

He was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek alphabet|Greek-letter Fraternities and sororities|fraternity established for African Americans. Hall made many spices like ginger'and cloves,far from preserving foods that could carry bbcteria and molds that cause the speed of foods spoiling.Later invented a system that used ethylenoxide gas. Lloyd after retiring from Griffith in 1959,he served as a consultant to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, where he shared his advances.


  1. 1,882,834, 10/18/1932, Asphalt emulsion and manufacture thereof
  2. 1,914,351, 6/13/1933, Protective coating, Enoch L.Griffith (co-inventor)
  3. 2,022,464, 11/26/1935, Vitamin concentrate,
  4. 2,097,405, 10/26/1937, Manufacture of bleached pepper products
  5. 2,107,697, 2/8/1938, Sterilizing foodstuffs, Carroll L. Griffith (co-inventor)
  6. 2,155,045, 4/18/1939, Inhibited detergent composition
  7. 2,189,949, 2/13/1940, Sterilizing colloid materials
  8. 2,251,334, 8/5/1941, Protein composition of matter http://en.wikipedia.org/skins-1.5/common/images/button_headline.png........................................................

Level 2 headline

  1. 2,321,673, 6/15/1943, Yeast food
  2. 2,357,650, 9/5/1944, Puncture sealing composition and manufacture thereof
  3. 2,363,730, 11/28/1944, Manufacture of nitrogen-fortified whey concentrate
  4. 2,385,412, 9/25/1945, Capsicum-containing seasoning composition
  5. 2,414,299, 1/14/1947, Production of protein hydrolysate flavoring material
  6. 2,464,200, 3/15/1949, Manufacture of stable dry papain composition
  7. 2,464,927, 3/22/1949, Antioxidant
  8. 2,477,742, 8/2/1949, Gelatin-base coating for food and the like
  9. 2,493,288, 1/3/1950, Synergistic antioxidants and the methods of preparing the same
  10. 2,500,543, 3/14/1950, Antioxidant
  11. 2,511,802, 6/13/1950, Synergistic antioxidant
  12. 2,511,803, 7/13/1950, Antioxidant flakes
  13. 2,511,804, 7/13/1950, Antioxidant salt
  14. 2,518,233, 8/8/1950, Synergistic antioxidant containing amino acids
  15. 2,536,171, 1/2/1951, Production of protein hydrolysate
  16. 2,758,931, 8/14/1956, Antioxidant composition
  17. 2,770,551, 11/27/1956, Meat-curing salt composition
  18. 2,772,169, 11/13/1956, Antioxidant material and use of said material in treating meat
  19. 2,845,358, 7/29/1958, Method of preserving fresh frozen pork


External links

  • http://www.griffithlaboratories.com/United_States/en-US/people/Profiles+In+Excellence/Dr+Lloyd+A+Hall.htm
  • Profile of Lloyd Hall - The Black Inventor Online Museum

  Results from FactBites:
Lloyd Augustus Hall (1218 words)
Lloyd A. Hall was born in Elgin, Illinois on June 20, 1894.
Lloyd Hall was born in Elgin, Illinois, on June 20, 1894 and had an interesting family background.
Lloyd Hall was an active young man, he participated in debating and athletics including being the captain of the debating team for a year and a letterman on the track and baseball team.
Lloyd Augustus Hall Biography | World of Chemistry (1228 words)
Hall was born in Elgin, Illinois, on June 20, 1894.
Hall's mother, Isabel, was a high-school graduate whose mother had fled to Illinois via the Underground Railroad at the age of sixteen.
Hall graduated in 1916 with a bachelor of science degree in chemistry and continued his studies in graduate classes at the University of Chicago.
  More results at FactBites »



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