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Encyclopedia > Llama
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article "Llama", a publication now in the public domain.
Llama
An Argentine llama
An Argentine llama
Conservation status
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Camelidae
Genus: Lama
Species: L. glama
Binomial name
Lama glama
(Linnaeus, 1758)

The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. In South America llamas are still used for beasts of burden, fiber production and meat. [2] A llama is a South American camelid. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 750 pixels, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Lama (Argentina) source: tripalbum. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama guanicoe  Vicugna vicugna  Camelus dromedarius  Camelus bactrianus The four llamas and two camels are camelids: members of the biological family Camelidae, the only family in the suborder Tylopoda. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama huonaeus Lama, the modern genus name for a small group of closely allied animals, which, before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, were the only domesticated ungulates of the continent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Map of the world showing distribution of camelids. ... A pack animal is a beast of burden used by humans as means of transporting materials by attaching them so their weigh bears on the animals back; the term may be applied to either an individual animal or a species so employed. ... Inca redirects here. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ...


The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is between 5.5 feet (1.6 meters) to 6 feet (1.8 meters) tall at the top of the head. They can weigh approximately between 280 pounds (127 kilograms) and 450 pounds (204 kilograms). At birth, a baby llama (called a cria) can weigh between 20 pounds (9 kilograms) to 30 pounds (14 kilograms). Llamas are very social animals and like to live with other llamas as a herd. Overall, the fiber produced by a llama is very soft and is naturally lanolin free. Very intelligent, llamas learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a pack, llamas can carry about 25% - 30% of their body weight for several miles.[3] A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, , lbm, or sometimes in the United States: #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including the imperial and US and older English systems. ... Kg redirects here. ... A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Lanolin, also called Adeps Lanae, wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease, a greasy yellow substance from wool-bearing animals, acts as a skin ointment, water-proofing wax, and raw material (such as in shoe polish). ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Llamas originated from the central plains of North America about 40 million years ago. They migrated to South America and Asia about 3 million years ago. By the end of the last ice-age (10,000 - 12,000 years ago) camelids were extinct in North America. [3] As of 2007, there were over 7 million llamas and alpacas in South America and due to importation from South America in the late 20th Century there are now over 100,000 llamas and 6,500 - 7,000 alpacas in the US and Canada. [4] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Contents

Classification

A llama overlooking Machu Picchu, Peru
A llama overlooking Machu Picchu, Peru

Although they were often compared by early writers to sheep and spoken of as such, their similarity to the camel was very soon perceived. They were included in the genus Camelus in the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus. They were, however, separated by Cuvier in 1800 under the name of llama along with the alpaca and the guanaco. Vicuñas are in genus Vicugna. The animals of the genus Lama are, with the two species of true camels, the sole existing representatives of a very distinct section of the "Artiodactyla" or even-toed ungulates, called Tylopoda, or "bump-footed," from the peculiar bumps on the soles of their feet, on which they tread. This section thus consists of a single family, the Camelidae, the other sections of the same great division being the Suina or pigs, the Tragulina or chevrotains, and the Pecora or true ruminants, to each of which the Tylopoda have more or less affinity, standing in some respects in a central position between them, borrowing as it were some characters from each, but in others showing great special modifications not found in any of the other sections. ImageMetadata File history File links Llama,_peru,_machu_picchu. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Llama,_peru,_machu_picchu. ... Machu Picchu (Quechua: Machu Pikchu Old Peak) is a pre-Columbian Inca city located at 2,430 m (7,970 ft) altitude[1] on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, about 70 km (44 mi) northwest of Cusco. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Species  Lama glama  Lama pacos  Lama guanicoe  Vicugna vicugna  Camelus dromedarius  Camelus bactrianus The four llamas and two camels are camelids: members of the biological family Camelidae, the only family in the suborder Tylopoda. ... For other uses, see Pig (disambiguation). ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer (not to be confused with deer mice, Peromyscus), make up the family Tragulidae. ... A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud. ...


The discoveries of a vast and previously unsuspected extinct fauna of the American continent of the Tertiary period, as interpreted by the palaeontologists Leidy, Cope, and Marsh, has thrown a flood of light upon the early history of this family, and upon its relations to other mammals. It is now known that llamas at one time were not confined to the part of the continent south of the Isthmus of Panama, as at the present day, for their remains have been abundantly found in the Pleistocene deposits of the region of the Rocky Mountains, and in Central America, some attaining a much larger size than those now existing. Some species of llamas did stay in North America during the last ice ages. 25,000 years ago, llamas would have been a common sight in modern-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Missouri, and Florida. These North American llamas belong to a single genus, Hemiauchenia, which is extinct. Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... The Isthmus of Panama. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Many camel-like animals exhibiting different genetic modifications and a gradual series of changes, coinciding with the antiquity of the deposits in which they are found, have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated species of the modern epoch down through the Pliocene to the early Miocene beds. Their characters having become more generalized, they have lost all that especially distinguishes them as Camelidae: they are merged into forms common to the ancestral type of all the other sections of the Artiodactyles. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ...


So far none of these annectant forms have been found in any of the fossiliferous strata of the Old World; it may therefore be fairly surmised (according to the evidence at present before us) that the Americas were the original home of the Tylopoda, and that the true camels have passed over into the Old World, probably by way of north Asia. Gradually driven southward, perhaps by changes of climate, and having become isolated, they have undergone further special modifications. Meanwhile, those members of the family that remained in their original birthplace have become, through causes not clearly understood, restricted solely to the southern or most distant part of the continent. There are few groups of mammals for which the palaeontological history has been so satisfactorily demonstrated as the llama. World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


Characteristics

A Quechua girl and her llama in Cuzco
A Quechua girl and her llama in Cuzco

The following characteristics apply especially to llamas. Dentition of adults:-incisors 1/3 canines 1/1, premolars 2/2, molars 3/2; total 32. In the upper jaw there is a compressed, sharp, pointed laniariform incisor near the hinder edge of the premaxilla, followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, pointed, curved spank canine in the anterior part of the maxilla. The isolated canine-like premolar which follows in the camels is not present. The teeth of the molar series which are in contact with each other consist of two very small premolars (the first almost rudimentary) and three broad molars, constructed generally like those of Camelus. In the lower jaw, the three incisors are long, spatulate, and procumbent; the outer ones are the smallest. Next to these is a curved, suberect canine, followed after an interval by an isolated minute and often deciduous simple conical premolar; then a contiguous series of one premolar and three molars, which differ from those of Camelus in having a small accessory column at the anterior outer edge. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 3,072 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 3,072 pixels, file size: 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Quechuan languages. ... The Church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas in Cuzco Cuzco is a city in southeastern Peru in the Huatanay Valley (Sacred Valley), of the Andes mountain range. ... Dentition is the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... The premaxilla is a pair of small bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals, usually bearing teeth, but not always. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... A molar is the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ...


The skull generally resembles that of Camelus, the relatively larger brain-cavity and orbits and less developed cranial ridges being due to its smaller size. The nasal bones are shorter and broader, and are joined by the premaxilla. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Vertebrae: A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...

  • cervical 7,
  • dorsal 12,
  • lumbar 7,
  • sacral 4,
  • caudal 15 to 20.

The ears are rather long and slightly curved inward, characteristically known as "banana" shaped. There is no dorsal hump. Feet are narrow, the toes being more separated than in the camels, each having a distinct plantar pad. The tail is short, and fibre is long, woolly and soft.


In essential structural characteristics, as well as in general appearance and habits, all the animals of this genus very closely resemble each other, so that whether they should be considered as belonging to one, two, or more species is a matter of controversy among naturalists. Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ...


The question is complicated by the circumstance of the great majority of individuals which have come under observation being either in a completely or partially domesticated state. Many are also descended from ancestors which have previously been domesticated; a state which tends to produce a certain amount of variation from the original type. It has, however, lost much of its importance since the doctrine of the distinct origin of species has been generally abandoned. The four forms commonly distinguished by the inhabitants of South America are recognized by some naturalists as distinct species, and have had specific designations attached to them, though usually with expressions of doubt, and with great difficulties in defining their distinctive characteristics. The 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species First published in 1859, The Origin of Species (full title On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life) by British naturalist Charles Darwin is one of the pivotal...


These are:

  • the llama, Auchenia glama (Linn.), or Lama peruana (Tiedemann);
  • the alpaca, A. pacos (Linn.);
  • the guanaco or huanaco, A. huonaeus (Molina); and
  • the vicuña, A. vicugna (Molina), or A. vicuiena, (Cuv.).

The llama and alpaca are only known in the domestic state, and are variable in size and of many colours, being often white, brown, or piebald. Some are grey or black. The guanaco and vicuña are wild, the former being endangered, and of a nearly uniform light-brown colour, passing into white below. They certainly differ from each other, the vicuña being smaller, more slender in its proportions, and having a shorter head than the guanaco. The vicuña lives in herds on the bleak and elevated parts of the mountain range bordering the region of perpetual snow, amidst rocks and precipices, occurring in various suitable localities throughout Peru, in the southern part of Ecuador, and as far south as the middle of Bolivia. Its manners very much resemble those of the chamois of the European Alps; it is as vigilant, wild, and timid. The fiber is extremely delicate and soft, and highly valued for the purposes of weaving, but the quantity which each animal produces is minimal. This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Differentiating characteristics between llamas and alpacas include the llama's larger size and longer head. Alpaca fiber is generally more expensive but not always more valuable. Alpacas tend to have a more consistent color throughout the body. The most apparent visual difference between llamas and camels is that camels have a hump or humps and llamas do not. For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...


Reproduction

A dam and her cria.
A dam and her cria.

Llamas have an unusual reproductive cycle for a large animal. Female llamas are induced ovulators. Through the act of mating, the female releases an egg and is often fertilized on the first attempt. Female llamas do not go into "heat" or have an estrus cycle. [5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (977x1686, 1052 KB) Summary Author = Rick Boesen Source = taken by me 8/04 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (977x1686, 1052 KB) Summary Author = Rick Boesen Source = taken by me 8/04 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Like humans, llama males and females mature sexually at different rates. Females reach puberty at approximately 12 months. However, males do not become sexually mature until approximately 3 years. [6]


Mating

Llamas mate with the female in a kush (lying down) position, which is fairly unusual in a large animal. They mate for an extended period of time (20–45 minutes), also unusual in a large animal.


Gestation

The gestation period of a llama is 11 1/2 months (350 days). Dams (female llamas) do not lick off their babies, as they have an attached tongue which does not reach outside of the mouth more than half an inch. Rather, they will nuzzle and hum to their newborns. [7]


Breeding situations

Harem breeding

Male is left with females most of the year.


Field breeding

A female is turned out into a field with a male llama and left there for some period of time. This is the easiest method in terms of labor, but the least useful in terms of prediction of a likely birth date. An ultrasound test can be performed and together with the exposure dates a better idea when the cria is expected can be determined.


Hand breeding

This is the most efficient method, but requires the most work on the part of the human involved. A male and female llama are put into the same pen and breeding is monitored. They are then separated and rebred every other day until one or the other refuses the breeding. Usually one can get in two breedings using this method, though some studs have routinely refused to breed a female more than once. The separation presumably helps to keep the sperm count high for each breeding and also helps to keep the condition of the female llama's reproductive tract more sound. If the breeding is not successful within two to three weeks, the female is rebred once again.


Pregnancy

Testing for pregnancy

Llamas should be tested for pregnancy after breeding at 2–3 weeks, 6 weeks, and at least 12 weeks.

  1. "Spit testing". Bring the potentially pregnant dam to an intact male. If the stud attempts to breed her and she lies down for him within a fairly short period of time, she is not pregnant. If she remains on her feet, spits, attacks him, or otherwise prevents his being able to mate, it is assumed that she is probably pregnant. This test gets its name due to the dam spitting at the male if she is pregnant.
  2. Progesterone testing. A veterinarian can take a blood sample test for progesterone. A high level can indicate a pregnancy.
  3. Palpation. In this test, the veterinarian or breeder manually feels inside the llama to detect a pregnancy. There are some risks to the llama, but it can be an accurate method for pregnancy detection.
  4. Ultrasound is the most accurate method in the hands of an experienced veterinarian. A veterinarian experienced with ultrasound can do an exterior exam and detect a fetus as early as 45 days.

Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ...

Pros and cons of pregnancy testing

Spit testing with an intact male is generally free and is usually accurate. However, some hormonal conditions in females can make them reject a male when they are in fact not pregnant, and, more rarely, accept a male when they are pregnant. Progesterone tests can give a high reading in some females with a hormonal problem who are in fact not pregnant. Neither of the previous methods, nor palpation, can give you a reasonably accurate idea of the age of the fetus, while an ultrasound procedure can. In addition, an ultrasound procedure can distinguish between pregnancy and misleading physical conditions, or between a live and dead fetus. The big disadvantage of an ultrasound procedure is that some training in the use of ultrasound equipment is required, and not all veterinarians have the equipment needed to perform the examination.


Nutrition

Llama steaks served in Bolivia
Llama steaks served in Bolivia

Options for feeding llamas are quite wide. The llama owner has a wide variety of commercial and farm based food products to choose from for llamas. The major determining factors which enter into the decision of what to feed include feed cost, availability of feed, nutrient balance and energy density required. Young llamas, which are still actively growing, require a greater concentration of nutrients than mature animals because of their relatively smaller digestive tract capacity.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 768 pixels, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Estimated daily requirements of bromgrass hay, alfalfa hay and corn silage on an as fed and 100 percent dry matter basis for llamas from 22 to 550 pounds.[9]
Body Weight
(lbs)
Bromgrass Alfalfa Corn Silage
(as fed) (dry matter) (as fed) (dry matter) (as fed) (dry matter)
22 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 1.5 0.4
44 1.3 1.1 0.9 0.8 2.6 0.7
88 2.1 1.9 1.5 1.3 4.3 1.2
110 2.6 2.3 1.7 1.6 5.2 1.4
165 3.4 3.1 2.3 2.1 6.9 1.9
275 5.0 4.5 3.4 3.1 10.1 2.8
385 6.4 5.7 4.3 3.9 12.9 3.6
495 7.8 7.0 5.3 4.8 15.8 4.4
550 8.5 7.6 5.7 5.2 17.0 4.8

Behavior

A pack llama in the Rocky Mountain National Park
A pack llama in the Rocky Mountain National Park

Llamas who are well-socialized and trained to halter and lead after weaning are very friendly and pleasant to be around. They are extremely curious and most will approach people easily. However, llamas who are bottle-fed or over-socialised and over-handled as youngsters will become extremely difficult to handle when mature, when they will begin to treat humans as they treat each other, which is characterized by bouts of spitting, kicking and neck wrestling. Anyone having to bottle-feed a cria should keep contact to a minimum and stop as soon as possible. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rocky Mountain National Park is located in the north-central region of the U.S. state of Colorado. ...


When correctly reared spitting at a human is a rare thing. Llamas are very social herd animals, however, and do sometimes spit at each other as a way of disciplining lower-ranked llamas in the herd. A llama's social rank in a herd is never static. They can always move up or down in the social ladder by picking small fights. This is usually done between males to see who becomes alpha. Their fights are visually dramatic with spitting, ramming each other with their chests, neck wrestling and kicking, mainly to knock the other off balance. The females are usually only seen spitting as a means of controlling other herd members.


While the social structure might always be changing, they are a family and they do take care of each other. If one notices a strange noise or feels threatened, a warning bray is sent out and all others come to alert. They will often hum to each other as a form of communication.


The sound of the llama making groaning noises or going "mwa" is often a sign of fear or anger. If a llama is agitated, it will lay its ears back. One may determine how agitated the llama is by the materials in the spit. The more irritated the llama is, the further back into each of the three stomach compartments it will try to draw materials from for its spit.


An "orgle" is the mating sound of a llama or alpaca, made by the sexually aroused male. The sound is reminiscent of gargling, but with a more forceful, buzzing edge. Males begin the sound when they become aroused and continue throughout the act of procreation — from 15 minutes to more than an hour.[10]


History

Llamas. Moche Culture.

One of the main uses for llamas at the time of the Spanish conquest was to bring down ore from the mines in the mountains.[11] Gregory de Bolivar estimated that in his day, as many as three hundred thousand were employed in the transport of produce from the Potosí mines alone, but since the introduction of horses, mules, and donkeys, the importance of the llama as a beast of burden has greatly diminished. [12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Potosí is a city, the capital of the department of Potosí in Bolivia. ... Who ever deleted my page is a prat and i wil hunt them down on lucy and shout at them loudly! RAAAAARRR! connie sansom ... In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. ... Binomial name Equus asinus The donkey or ass (Equus asinus) is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ...


The Moche people frequently placed llamas and llama parts in the burials of important people, as offerings or provisions for the afterlife. [13] The Moche culture of pre-Columbian Peru depicted llamas quite realistically in their ceramics. The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ...


Llama fiber

Llamas also have a fine undercoat which can be used for handicrafts and garments. The coarser outer guard hair is used for rugs, wall-hangings and lead ropes. The fiber comes in many different colors ranging from white, grey, redish brown, brown, dark brown and black.


The individual shafts of the wool can be measured in microns. 1 micron = 1/1000 millimeter.

Handspun llama yarn from Patagonia
Handspun llama yarn from Patagonia
A table of the average diameter of some of the finest, natural fibers.[14]
Animal Fiber Diameter
(microns)
Vicuña 6 – 10
Alpaca (Suri) 10 - 15
Muskox (Qivlut) 11 - 13
Merino 12 - 20
Angora Rabbit 13
Cashmere 15 - 19
Yak Down 15 - 19
Camel Down 16 - 25
Guanaco 16 - 18
Llama (Tapada) 20 - 30
Chinchilla 21
Mohair 25 - 45
Alpaca (Huacaya) 27.7
Llama (Ccara) 30 - 40

Technically the fiber is not wool as it is hollow with a structure of diagonal 'walls' which makes it strong, light and good insulation. Wool as a word by itself refers to sheep fiber. However, llama fiber is commonly referred to as llama wool or llama fiber. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 723 pixels, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 565 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 723 pixels, file size: 387 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... Binomial name (Molina, 1782) The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Range map. ... This article is about the breed of sheep. ... The Angora rabbit is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long, soft hair. ... Cashmere may refer to: Cashmere wood, the name of a scent in the perfume industry. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... For other uses, see Chinchilla (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Mohair (band). ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ...


Llamas in popular culture

The name "llama" has been used for a wide variety of descriptions for people and items alike within general computing and gaming industries. Within some computing environments, the label "llama" has been derogatory indicating a person with little knowledge and new to the environment. Acronyms have been spelled similarly to llama and thus pronounced as llama. The llama has proved to be quite popular among some simulation games. Also the llama has been made popular in many movies as well, such as Napoleon Dynamite and The Emperor's New Groove. The term llama has become popular amongst Internet denizens; especially gamers. ...


References

  1. ^ Little Llamas. Inca culture (2006-10-10).
  2. ^ Information Resources on the South American Camelids: Llamas, Alpacas, Guanacos, and Vicunas 1943-2006 (2007-06-25).
  3. ^ a b Llama (2007-06-25).
  4. ^ South Central Llama Association (2007-06-25). Llama Facts.
  5. ^ Greta Stamberg and Derek Wilson (2007-04-12). Induced Ovulation. Llamapaedia.
  6. ^ L. W. Johnson (2007-04-17). Llama reproduction. College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health.
  7. ^ The llama reproductive cycle. LlamaWeb (2007-04-17).
  8. ^ Randy Sell (2007-04-17). Llama. Department of Agricultural Economics, North Dakota State University.
  9. ^ Murray E. Fowler, DVM (1989). "Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids; Llama, Alpaca, Vicuña, Guanaco". Iowa State University Press.
  10. ^ Greta Stamberg and Derek Wilson (1997-09-02). Behavior: Sounds. Llamapedia.
  11. ^ Jared Diamond (2007-04-12). Guns, Germs & Steel. The Show: Episode Two. PBS.
  12. ^ Jared Diamond (2007-04-12). Guns, Germs & Steel. The story of ... Llamas. PBS.
  13. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  14. ^ Beula Williams (2007-04-17). Llama Fiber. International Llama Association.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colorado State University is a public institution of higher learning located in Fort Collins, Colorado in the United States. ... Horsetooth Rock, atop Horsetooth Mountain, is often used as a symbol of Fort Collins Fort Collins, situated on the Cache la Poudre River, is the largest city and county seat of Larimer County, Colorado. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... North Dakota State University (NDSU) is a public university in Fargo, North Dakota, U.S. It is the second largest school in the eleven campus North Dakota University System. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Iowa State University of Science and Technology (ISU) is a public land-grant and space-grant university located in Ames, Iowa, USA. Until 1959 it was known as Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A Cama is a hybrid between a camel and a llama. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... A guard llama is typically a single llama used in farming to protect other species from predators. ...

External links

  • Queso Cabeza Farm Llama Info - Llama information page. Commercial site but information is comprehensive and useful
  • Llamas: From the Andes to the Rockies - Llama information page.
  • Llamapaedia Orgle Sound (AIFF).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Llama - Llama glama (886 words)
Llamas have unique blood that adapts well to the poor oxygen in the high altitudes where they live.
The wool from the llama was used to make coarse woolen blankets for the common people, and their meat was eaten.
Llamas are social animals and mainly live in herds in captivity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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