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Encyclopedia > Lizard
Lizard
Fossil range: Jurassic - Recent
"Lacertilia", from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904
"Lacertilia", from Ernst Haeckel's Artforms of Nature, 1904
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Superclass: Tetrapoda
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Lacertilia*
Günther, 1867
Families

Many, see text. Lizard can mean: Lizard, a reptile Lizard, Cornwall Lizard (comics) Fictional aliens native to the Tau Ceti star system, who invade Earth in the Worldwar series of stories written by Harry Turtledove. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2378x3320, 2173 KB) Wikipedia links on Talk: Because the description below is a Wikimedia Commons description page, the links are to Wikimedia Commons pages also. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ...

Lizards are a large and widespread group of reptiles of the order Squamata, with nearly 5,000 species and ranging across all continents except Antarctica. Most lizards have four limbs, external ears, a long tail, and are insectivores. Many can shed their tails in order to escape from predators, though this trait is not universal. Vision, including color vision, is particularly well developed in lizards, and most communicate with body language or bright colors on their bodies as well as via pheremones. The adult length of species within the order range from a few centimeters (some Caribbean geckos) to nearly three meters (Komodo Dragons), though most species are less than a 0.5 lbs (220 grams). Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Binomial name Ouwens, 1912 Komodo dragon distribution The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo Monitor[1], Komodo Island Monitor[1], Ora (to the natives of Komodo[2]), or simply Komodo, is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2-3 metres (approximately...

Contents

Description

Any generic description of lizards is often complicated by the fact that many typical lizard traits are either retentions from their evolutionary ancestors (such as the basic, 4-limbed, tetrapod body form) or are either lost or changed in some species (loss of limbs, loss of external ears, loss of the tail, etc.) Groups See text. ...


Lizards are reptiles, and universally possess scaly skin and a skull with many fused or reduced bones. Most lizards retain the typical tetrapod body plan of a short neck, four limbs of roughly equal size ending in five toes each, a moderately long body, and a long tail. Most lizards possess external ears and have movable eyelids. Encompassing forty families, there is tremendous variety in colour, appearance and size. Most lizards are oviparous, though a few species are viviparous. Many are also capable of regeneration of lost limbs or tails. Almost all lizards are carnivorous, though most are so small that insects are their primary prey, however a few species are omnivorous or herbivorous, and others have reached sizes where they can prey on other vertebrates. Many lizards are good climbers or fast sprinters. Some can run bipedally, such as the collared lizard and some can even run across the surface of water to escape, namely the basilisk. Many lizards can change colour in response to their environments or in times of stress. The most familiar example is the chameleon, but more subtle colour changes occur in other lizard species as well such as the anole, also known as the "American chameleon," "house chameleon" or "chamele". Reptilia redirects here. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Groups See text. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. ... Poa alpina, a grass which shows vivipary: the seeds germinate while still attached to the mother plant. ... In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... Binomial name Crotaphytus collaris (Say, 1823) The Eastern Collared Lizard or Common Collared Lizard, Crotaphytus collaris, is a North American lizard that can be up to a foot (30 cm) long, with a large head and powerful jaws. ... For other uses, see Basilisk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... Genera Anisolepis Anolis Chamaeleolis Chamaelinorops Ctenonotus - Eastern Antillean Anoles, Eastern Antillian Anoles Dactyloa - South American anoles Diplolaemus Enyalius Leiosaurus Norops Phenacosaurus Polychrus Pristidactylus Urostrophus Xiphosurus - Hispaniolan giant anole, Puerto Rican giant anole Polychrotidae is a family of lizards commonly known as Anoles. ...


Some lizard species, including the glass lizard and flap-footed lizards, have lost their legs or reduced them to the point they are non-functional. However, some vestigial structures remain. Snakes, which evolved from the ancestors of monitor lizards, are characterized by lack of eyelids, lack of an external ear, a forked tongue, and having a highly elongate body (as opposed to a normal body but extremely long tail). While any given legless lizard species (of which there are many) may match on one or two of these characteristics, they invariably differ from snakes in others. For example, flap-footed lizards lack eyelids as do true snakes, but can be distinguished by their external ears. Species see text The Glass Lizards, genus Ophisaurus, are a group of reptiles that resemble snakes, but are actually lizards. ... Classification Family Pygopodidae Subfamily Pygopodinae Genus Paradelma Genus Pygopus Genus Delma Subfamily Lialisinae Tribus Lialisini Genus Lialis Tribus Aprasiaini Subtribus Pletholaxini Genus Pletholax Subtribus Aprasiaini Genus Ophidiocephalus Genus Aprasia Categories: Lizards | Legless lizards ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ... Species Many, see text. ... Classification Family Pygopodidae Subfamily Pygopodinae Genus Paradelma Genus Pygopus Genus Delma Subfamily Lialisinae Tribus Lialisini Genus Lialis Tribus Aprasiaini Subtribus Pletholaxini Genus Pletholax Subtribus Aprasiaini Genus Ophidiocephalus Genus Aprasia Categories: Lizards | Legless lizards ...


Senses and communication

Lizards employ many diverse methods of communication. Like many other animals, they have an acute sense of smell, detecting scents of their prey or pheromones from other lizards. The primary organ of scent in lizards is a vomeronasal organ in the roof of the mouth, and lizards gather scents by flicking out their tongues, then retracting them and delivering the capture odor molecules to this organ. Some large carnivorous lizards, such as tegus and monitor lizards, have forked togues like snakes, to take advantage of this organ better. As a result, many male lizards possess enlarged pores on the underside of their thighs, which they rub against objects to mark their territory.


While most lizards can hear well, few are capable of vocalizations or otherwise making noise. The exception to this rule is the geckos, which communicate through a wide variety of barks, chirps and whistles, with each species having specific patterns and sounds.


Sight is quite important for most lizards, both for locating prey and for communication, and as such, many lizards have highly acute color vision. Most lizards rely heavily on body language, using specific postures, gestures and movements to define territory, resolve disputes, and entice mates. Some species of lizard also utilize bright colors, such as the iridescent patches on the belly of Sceloporus. These colors would be highly visible to predators, so are often hidden on the underside or between scales and only revealed when necessary.


A particular innovation in this respect is the dewlap, a brightly colored patch of skin on the throat, usually hidden between scales. When a display is needed, the lizards erect the hyoid bone of their throat, resulting in a large vertical flap of brightly colored skin beneath the head which can be then used for communication. Anoles are particularly famous for this display, with each species having specific colors, including patterns only visible under ultraviolet light, as lizards can often see UV.


Evolution and relationships

The retention of the basic tetrapod body form by lizards makes it tempting to assume any similar animal, alive or extinct, is also a lizard. However, this is not the case, and lizards are part of a well-defined group.


The first reptile was superficially lizard-like, but had a solid, box-like skull, with openings only for eyes, nostils, etc (termed Anapsid). These organisms later gave rise to two new groups with additional holes in the skull to make room for and anchor larger jaw muscles. Those with a single hole, the Synapsids, became modern mammals. The Diapsids, possessing two holes, continued to diversify. The Archosaurs retained the basic Diapsid skull, and gave rise to a bewildering array of animals, most famous being the dinosaurs and their descendants, birds. The Lepidosaurs began to reduce the skull bones, making the skull lighter and more flexible. Modern tuataras retain the basic Lepidosaur skull, distinguishing them from true lizards in spite of superficial similarities. Squamates, including snakes and all true lizards, further lightened the skull by eliminating the lower margin of the lower skull opening.


Relationship to humans

Tegus (Tupinambis merianae), often sold in the pet trade
Tegus (Tupinambis merianae), often sold in the pet trade

Most lizard species are harmless to humans. Only the very largest lizard species pose threat of death; the Komodo dragon, for example, has been known to stalk, attack, and kill humans. The venom of the Gila monster and beaded lizard is not usually deadly but they can inflict extremely painful bites due to powerful jaws. The chief impact of lizards on humans is positive as they are significant predators of pest species; numerous species are prominent in the pet trade; some are eaten as food (for example, Green Iguanas in Central America); and lizard symbology plays important, though rarely predominant roles in some cultures (e.g. Tarrotarro in Australian mythology). The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and often depicted lizards in their art.[1] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Ouwens, 1912 Komodo dragon distribution The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo Monitor[1], Komodo Island Monitor[1], Ora (to the natives of Komodo[2]), or simply Komodo, is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2-3 metres (approximately... Binomial name Cope, 1869 The gila monster (pronounced HEE-la, IPA pronunciation: ) (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Binomial name Heloderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829 The beaded lizard or Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is found in Mexico and the southern United States. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Larval form of some beetle is damaging specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in entomogical collection. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) is a large, arboreal herbivorous species of lizard of the genus iguana native to Central and South America. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Classification

Plumed Basilisk, Basiliscus plumifrons
Plumed Basilisk, Basiliscus plumifrons
Zebra-tailed Lizard, Callisaurus draconoides
Zebra-tailed Lizard, Callisaurus draconoides
Red-headed rock agama, Agama agama
Red-headed rock agama, Agama agama
Gila monster, Heloderma s. suspectum
Gila monster, Heloderma s. suspectum
Green tree monitor lizard, Varanus prasinus
Green tree monitor lizard, Varanus prasinus
Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris, on left) and Common Chuckwallah (Sauromalus ater, on right).
Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris, on left) and Common Chuckwallah (Sauromalus ater, on right).

Suborder Lacertilia (Sauria) - (Lizards) Plumed Basilisk at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Plumed Basilisk at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Binomial name Basiliscus plumifrons (Cope, 1876) The plumed basilisk (Basiliscus plumifrons) is a species of lizard native to Latin America. ... Zebra Tailed Lizard - Med Res Found on pdphoto. ... Zebra Tailed Lizard - Med Res Found on pdphoto. ... Species See text. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1813x1345, 561 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gila monster Lizard Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1813x1345, 561 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Gila monster Lizard Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Binomial name Cope, 1869 The gila monster (pronounced HEE-la, IPA pronunciation: ) (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1679x1149, 636 KB) Green tree monitor lizard Varanus prasinus at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1679x1149, 636 KB) Green tree monitor lizard Varanus prasinus at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Species Many, see text. ...

Classification Family Corytophanidae Genus Basiliscus Genus Corytophanes Genus Laemanctus Categories: Lizards | Corytophanids ... Genera Amblyrhynchus Brachylophus Conolophus Ctenosaura Cyclura Dipsosaurus Iguana Sauromalus Iguanidae is a family of lizards composed of iguanas and related species, including the green iguana commonly kept as a pet by Fernando Rombola in his pants, but sometimes this breed of iguana gets excited and just want to get out. ... For other members of the family Iguanidae, see Iguanidae. ... Genera Callisaurus Cophosaurus Holbrookia Petrosaurus Phrynosoma Sator Sceloporus Uma Urosaurus Uta Phrynosomatidae is a family of lizards. ... Classification of the genus Holbrookia Genus Holbrookia Holbrookia lacerata Holbrookia maculata Holbrookia propinqua Holbrookia subcaudalis Categories: Stub | Phrynosomatids ... Species many, see text The Spiny Lizards are the genus Sceloporus in the family Phrynosomatidae. ... Species see text The Tree and Bush Lizards (Urosaurus) is a genus of the Phrynosomatidae family of lizards. ... Side-blotched lizards are lizards of the genus Uta. ... Species See text. ... Genera Anisolepis Anolis Chamaeleolis Chamaelinorops Ctenonotus - Eastern Antillean Anoles, Eastern Antillian Anoles Dactyloa - South American anoles Diplolaemus Enyalius Leiosaurus Norops Phenacosaurus Polychrus Pristidactylus Urostrophus Xiphosurus - Hispaniolan giant anole, Puerto Rican giant anole Polychrotidae is a family of lizards commonly known as Anoles. ... Species See text. ... Classification Family Leiosauridae Genus Diplolaemus Genus Leiosaurus Genus Pristidactylus Categories: Lizards | Leiosaurids ... Classification Family Tropiduridae Genus Microlophus Genus Plesiomicrolophus Genus Plica Genus Tropidurus Genus Uracentron Genus Uranoscodon Categories: Lizards | Tropidurids ... Classification Family Liolaemidae Genus Ctenoblepharys Genus Liolaemus Genus Phymaturus Categories: Lizards | Liolaemids ... The Leiocephalus is the only genus in the family Leiocephalus. ... Crotaphytid lizards or more commonly known as Collared lizards are found in North America only (American southwest and northern Mexico). ... Classification of the genus Crotaphytus Genus Crotaphytus Crotaphytus antiquus Crotaphytus collaris Crotaphytus dickersonea Crotaphytus grismeri Crotaphytus insularis Crotaphytus nebrius Crotaphytus reticulatus Crotaphytus vestigium Crotaphytus bicinctores Categories: | ... Gambelia is the genus name for the leopard lizards in the family Crotaphytidae. ... Classification Family Opluridae Genus Chalarodon Genus Oplurus Categories: Animal stubs | Lizards | Oplurids ... Classification Family Hoplocercidae Genus Enyalioides Genus Hoplocercus Genus Morunasaurus Categories: Lizards | Wood lizards ... Classification of the genus Enyalioides Genus Enyalioides Enyalioides cofanorum Enyalioides heterolepis Enyalioides laticeps Enyalioides microlepis Enyalioides oshaughnessyi Enyalioides palpebralis Enyalioides praestabilis Categories: Wood lizards ... Genera Many: see text Agamas or Agamids are the Agamidae family of lizards, containing more than 300 species in Africa, Asia, Australia and a few in Southern Europe. ... Any of various small, long-tailed, insect-eating lizards of the family Agamidae, found in the Old World tropics. ... Alternative meanings: Chameleon (computing), Chamaeleon Genera Bradypodion Calumma Chamaeleo Furcifer Brookesia Rhampholeon Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are small to mid-size reptiles that belong to one of the best known lizard families. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... Gekkota is an infraorder in the suborder Lacertilia (lizards), comprising all geckos. ... This article describes gecko lizards. ... For other uses, see Gecko (disambiguation). ... Classification Family Pygopodidae Subfamily Pygopodinae Genus Paradelma Genus Pygopus Genus Delma Subfamily Lialisinae Tribus Lialisini Genus Lialis Tribus Aprasiaini Subtribus Pletholaxini Genus Pletholax Subtribus Aprasiaini Genus Ophidiocephalus Genus Aprasia Categories: Lizards | Legless lizards ... Classification Family Pygopodidae Subfamily Pygopodinae Genus Paradelma Genus Pygopus Genus Delma Subfamily Lialisinae Tribus Lialisini Genus Lialis Tribus Aprasiaini Subtribus Pletholaxini Genus Pletholax Subtribus Aprasiaini Genus Ophidiocephalus Genus Aprasia Categories: | ... A poorly known group of legless lizards native to southern Australia an SE Asia, found in tropical forests. ... A poorly known group of legless lizards native to southern Australia and SE Asia, found in tropical forests. ... Families Scincidae Lacertidae Teiidae Cordylidae Gerrhosauridae Gymnophthalmidae Xantusiidae Scincomorpha is an infraorder of saurians. ... Genera many—see text Skinks are reptilians belonging to suborder Sauria, and there to the superfamily Scincomorpha, the same as the true lizards. ... This article is about the reptile. ... Commonly known as the Spinytail lizards Classification Family Cordylidae Subfamily Chamaesaurinae Genus Chamaesaura Subfamily Cordylinae Genus Cordylus Genus Platysaurus Genus Pseudocordylus Categories: Lizards | Spinytail lizards ... Commonly known as the Spinytail lizards Family Cordylidae Subfamily Chamaesaurinae Genus Chamaesaura Subfamily Cordylinae Genus Cordylus Genus Platysaurus Genus Pseudocordylus Categories: | ... Classification Family Gerrhosauridae Subfamily Gerrhosaurinae Genus Angolosaurus Genus Cordylosaurus Genus Gerrhosaurus Genus Tetradactylus Subfamily Zonosaurinae Genus Tracheloptychus Genus Zonosaurus Categories: Lizards | Plated lizards ... The Yellow-Throated Plated Lizard or just Plated Lizard, (scientific name Gerrhosaurus flavigularis), is about 45½ cm (18 inches) in length and lives in the grassland and scrub of Sudan, Ethiopia and along Eastern Africa down to South Africa. ... Night lizards (family name Xantusiidae) are a group of very small, viviparous (live-bearing) lizards, averaging from less than 4 cm to over 12 cm long. ... Subfamilies See text. ... Genera Many, see text. ... Binomial name Podarcis muralis Laurenti, 1768 The Wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) is a species of lizard, native to Europe. ... Genera Ameiva Aspidoscelis Callopistes Cnemidophorus Crocodilurus Dicrodon Dracaena Kentropyx Teius Tupinambis Teiidae is a family jgh gljljljof lizards, generally known as whiptails, that includes the parthenogenic genera Cnemidophorus and Aspidoscelis and the non-parthenogenic Tegus. ... Species Tupinambis duseni Tupinambis longilineus Tupinambis merianae Tupinambis quadrilineatus Tupinambis rufescens Tupinambis teguixin Tupinambis is a lizard genus which belongs to the family of Teiidae. ... Gymnophthalmidae is a family of lizards. ... Genera Anguis Ophisaurus Pseudopus Celestus Diploglossus Ophiodes Abronia Barisia Coloptychon Elgaria Gerrhonotus Mesaspis Classification Family Anguidae Subfamily Anguinae Genus Anguis Genus Ophisaurus Genus Pseudopus Subfamily Diploglossinae Genus Celestus Genus Diploglossus Genus Ophiodes Subfamily Gerrhonotinae Genus Abronia Genus Barisia Genus Coloptychon Genus Elgaria Genus Gerrhonotus Genus Mesaspis Categories: Lizards | Anguids ... Species see text The Glass Lizards, genus Ophisaurus, are a group of reptiles that resemble snakes, but are actually lizards. ... Species The family Anniellidae of American legless lizards contains two species in a single genus Anniella: , the California legless lizard, with two subspecies and , and the rare , the Baja legless lizard. ... Species The family Anniellidae of American legless lizards contains two species in a single genus Anniella: , the California legless lizard, with two subspecies and , and the rare , the Baja California legless lizard. ... Classification Family Xenosauridae Subfamily Shinisaurinae Genus Shinisaurus Subfamily Xenosaurinae Genus Xenosaurus Categories: Lizards | Xenosaurids ... Families Necrosauridae Dolichosauridae Mosasauridae Lathanotidae Aigialosauridae Varanidae Helodermatidae Varanoidea is a superfamily of lizards, including the well-known Family Varanidae (the monitors or goanna). ... Species Many, see text. ... Classification Family Lanthanotidae Genus Lanthanotus Lanthanotus borneensis Lanthanotus borneensis (earless monitor) (1) is a aquatic, brown lizard from Borneo. ... Classification Genus Heloderma Heloderma horridum: Mexican beaded lizard Heloderma suspectum: Gila monster Categories: Lizards | Helodermas ... Binomial name Cope, 1869 The gila monster (pronounced HEE-la, IPA pronunciation: ) (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Binomial name Heloderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829 The beaded lizard or Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is found in Mexico and the southern United States. ... Subfamilies Mosasaurinae Plioplatecarpinae Tylosaurinae Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa, the Meuse river where the fossils were first discovered + Greek sauros, lizard) were serpentine marine reptiles, more closely related to snakes than to monitor lizards (Lee 1997). ...

References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sauria
  1. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
General references
  • Byiiuo, John L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. Alfred A. Knopf, 581. ISBN 0394508246. 
  • Capula, Massimo; Behler (1989). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671690981. 
  • Cogger, Harold (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0831727861. 
  • Conant, Roger (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern/Central North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0395583896. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1933). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. New York: Macmillian, 321. 
  • Freiberg, Dr. Marcos (1984). The World of Venomous Animals. New Jersey: TFH Publications. ISBN 0876665679. 
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield (1983). Their Blood Runs Cold: Adventures With Reptiles and Amphibians. Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 164. ISBN 978-0817301354. 
  • Rosenfeld, Arthur (1989). Exotic Pets. New York: Simon & Schuster, 293. ISBN 067147654. 
The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... This article is about the state. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... Harold (Hal) Cogger is an Australian herpetologist. ... This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ... Roger Conant (May 6, 1909–December 19, 2003) was an American herpetologist, author, educator and conservationist. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship school of the University of Alabama System. ... This article is about the state. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

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In despair, The Lizard took control, though it had a weak mental strength, causing the voodoo from Calypso to effect him for her own purposes.
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