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Encyclopedia > Livy
A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death.
A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death.

Titus Livius (around 59 BC - AD 17), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC) through the reign of Augustus. Livy was a native of Patavium (modern Padua, Italy) in Cisalpine Gaul. Image File history File linksMetadata Titus_Livius. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Titus_Livius. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56... For other uses, see number 17. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A simplified plan of the city of Rome from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... Ab Urbe Condita is a monumental history of Rome, from its founding (Ab urbe condita, dated to 753 BC by Varro and most modern scholars). ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Location within Italy Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua The city of Padua (Lat. ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ...

Contents

Life and works

The book's title, Ab Urbe Condita ("From the Founding of the City"), expresses the scope and magnitude of Livy's undertaking. He wrote in a mixture of annual chronology and narrative—often having to interrupt a story to announce the elections of new consuls as this was the way that the Romans kept track of the years. Livy claims that lack of historical data prior to the sacking of Rome in 387 BC by the Gauls made his task more difficult.[1] Ab Urbe Condita is a monumental history of Rome, from its founding (Ab urbe condita, dated to 753 BC by Varro and most modern scholars). ... Pictoral chronology of intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 392 BC 391 BC 390 BC 389 BC 388 BC - 387 BC - 386 BC 385 BC... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Livy wrote the majority of his works during the reign of Augustus. However, he is often identified with an attachment to the Roman Republic and a desire for its restoration. Since the later books discussing the end of the Republic and the rise of Augustus did not survive, this is a moot point. Certainly Livy questioned some of the values of the new regime but it is likely that his position was more complex than a simple 'republic/empire' preference. Augustus does not seem to have held these views against Livy, and entrusted his great-nephew, the future emperor Claudius, to his tutelage. His effect on Claudius was apparent during the latter's reign, as the emperor's oratory closely adheres to Livy's account of Roman history. Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... This article is becoming very long. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...


Livy's work was originally composed of 142 books, of which only 35 are extant; these are 1-10, and 21-45 (with major lacunae in 40-45). A fragmentary palimpsest of the 91st book was discovered in the Vatican Library in 1772, containing about a thousand words, and several papyrus fragments of previously unknown material, much smaller, have been found in Egypt since 1900, most recently about forty words from book 11, unearthed in the 1980's. Livy was abridged, in antiquity, to an epitome, which survives for Book I, but was itself abridged into the so-called Periochae, which is simply a list of contents, but which survives. An epitome of books 37-40 and 48-55 was also uncovered at Oxyrhynchus. So we have some idea of the topics Livy covered in the lost books, if often not what he said about them. Extant means still existing. It is the opposite of extinct, and can be applied to species, cultures and works of culture (e. ... A palimpsest is a manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. ... The Vatican Library (Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. ... Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ... An epitome (Greek epitemnein—to cut short) is a summary or miniature form, also used as a synonym for embodiment. ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ...


A number of Roman authors used Livy, including Aurelius Victor, Cassiodorus, Eutropius, Festus, Florus, Granius Licinianus and Orosius. Julius Obsequens used Livy, or a source with access to Livy, to compose his De Prodigiis, an account of supernatural events in Rome, from the consulship of Scipio and Laelius to that of Paulus Fabius and Quintus Aelius. Sextus Aurelius Victor, prefect of Pannonia about 360 ( xxi. ... Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (ca 484/490 - ca585), commonly known as Cassiodorus, was a Roman statesman and great writer, serving in the administration of Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths. ... Eutropius was a pagan Roman historian of the later 4th century, writing in Latin, whose brief remarks about himself let us know that he had served under Emperor Julian the Apostate (ruled 361 - 363) and his history covers the reigns of Valentinian and Valens (died 378). ... Festus can be several things: Festus, Missouri is a town in the United States. ... Florus, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian. ... Granius Licinianus was a Roman annalist, believed to have lived in the age of the Antonines (2nd century AD). ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... (Also Julius Obsequens). ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scipio (plural, Scipiones) is a Roman cognomen used by a branch of the Cornelii family. ... Laelius is a personal name and can refer to: Gaius Laelius, a Roman statesman Laelius Socinus, a 16th Century Humanist and Reformer Sir Robert Pipon Marett, a Jersey poet who used the pen name Laelius This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


A digression in book 9, sections 17-19 suggests that the Romans would have beaten Alexander the Great if he lived longer and turned west to attack the Romans, making this the oldest known alternate history. also called parekbasis(in greek) or egressio, digressio, excursio(in latin) Digression is a section of a composition or speech that is an intentional change of subject. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Politics

Many of Livy's comments on Roman politics seem surprisingly modern today. For example, he wrote (of the year 445 BC):

"War and political dissension made the year a difficult one. Hardly had it begun, when the tribune Canuleius introduced a bill for legalizing intermarriage between the nobility and the commons. The senatorial party objected strongly on the grounds not only that the patrician blood would thereby be contaminated but also that the hereditary rights and privileges of the gentes, or families, would be lost. Further, a suggestion, at first cautiously advanced by the tribunes, that a law should be passed enabling one of the two counsuls to be a plebeian, subsequently hardened into the promulgation, by nine tribunes, of a bill by which the people should be empowered to elect to the counsulship such men as they thought fit, from either of the two parties. The senatorial party felt that if such a bill were to become law, it would mean not only that the highest office of state would have to be shared with the dregs of society but that it would, in effect, be lost to the nobility and transferred to the commons. It was with great satisfaction, therefore, that the Senate received a report, first that Ardea had thrown off her allegiance to Rome in resentment at the crooked practice which had deprived her of her territory; secondly, that troops from Veii had raided the Roman frontier, and, thirdly, that the Volscians and Aequians were showing uneasiness at the fortification of Verrugo. In the circumstances it was good news, for the nobility could look forward even to an unsuccessful war with greater complacency than to an ignominious peace." [2],

Heron (disambiguation) Genera Ardea Zebrilus Philherodias Tigrisoma Ardeola Bubulcus Egretta Agamia Butorides Tigriornis Tigrisoma Gorsachius Syrigma Zonerodius Nycticorax see also: Bittern Herons are medium to large long-legged, long-necked wading birds of the family Ardeidae, which also includes the egrets and bitterns. ... Veii - or Veius - was in ancient times, an important Etrurian city 18 km NNW of Rome, Italy. ... The Volsci were an ancient Italian people, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Livy
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

References

  • Burck, E (1934), Die Erzählungskunst des T. Livius (Berlin).
  • Chaplin, J (2000), Livy’s Exemplary History (Oxford).
  • Feldherr, A (1998), Spectacle and Society in Livy’s History (Berkeley and London).
  • Jaeger, M (1997), Livy’s Written Rome (Ann Arbor).
  • Kraus, C S and Woodman, A J (1997), Latin Historians (Oxford).
  • Luce, T J (1977), Livy: The Composition of his History (Princeton).
  • Oakley, S P (1997), A Commentary on Livy, Books VI-X (Oxford).
  • Ogilvie, R M (1965), A Commentary on Livy Books 1 to 5 (Oxford).

Notes

  1. ^ Many modern historians do not think there were actually many records to lose at this early point.[citations needed]
  2. ^ Livy, History of Rome, Penguin Classics, 1982, ISBN 0140443886

  Results from FactBites:
 
Livy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (552 words)
Livy was a native of Padua on the Po River in northern Italy.
He wrote in a mixture of annual chronology and narrative—often having to interrupt a story to announce the elections of new consuls as this was the way that the Romans kept track of the years.
Livy's work was originally composed of 142 books, of which only 35 are extant; these are 1-10, and 21-45 (with major lacunae in 40-45).
livybib (1033 words)
Ronald Syme, "Livy and Augustus," HSPh 64 (1959) 27-87.
P.G. Walsh, "Livy and Stoicism," AJPh 79 (1958) 355-75.
R.M. Ogilvie, "Livy, Licinius Macer and the Libri Lintei," JRS 48 (1958) 40-46.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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