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Encyclopedia > Livorno
Comune di Livorno
Coat of arms of Comune di Livorno
Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Livorno (LI)
Mayor Alessandro Cosimi
Elevation 3 m
Area 104 km²
Population
 - Total (as of December 30, 2004) 155,986
 - Density 1,424/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 43°33′N, 10°19′E
Gentilic Livornesi, poetically Labronici
Dialing code 0586
Postal code 57100
Frazioni Ardenza, Antignano, Montenero, Castellaccio, Gorgona, Quercianella
Patron Santa Giulia da Corsica
 - Day May 22
Website: www.comune.livorno.it

Livorno (archaic English: Leghorn) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno and the third-largest port on the western coast of Italy, having a population of 170,000 as of 2004. Image File history File links Livorno-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... The Province of Livorno (Italian: Provincia di Livorno) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... Saint Julia of Corsica ( Santa Giulia da Corsica) (perhaps 5th century; date of death sometimes given as ca. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... The Province of Livorno (Italian: Provincia di Livorno) is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. ...

Contents

History

Livorno was defined as an "ideal town" during the Renaissance. Nowadays it reveals its history through its neighbourhoods, crossed by canals and surrounded by fortified town-walls, through the tangle of its streets, which embroider the town's Venice district, and through the Medici Port characteristically overlooked by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


Designed by the architect Bernardo Buontalenti at the end of the 16th century, Livorno underwent a period of great town planning expansion at the end of the 17th century. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress, together with the town-walls and the system of navigable canals, was then built. Bernardo Buontalenti was an architect in the Italian Renaissance who designed the crypt of the Basilica di San Lorenzo for the Medici family. ...


In late 1580s Ferdinando I de Medici declared Livorno a "porto Franco": it means the goods which were traded here were duty free.


The "Leggi Livornine" were laws that ruled between 1590 and 1603. These laws helped the trading activity of the merchant, freedom of religion and amnesty for some penance. Thanks to these laws, many foreigners people moved to Livorno, which became a cosmopolitan city. Hebrews, Armenians, Greeks, Netherlanders, and some English people were among them. Livorno became one of the most important ports of the Mediterranean area.


Nowadays the Venice district preserves most of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, the narrow lanes, the noblemen's houses and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classical buildings, town parks housing important museums and cultural institutions, Liberty villas with sea views, the market.


Some Moriscos (Muslim Spaniards forcibly converted to Catholicism) moved from Spain to Livorno in the 18th century. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ...


During the Napoleonic War trade with the England was proibhited and the economy of Livorno suffered greatly because of this. In 1868, after Livorno became part of the Reign of Italy, it loses the status of “Porto Franco” and its importance decreased.


Main sights

The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer Pietro Mascagni. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni. Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ...


Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of the Graces, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.


The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Turks"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando II de' Medici of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno. Ferdinando II de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (14 July 1610 – 23 May 1670) ruled as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670. ...


In Livorno there is an important square called "Piazza della Repubblica" that contains two important monuments of italian politicians. Thus, this square is also a bridge: in fact, under the bridge there is an old, big canal. Piazza della Repubblica is the largest bridge of Europe.


Another important monument is the old fortress; an old building made with red bricks that at the time of Medici defended the city from pirates attacks. It has 3 bastion, named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The old fortress was made before the Renaissance. The new Fortress, distinct frome the old one, was made at the end of the 16th century.


There are some graveyards where foreign people who moved to Livorno used to be buried.


Culture

Location of Livorno in Italy
Location of Livorno in Italy
Fortifications of Livorno in the 17th century
Fortifications of Livorno in the 17th century

Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning cities of Italy. The Communist Party of Italy was founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1805 × 2243 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1805 × 2243 pixel, file size: 310 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (995 × 653 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Livorno (LI), Italy Map (17th century) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (995 × 653 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Livorno (LI), Italy Map (17th century) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... “Leftism” redirects here. ... The Fourth Estate The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


There is a breed of chicken called leghorn, named after the city. This in turn gave its name to the cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn. Leghorn Chicken The leghorn is a breed of chicken, named after the Italian city of Leghorn. ... Foghorn Leghorn is the name of a character appearing in numerous Warner Brothers animated cartoons, especially Looney Tunes. ...


Economy

Tuaca liqueur is produced in Livorno. The city also has a substantial petrochemical industry. A bottle of Tuaca Tuaca is a brand of Italian liqueur. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ...


Sport

Livorno has a football team in Serie A, A.S. Livorno Calcio. The football club reflects the left-leaning tendencies of the city with Livorno Calcio's left-wing ultras. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the Italian football (soccer) league. ... Associazione Sportiva Livorno Calcio is a football club based in Livorno, Tuscany. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Dialect

Livorno inhabitants speak a colourful variant of the Tuscan dialect of Italy named vernacolo, which is especially characterized by the popular interjection , which has a very wide range of meanings, usually recognizable only by the tone of the pronunciation, and a tourist is soon discovered if they try to use dè, because it is not the correct pronunciation. The Tuscan dialect is a dialect spoken in Tuscany, Italy. ...


There is a satirical comic/magazine written mainly in the Livornese dialect called Il Vernacoliere. Il Vernacoliere is an old Italian satirical monthly magazine rooted in Livorno, Tuscany. ...


Twin cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Hebrew בת ים Name Meaning Daughter of the sea Founded in 1926 Government City (from 1958) District Tel Aviv Population 130,400 (2004) Jurisdiction 8,000 dunams (8 km²) Mayor Shlomo Lahiani Beach of Bat-Yam Bat Yam (Hebrew: ) is a city in Israel, on the central coastal strip, just south of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Castile-La Mancha Province Guadalajara Tows 5 (Guadalajara, Iriépal, Taracena, Usanos & Valdenoches) Founded 8th century, probably, by moors Government  - Mayor Jesús Alique (PSOE) Area  - Land 236 km² (91. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Haiphong (Vietnamese: Hải Phòng, Chinese 海防, HÇŽifáng) is the third most populous city in Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Novorossiysk (Russian Новороссийск) is a city in southern Russia, one of the main Russian ports on the Black Sea, in Krasnodar Krai. ...

Notable people

Francis Levett, English merchant Mario Ancona (1860-1931) was a Italian baritone, born in Livorno, Italy, and died in Florence. ... Rabbi Chaim Joseph David Ben Isaac Zerachia Azulai (1724, 21 March 1807), commonly known as the Chida (by the acronym of his name), was a rabbinical scholar and a noted bibliophile, who pioneered the history of Jewish religious writings. ... Leonetto Cappiello (b. ... Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (born 9 December 1920 in Livorno) is an Italian politician and banker who has been both Prime Minister of Italy and President of the Italian Republic. ... Galeazzo Ciano. ... Giovanni Fattori, Self-Portrait painted in 1854 Giovanni Fattori was a Florentine artist born in Livorno Sept. ... Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi (1804 - September 25, 1873), was an Italian writer and politician. ... Cristiano Lucarelli (born October 4, 1975 in Livorno) is an Italian football player. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (July 12, 1884 – January 24, 1920) was an Italian artist, practicing both painting and sculpture, who pursued his career for the most part in France. ... Sir Moses Montefiore (October 24, 1784-July 28, 1885) was one of the most famous British Jews in the 19th century. ... Armando Picchi as captain of Inter. ... Dario Resta (1884-1923) was an Italian race car driver born in Milan Italy. ... The Indianapolis 500 is an American race for open-wheel automobiles held annually over the Memorial Day weekend at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. ... Samuel Uziel was a Talmudist and scholar of the 17th century, rabbi of Leghorn. ...


Images

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Municipal website (Italian)
  • ItalianVisits.com
  • Photographic map of Livorno (Italian)(English)
  • Ferdinando I De Medici, Document Inviting Jewish Merchants to Settle in Livorno and Pisa, in Italian, Manuscript on Vellum, Florence, Italy, 10 June 1593 (fac-simile)
  • Everything local about Livorno for visitors and residents of the area (English)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Livorno - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (229 words)
Livorno, sometimes in English Leghorn, (population 170,000) is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy.
It is the capital of the Province of Livorno and the third-largest port on the western coast of Italy.
Livorno inhabitants speak a colourful variant of the Tuscanian dialect of Italy named vernacolo, which is especially characterized by the popular interjection dé.
The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Livorno (Leghorn) (1563 words)
Livorno expanded and became a major port during the rule of the Medici family in the 16
In 1675, Livorno received the status of a free port and was an important connecting point between the Mediterranean, North Sea ports and the Near East.
Livorno’s first synagogue was located in the room of one of the Jewish residents living in the Fortress of Livorno in the period before the patented letters sent by the Medici family in 1548.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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