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Encyclopedia > Livonian War

The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. The Livonian Confederation was weakened while its Eastern neighbor Muscovy had grown stronger after defeating the Muslim khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan in the 1550s. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... Events January 18 - King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde. ... The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... The Astrakhan Khanate was a predominantly Turkic state which existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in the area adjacent to the mouth of the Volga, where the contemporary city of Astrakhan is now located. ... Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century Decades: 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s - 1550s - 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s 1600s Years: 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 Events and Trends Categories: 1550s ...


The Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible demanded that Livonian Confederation pay huge taxes (40,000 talers) for the Bishopric of Dorpat. The dispute ended with a Russian invasion in 1558. Russian troops occupied Dorpat (now Tartu) and Narva. The goal of the Russian tsar was to take control of the lucrative Baltic Sea trade. Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Examples of German and Austrian thalers compared to a US quarter piece The Thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ... Bishopric of Dorpat was a medieval principality 1234-1558 in what are now Tartu, Põlva, Võru and Jõgeva counties in Estonia. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Image of Tartu street Tartu (German, Polish Dorpat, Russian Юpьeв Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia, with its population of 101,246 (the Population Census data is from 2000) in an area of 38. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ...


That went against the interests of other countries. Erik XIV of Sweden and Frederick II of Denmark sent troops to help protect Livonia. The weakened Order of Livonia submitted Livonia to the protection of Poland in 1561. The last Master of the Order of Livonia, Gotthard Kettler, became the first ruler of the Polish vassal state Duchy of Courland. Erik XIV of Sweden (December 13, 1533–February 26, 1577) was the son of Gustav I of Sweden and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg. ... Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Gotthard Kettler (1517 – 17 May 1587) was the last master of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, but when the Livonian branch of the Teutonic order came under increasing pressure from Russian tsar Ivan IV the terrible during the Livonian war (1558 – 1582), Gotthard Kettler secularised the order and converted... A vassal or liege, in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of medieval Europe, is one who enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually of military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain guarantees, which came to include the terrain held as a fief. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ...


The Livonian Confederation collapsed; but Russia found itself in wars (the Livonian War) with the more powerful kingdoms of Poland and Sweden. In 1562 full scale war erupted between Russia and Poland. In 1575 the Russians occupied Pernau (Pärnu) in southwestern Estonia. The city of Pärnu is located within the county of Pärnu. ... The city of Pärnu is located within the county of Pärnu. ...


In 1561, the city council of Reval (Tallinn) in Estonia surrendered to Sweden. Reval became the staging point for further Swedish conquests. In 1575 Swedes lost the fortress of Weissenstein (Paide) to the Russians but in 1581 a mercenary army of Sweden under Pontus de la Gardie captured the strategic city of Narva from Russia. Sweden had established its sovereignty over mainland Estonia, while the island of Ösel (Saaremaa) became Danish territory. Livonia and Courland remained under the control of Poland. The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. ... County Harju County Mayor Tõnis Palts Area 158. ... A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. ... Ponce (Pontus) de la Gardie, a French nobleman in the service of Sweden. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Ösel is another name for Saaremaa, an island off of Estonia Ösel is also one of the six yogas of Naropa. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Saaremaa (Swedish, German Ösel, or Oesel, Latin Osilia) is the largest island (2673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ...


In 1582, the peace Treaty of Jam Zapolski was signed between Russia and Poland with Russia ceding Livonia to Poland. In 1583 Russia also made peace with Sweden. Under the Treaty of Plussa, Russia lost Narva, and towns south of the Finnish Bay, to Sweden. Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Peace treaty in Jam Zapolski was signed in January 1582 between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth lead by king Stefan Batory and Russia lead by Tsar Ivan the Terrible, estabilishing a 20 years truce. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Livonian War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (586 words)
The Livonian War of 1558–1582 was a lengthy military conflict between Muscovite Russia and the coalition of Denmark, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kingdom of Poland (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), and Sweden for control of Greater Livonia (the territory of the present-day Estonia and Latvia).
By the late 1550s, the Livonian Confederation had been weakened by the Reformation, while its Eastern neighbour Russia had grown stronger after defeating the Muslim khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.
By 1562, Russia found itself in wars with the kingdoms of Poland and Sweden.
WHKMLA : Livonian War, 1558-1582 (624 words)
The political constitution of Livonia, both the Livonian Order and the Livonian bishoprics, were now questioned; the Livonian Order, for decades, had suffered a sharp decline in their ranks, seriously affecting its ability to defend the country.
The Livonian War is a complex affair, involving four foreign entities - Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Sweden and Denmark, as well as political elements within Livonia aiming at securing protection for themselves - Reval, Ösel, Riga, the Estates of (smaller) Livonia and the last grand master.
Militarily the war began with a Russian invasion in 1558; the Livonian Order no longer was capable of defending the country; Russian troops occupied and held Narva and Dorpat (modern Tartu) and threatened the rest.
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