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Encyclopedia > Livonia
This article is about the region in Europe. For other uses see Livonia (disambiguation).

Livonia (Livonian: Līvõmō, Latvian, and Lithuanian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German and Swedish: Livland; Polish: Liwlandia; Russian: Лифляндия / Lifljandija) was once the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and Estonia. Its frontiers are the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland in the north-west, Lake Peipus and Russia to the east, and Lithuania to the south. Image File history File links Baltic_Tribes_c_1200. ... Image File history File links Baltic_Tribes_c_1200. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples are a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Current Era or as the Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 on the Gregorian calendar. ... Livonia may refer to: Baltic Livonia, once a Finnic land south of the Gulf of Finland, now divided and constituting southern Estonia and northern Latvia. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refers to a group of related ethnic groups and nations speaking Finnic languages (also known as Balto-Finnic languages). ... The Livonians were the indigenous Finnics who since ancient times populated the shores of the Gulf of Riga adjacent to the Indo-European Balts. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Gulf of Riga The Gulf of Riga (or Bay of Riga, Latvian RÄ«gas jÅ«ras lÄ«cis, Estonian Liivi Laht) is a bay of the Baltic Sea between Latvia and Estonia. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Lake Peipsi - Landsat satellite photo Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi järv, Russian: Чудское озеро (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Eastern Europe. ...


Livonia was inhabited by various Baltic and Finnic peoples, ruled by an upper class of Baltic Germans. Over the course of time some nobles were polonized into the Polish-Lithuanian nobility (Szlachta) or russified into the Russian nobility (Dvoryanstvo). http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Polish szlachcic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Russian nobility. ...

Contents

History

Beginning in the 12th century Livonia was an area of economic and political expansion by Danes and Germans, particularly by the Hanseatic League and the Cistercian Order. Around 1160 Hanseatic traders from Lübeck established a trading post at the future site of Riga, which Albrecht von Buxthoeven founded in 1201. He ordered the construction of a cathedral and became the first Prince-Bishop of Livonia. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black Catholic order of monks. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... Albrecht von Buxthoeven (alternative spellings Albert von Buxhoeveden, Buxhövden, Buxhöwde, * ca. ... Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ...


Teutonic-Estonian War

Main article: Teutonic-Estonian War

The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia from the 1220s gives a firsthand account of the Christianization of Livonia, granted as a fief by the Hohenstaufen King of Germany Philip of Swabia to bishop Albert of Buxthoeven, nephew of the Archbishop of Bremen, who sailed with a convoy of ships filled with armed crusaders to carve out a Catholic territory in the East during the Northern Crusades. Combatants Teutonic Knights Estonian elderships Commanders Albrecht von Buxthoeven Andreas Sunonis Caupo of Turaida Theodorich of Estonia Volquin Wenno William of Modena Lembitu Vetseke Strength  ? The Teutonic-Estonian War was the war undertaken by the Teutonic Knights and their allies against the pagan peoples of Estonia (Maavald) around the eastern... The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Latvian: Indrika hronikas, Latin: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae) is a historic document describing the history of Latvia and Estonia from 1180 to 1227. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 Events and Trends Categories: 1220s ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...


Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights & Livonian Order

Thus, from 1236 Livonia had these subdivisions - independent countries: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x670, 34 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lithuania Livonia Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights Teutonic-Estonian War ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (823x670, 34 KB) Other versions (WP:EN) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Lithuania Livonia Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights Teutonic-Estonian War ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or...

Livonian Brothers The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order organized in 1202 by Albert of Buxhoeveden, bishop of Riga (or... Hermann von Salza (c. ... The Archibishopric of Riga within the Livonian Confederation, circa 1260. ... Bishopric of Courland (light orange). ... The Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek (German: Bistum Ösel-Wiek, Estonian: Saare-Lääne piiskopkond) was a semi-independent principality in what is now Saare and Lääne counties of Estonia. ... The Bishopric of Dorpat was a medieval principality 1234-1558 in what are now Tartu, Põlva, Võru and Jõgeva counties in Estonia. ... The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... Livlandische Reimchronik: The Old Livonian Rhymed Chronicle, written in Low German by an anonymous writer covers the period 1180 – 1290 and contains a wealth of detail about ‘strange’ Estonia. ...

Livonian Confederation

The different states in Livonia and present day Estonia were organized in the Livonian Confederation from 1228 to the 1560s. The Livonian Confederation wasn't a state but a confederation of independent countries. A Diet or Landtag was formed in 1419. The city of Walk was chosen as the site of the Diet. Image File history File links Confederation_of_Livonia_1260. ... Image File history File links Confederation_of_Livonia_1260. ... The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... William Shakespeare is born. ... A state is a set of institutions that possess the authority to make the rules that govern the people in one or more societies, having internal and external sovereignty over a definite territory. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly, with some legislative authority, of a political entity called Land (i. ... Walk was the historical German name for the town that is now divided into Valga in Estonia and Valka in Latvia. ...


Duchy of Livonia

Main article: Duchy of Livonia

In 1561 during the Livonian War Livonia fell to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania [1][2][3] with vassal dependency from Lithuania[3]. Eight years later, in 1569, when Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kingdom of Poland formed Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Livonia became a joint domain administered directly by the King and Grand Duke. [3][1][4][5][6][7] This article is about the region in Europe. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and Pogoń in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji Kunigaikštystė, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie Księstwo Litewskie) was an... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Kingdom of Livonia

Main article: Kingdom of Livonia

Russia recognized Polish-Lithuanian control of Livonia only in 1582. As of 1598 it was divided onto: Livonia in 1561. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...

Wenden Voivodeship (Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s. ... Cēsis (German: Wenden) is a town in Latvia located in the northern part of the Vidzeme Central upland. ... The Dorpat Voivodeship (Polish: or województwo derpskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... The Parnawa Voivodeship (Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ...

Swedish Livonia

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Truce of Deulino in 1618 compared with today's borders Legend: 1. Poland, 2. Lithuania, 3. Livonia, 4. Courland, 5. Prussia.
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Truce of Deulino in 1618 compared with today's borders Legend: 1. Poland, 2. Lithuania, 3. Livonia, 4. Courland, 5. Prussia.
Main article: Swedish Livonia

Sweden gained control over the northern Estonian and central Latvian regions of Livonia, including Riga, after fighting the Polish-Swedish War during the 1620s, and incorporated it into the Swedish realm as the dominion Swedish Livonia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (803x630, 49 KB) Other versions Image:Pol-lith_commonwealth_map. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (803x630, 49 KB) Other versions Image:Pol-lith_commonwealth_map. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... Livonia was a dominion of Sweden from the 1620s until 1721. ... The Polish-Swedish Wars refer to a series of wars between Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden, in the wider meaning to the series of wars in which both Sweden and Poland participated between 1563 and 1721, in the narrower meaning to denote the two wars between 1600 and 1629. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... The Dominions of Sweden or Svenska besittningar were territories that historically came under control of the Swedish Crown, but never became fully integrated with Sweden. ... Livonia was a dominion of Sweden from the 1620s until 1721. ...


Livonian Voivodeship

Main article: Livonian Voivodeship

The Livonian Voivodeship (Lithuanian: Livonijos vaivadija; Polish: Województwo inflanckie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship till the First Partition of Poland in 1772. The Livonian Voivodeship (Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship till the First Partition of Poland in 1772. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... Wenden Voivodeship (Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in 1598 till the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Inflanty

Main article: Inflanty

The portion of Livonia remaining in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Treaty of Oliva in 1660 was known as Polish Livonia, or Inflanty. It consisted mainly of the southern Latvian region Latgale within the Livonian Voivodeship with the capital of Daugavpils, or Dyneburg. This division of Livonia was codified in the Treaty of Oliva in 1660. This article is about the region in Europe. ... Treaty of Oliwa. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Latgale or Latgalia (Latvian: , Latgalian: Latgola; Polish: Łatgalia; German: Lettgallen; Russian: Латгалия) is one of the four cultural regions of Latvia recognised in the Constitution of the Latvian Republic. ... The Livonian Voivodeship (Lithuanian: ; Polish: ) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since it was formed in the 1620s out of the Wenden Voivodeship till the First Partition of Poland in 1772. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, Dźwińsk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ...


Riga Governorate

Main article: Riga Governorate

The Russian Empire conquered Swedish Livonia during the course of the Great Northern War and acquired the province at the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Russia then added Polish Livonia in 1772 during the Partitions of Poland. Riga Governorate (Рижская губерния or Riga guberniya) was a governorate of the Russian Empire. ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq mi Population  - 1897... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Russia Denmark-Norway Poland-Lithuania Saxony later also Prussia) Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Peter the Great August II Frederick IV of Denmark Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 This is an article about the 18th... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ...


United Baltic Duchy

Latvia around Riga, Estonia around Tallinn in 1920
Latvia around Riga, Estonia around Tallinn in 1920
Main article: United Baltic Duchy

Livonia remained within the Russian Empire until the end of World War I, when it was split between the newly independent states of Latvia and Estonia. In 1918 - 1920 both Soviet troops and German Freikorps fought against Latvian and Estonian troops for control over Livonia, but their attempts were defeated. Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 341 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Soviet redirects here. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ...


Ostland

Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ...

Baltic countries

Main articles: Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania

The historical land of Livonia has been split between Latvia and Estonia ever since. The native Livonian language is still spoken in parts of Latvia, but is understood to be fast approaching extinction. The anthem (probably unofficial) of Livonia was Min izāmō, min sindimō. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x929, 128 KB) Found in http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x929, 128 KB) Found in http://en. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The terms Baltic countries, Baltic Sea countries, Baltic states, and Balticum refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... An extinct language is a language which is no longer natively spoken: it is estimated that one natural human language dies every two weeks. ...


Notes and references

In-line:
  1. ^ a b (Lithuanian) Alfredas Bumblauskas (2005). Senosios Lietuvos istorija 1009 - 1795. Vilnius: R. Paknio leidykla, 256-259. ISBN 9986-830-89-3. 
  2. ^ (English) Robert Auty (1981). D. Obolensky: Companion to Russian Studies: Volume 1 Vol 1 Introduction to Russian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 101. ISBN 0-521-28038-9. 
  3. ^ a b c (English) Szilvia Rédey, Endre Bojtár (1999). Foreword to the Past: a cultural history of the Baltic People. Central European University Press, 172. ISBN 963-9116-42-4. 
  4. ^ (English) Norman Davies (1996). Europe: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 555. ISBN 0-19-820171-0. 
  5. ^ (English) George Miller (1832). “Modern History”, History, philosophically issustrated, from the fall of the Roman empire to the French revolution, 258. 
  6. ^ (English) Alfrēds Bīlmanis (1945). Baltic Essays. The Latvian Legation, 69-80. ASIN B0007E4DI4. 
  7. ^ (English) Beresford James Kidd (1933). The Counter-reformation, 1550-1600. Society for promoting Christian knowledge, 121. 

Alfredas Bumblauskas (born in 1956) is a professor of Vilnius University and one of the best known Lithuanian historians. ... Location Ethnographic region Aukštaitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Shown within Cambridgeshire Geography Status: City (1951) Region: East of England Admin. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Prof. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... George Miller (born March 3, 1945) is an Australian film and television screenwriter, film director and producer. ...

See also

Look up Livonia in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • History of Estonia
  • History of Latvia
  • History of Lithuania
  • History of Poland

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The Bishopric of Reval located on the former territory of Danish Estonia (above). ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... The Principality of Estland was located on the former territory of Danish Estonia (above) except the city of Reval. ... // Pre-history Chudes (proto-Estonians) and other Finnic tribes. ... The proto-Baltic forefathers of the Latvian people have lived on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea since the third millennium BC [1]. At the beginning of this era the territory known today as Latvia became famous as a trading crossroads. ... This article discusses the history of Lithuania and of the Lithuanians. ... In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Livonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (554 words)
The portion of Livonia remaining in the Commonwealth after the Treaty of Oliva in 1660 was known as Polish Livonia, or Inflanty.
This division of Livonia was codified in the Treaty of Oliva in 1660.
Livonia remained within the Russian Empire until the end of World War I, when it was split between the newly independent states of Latvia and Estonia.
Livonia, Michigan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1109 words)
Livonia is a city located in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Livonia was incorporated into a city on May 23, 1950 by vote of the citizens of the township.
Livonia is located in Michigan's 11th Congressional District, and is represented in Congress by Thaddeus McCotter (Republican), who was first elected to Congress in 2002.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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