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Encyclopedia > Livestock
Sheep are commonly bred as livestock.
Sheep are commonly bred as livestock.

Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally) to a domesticated animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to make produce such as food or fibre, or for its labour. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x962, 143 KB)Flock of sheep. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x962, 143 KB)Flock of sheep. ... “Lamb” redirects here. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ...


Livestock may be raised for subsistence or for profit. Raising animals (animal husbandry) is an important component of modern agriculture. It has been practiced in many societies, since the transition to farming from hunter-gather lifestyles. Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...

Contents

Origins of livestock

The maze of livestock pens and walkways at Chicago's stockyards, ca. 1941.
The maze of livestock pens and walkways at Chicago's stockyards, ca. 1941.

Animal-rearing has its origins in the transition of societies to settled farming communities rather than hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are ‘domesticated’ when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour, life cycle, and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild. Goats, sheep, and pig were domesticated around 8000 BC in Asia. The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BC[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1458x1052, 418 KB)The maze of livestock pens and walkways at Chicagos stockyards, ca. ... Download high resolution version (1458x1052, 418 KB)The maze of livestock pens and walkways at Chicagos stockyards, ca. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ... A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Species See text. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ...


Types of livestock

The term "livestock" is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly.


On a broader view, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose. This can mean domestic animals, semi-domestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semi-domesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status. These populations may also be in the process of domestication. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...


In practical discussions, some people may use the term livestock to refer just to domestic animals or even just to red meat animals. Red meat in culinary terminology, refers to meat which is red-colored when raw, while in nutritional terminology, it refers to meat from mammals. ...



Animal / Type Domestication Status Wild Ancestor Time of first Captivity / Domestication Area of first Captivity / Domestication First Commercial Uses Current Commercial Uses
Alpaca
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Vicuña Between 5000 BC and 4000 BC Andes wool
Bison
Mammal, herbivore
captive (see also Beefalo) N/A Late 19th Century North America meat, leather,
Camel
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild Dromedary and Bactrian camels Between 4000 BC and 1400 BC Asia mount, pack animal, meat, dairy
Cat
Mammal, carnivore
domestic pest control pest control
Cattle
Mammal, herbivore
Aurochs (extinct) 6000 BC Southwest Asia, India, North Africa (?) domestic Meat (beef, veal, blood), dairy, leather, draught
Deer
Mammal, herbivore
captive N/A 1970 North America Meat (venison), leather, antlers, antler velvet
Dog
Mammal, carnivore
domestic Wolf 12000 BC pack animal, draught, hunting, herding, searching/gathering, watching/guarding, meat
Donkey
Mammal, herbivore
domestic African Wild Ass 4000 BC Egypt mount, pack animal, draught, meat, dairy
Goat
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Bezoar goat 8000 BC Southwest Asia Dairy, meat, wool, leather, light draught,
Guinea pig
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Cavia tschudii 5000 BC South America Meat
Horse
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild horses of Southern Russia (extinct) 4000 BC Ukraine mount, pack animal, draught, meat, dairy
Llama
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Guanaco 3500 BC Andes light mount, pack animal, draught,,, meat, wool
Mule
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Sterile hybrid of donkey and horse     mount, pack animal, draught
Pig
Mammal, omnivore
domestic Wild boar 7000 BC Eastern Anatolia Meat (pork) and bacon, leather
Rabbit
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild rabbit between AD 400-900 France Meat, wool
Reindeer
Mammal, herbivore
semi-domestic reindeer 3000 BC Russia Meat, leather, antlers, dairy, draught,
Sheep
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Asiatic mouflon sheep 8000 BC Southwest Asia Wool, dairy, meat (mutton and lamb)
Water Buffalo
Mammal, herbivore
domesitc Wild water buffalo, Arni 4000 BC China (Tibetan Plateau) mount, draught, meat, dairy
Yak
Mammal, herbivore
domestic Wild yak   Tibet Meat, dairy, wool, mount, pack animal, draught

This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Vicugna vicugna (Molina, 1782) The Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is one of 2 wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which lives in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Beefalo are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle, Bos taurus, and the American Bison, Bison bison (generally called buffalo). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 Dromedary range The Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) (often referred to simply as the Dromedary) is a large even-toed ungulate native to northern Africa, Greater Middle East area and western India, also the land of east Africa, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bactrian Camel range The Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of eastern Asia. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... (Redirected from 1400 BC) Centuries: 16th century BC - 15th century BC - 14th century BC Decades: 1450s BC 1440s BC 1430s BC 1420s BC 1410s BC - 1400s BC - 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC Events and Trends Palace of Minos destroyed by fire (1400 BC) Several board... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... This is a disambiguation. ... This is a disambiguation. ... cow and ox, see Cow (disambiguation) and Ox (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Bos primigenius Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... (7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – other millennia) Events c. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... For other uses, see Beef (disambiguation). ... Veal is a culinary term for meat produced from calves (young cattle). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Leg of venison on apple sauce with dumplings and vegetables Venison is meat of the family Cervidae. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... This tigers sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators A carnivore (IPA: ), meaning meat eater (Latin carne meaning flesh and vorare meaning to devour), is an animal that eats a diet consisting mainly of meat, whether it comes from live animals... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Subspecies E. a. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Capra aegagrus Erxleben, 1777 Subspecies Capra aegagrus aegagrus Capra aegagrus blythi Capra aegagrus chialtanensis Capra aegagrus cretica Capra aegagrus hircus Capra aegagrus turcmenica The wild goat (Capra aegagrus) is a common type of goat species, with a distribution ranging from Europe and Asia Minor to central Asia and... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Binomial name Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758) Guinea pigs (also called cavies) are rodents belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia, originally indigenous to the Andes. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Cavia tschudii Fitzinger, 1867[1] The Montane Guinea Pig, Cavia tschudii, is a guinea pig species from South America. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The llama (Lama glama) is a South American camelid, widely used as a pack animal by the Incas[1] and other natives of the Andes mountains. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Lama guanicoe (Müller, 1776) The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is an elegant, fine-boned camelid animal that stands approximately 1. ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events ? - Formation of the Sahara Desert 3450 (?) - Stage IId of the Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions ? _ Irrigation in Egypt ? - First use of Cuneiform (script) Categories... Planes view of the Andes, Peru. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... A barren of mules. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domesticated pig. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia or Anatolian Peninsula is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, (Eastern) Thrace; tr:Trakya. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Two halves of pork being delivered Pork is the culinary name for meat from pigs. ... Look up bacon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Persian sfuckentist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) Reindeer map The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... For the Poet Laureate of Milwaukee, see Antler (Poet). ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... “Lamb” redirects here. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Binomial name Ovis musimon, Ovis ammon musimon, Ovis orientalis Pallas, 1762 European Mouflon The Mouflon is a species of wild sheep and as such is one of the Caprinae or goat antelopes. It is thought to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds[1]. It... (9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – other millennia) Events The south area of Çatalhöyük. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... See also lamb (disambiguation) An unweaned lamb The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are used to describe the meat of a domestic sheep. ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Tibet (see Name section below for other spellings) is a plateau region in Central Asia and the indigenous home to the Tibetan people. ... Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, Arizona Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals and people of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals such as goats and rabbits and oxes... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ... A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks. ...

Purpose of animal rearing

Female goat, also called a nanny
Female goat, also called a nanny

‘Livestock’ are defined, in part, by their end purpose as the production of food or fiber, or labour. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 440 KB) A brown femal goat File links The following pages link to this file: Domestic goat Livestock Goat ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 440 KB) A brown femal goat File links The following pages link to this file: Domestic goat Livestock Goat ...


The economic value of livestock includes:

Meat
the production of a useful form of dietary protein and energy.
Dairy products 
Mammalian livestock can be used as a source of milk, which can in turn easily be processed into other dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, butter, ice cream, kefir, and kumis. Using livestock for this purpose can often yield several times the food energy of slaughtering the animal outright.
Fiber 
Livestock produce a range of fiber/textiles. For example, sheep and goats produce wool and mohair; cows, deer, and sheep can make leather; and bones, hooves and horns of livestock can be used.
Fertilizer 
Manure can be spread on fields to increase crop yields. This is an important reason why historically, plant and animal domestication have been intimately linked. Manure is also used to make plaster for walls and floors and can be used as a fuel for fires. The blood and bone of animals are also used as fertilizer.
Labour 
Animals such as horses, donkey, and yaks can be used for mechanical energy. Prior to steam power livestock were the only available source of non-human labour. They are still used for this purpose in many places of the world, including ploughing fields, transporting goods, and military functions.
Land management 
The grazing of livestock is sometimes used as a way to control weeds and undergrowth. For example, in areas prone to wild fires, goats and sheep are set to graze on dry scrub which removes combustible material and reduces the risk of fires.

During the history of animal husbandry many secondary products have arisen in an attempt to increase carcass utilization and reduce waste. For example, animal offal and non-edible parts may be transformed into products such as pet food and fertilizer. In the past such waste products were sometimes also fed to livestock as well. However, intra-species recycling poses a disease risk, threatening animal and even human health (see bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), scrapie and prion). Due primarily to BSE (mad cow disease), feeding animal scraps to animals has been banned in many countries, at least in regards to ruminants. Kinnikuman character, see Meat Alexandria. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Grains of kefir For the Islamic term, see Kaffir. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... Slaughtering is the killing and processing of animals for consumption by humans, see slaughterhouse. ... “Lamb” redirects here. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Fawn and Stag redirect here. ... “Lamb” redirects here. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus asinus The donkey or ass (Equus asinus) is a domesticated animal of the horse family, Equidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Subspecies Bos grunniens grunniens Bos grunniens mutus The yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired humped domestic bovine found in Tibet and throughout the Himalayan region of south Central Asia, as well as in Mongolia. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Shepherd with his sheep in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... Scrapple sandwich at the Delaware state fair Offal is the entrails and internal organs of a butchered animal. ... Classic image of cattle with BSE. Frantic digging going nowhere. ... Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease that affects the nervous systems of sheep and goats. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud. ...


Farming practices

Goat family with week old young
Goat family with week old young
Main article: animal husbandry

Farming practices vary dramatically world-wide and between types of animals. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Domestic goat family of a mother and her two week old kids. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 453 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Domestic goat family of a mother and her two week old kids. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ...


Livestock are generally kept in an enclosure, are fed by human-provided food and are intentionally bred, but some livestock are not enclosed, or are fed by access to natural foods, or are allowed to breed freely, or all three.


Livestock raising historically was part of a nomadic or pastoral form of material culture. The herding of camels and reindeer in some parts of the world remain unassociated with sedentary agriculture. The transhumance form of herding in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California still continues as cattle, sheep or goats are moved from winter pasture in lower lying valleys to spring pasture and summer pasture in the foothills and alpine regions as the seasons progress. Cattle were raised on the open range in the Western United States and Canada, as well as on the Pampas of Argentina and other prairie and steppe regions of the world. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Titians The Pastoral Concert Pastoral refers to the lifestyle of shepherds and pastoralists, moving livestock around larger areas of land according to seasons and availability of water and feed. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ... Transhumance is the seasonal movement of livestock between mountainous and lowland pastures. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is mostly in eastern California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Open Range is a 2003 movie based on the novel The Open Range Men by Lauran Paine. ... The pampas (from Quechua for plain) are the fertile lowlands that extend across c. ... Prairie grasses Prairie refers to an area of land of low topographic relief that historically supported grasses and herbs, with few trees, and having generally a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N...


The enclosure of livestock in pastures and barns is a relatively new development in the history of agriculture. When cattle are enclosed, the type of ‘enclosure’ may vary from a small crate or to a large fenced pasture. The type of feed may vary from natural growing grass, to highly sophisticated processed feed. Animals are usually intentionally bred through artificial insemination or through supervised mating. Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... A barn (symbol b) is a unit of area. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fence dividing paddocks. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) which is used for fattening livestock, notably beefcattle, prior to slaughter. ...


Indoor production systems are generally used only for pigs and poultry, as well as for veal cattle. Indoor animals are generally farmed intensively, as large space requirements would make indoor farming unprofitable and impossible. However, indoor farming systems are controversial due to: the waste they produce, odour problems, the potential for groundwater contamination and animal welfare concerns. (For further discussion on intensively farmed livestock, see factory farming, and intensive pig farming). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ...


Other livestock are farmed outside, although the size of enclosure and level of supervision may vary. In large open ranges animals may be only occasionally collected in "round-ups" or "musters". Herding dogs such as sheep dogs and cattle dogs may be used for mustering as are cowboys, musterers and jackaroos on horseback or in helicopters. Since the advent of barbed wire (in the 1870s) and electric fence technology, fencing pastures has become much more feasible and pasture management simplified. Rotation of pasturage is a modern technique for improving nutrition and health while avoiding environmental damage to the land. In some cases very large numbers of animals may be kept in indoor or outdoor feeding operations (on feedlots), where the animals' feed is processed, offsite or onsite, and stored onsite then fed to the animals. For other uses, see Cowboy (disambiguation). ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... An electric fence is a barrier that uses painful or even lethal high-voltage electric shocks to deter animals or people from crossing a boundary. ... Beef cattle on a feedlot in the Texas Panhandle A feedlot or feedyard is a type of concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) which is used for fattening livestock, notably beefcattle, prior to slaughter. ...


Livestock - especially cattle - may be branded to indicate ownership, but in modern farming identification is more likely to be indicated by means of ear tags than burning. This is not only more humane, but also has other advantages such as reducing the likelihood of infection and damage to the livestock. Sheep are also frequently marked by means of ear tags. As fears of mad cow disease and other epidemic illnesses mount, the use of microchip identification to monitor and trace animals in the food production system is increasingly common, and sometimes required by governmental regulations. Branding irons Livestock branding is any technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner. ... Ear tags - also known as sheep tags or cattle tags - were first developed in the early 1913 as a means to identify livestock, specifically cattle, when testing for tuberculosis. ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or commonly mad cow disease) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century and appears transmissible to humans. ...


Modern farming techniques seek to minimize human involvement, increase yield, and improve animal health. Economics, quality and consumer safety all play a role in how animals are raised. Drug use and feed supplements (or even feed type) may be regulated, or prohibited, to ensure yield is not increased at the expense of consumer health, safety or animal welfare. Practices vary around the world, for example growth hormone use is permitted in the United States but not in the European Union or in countries selling meat/produce in the EU such as Australia and New Zealand. Livestock may be branded, marked, or tagged to denote ownership or for inventory, breeding, health management, product identification and tracing, or other purposes. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hard and soft drugs are loose categories of psychoactive drugs. ... Growth hormone (GH or somatotropin) is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesised, stored and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... A brand is a name, logo, slogan, and/or design scheme associated with a product or service. ...


Disease

Livestock diseases compromise animal welfare, reduce productivity, and in rare cases can infect humans.


Animal diseases may be tolerated; reduced through animal husbandry; or reduced through antibiotics and vaccines. In developing countries animal diseases are tolerated in animal husbandry, resulting in considerably reduced productivity, especially given the low health-status of many developing country herds. Gains in productivity through disease management is often a first step taken in implementing an agriculture policy.


Disease management can be achieved through changes in animal husbandry. These measures may aim to control spread by: controlling animal mixing, controlling entry to farm lots and the use of protective clothing, and quarantining sick animals. Disease management may be controlled by the use of vaccines and antibiotics. Antibiotics may also be used as a growth-promoter. The issue of antibiotic resistance has limited the practices of preventative dosing such as antibiotic-laced feed. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Countries will often require the use of veterinary certificates are often required before transporting, selling or showing animals. Disease-free areas are often rigorously enforced, and may be notified to the OIE. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ...


Livestock transportation and marketing

See also: Animal transporter

Since many livestock are herd animals, they were historically driven to market "on the hoof" to a town or other central location. During the period after the American Civil War, the abundance of Longhorn cattle in Texas and the demand for beef in Northern markets led to the popularity of the Old West cattle drive. The method is still used in some parts of the world. Trail driving bulls is not common due to their strength and aggressive nature, although the Geier Hitch technique will permit some control of a bull via lead rope. Truck transport is now common in developed countries. Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas livestock may be bought and sold in a bazaar, such as may be found in many parts of Central Asia, or a flea market type setting such as the First Monday Trade Days in Canton, Texas. An animal transporter is a vehicle, or something towed by a vehicle, used to transport animals over long distances, such as a horse box. ... A drover is a person that drives livestock to a new location, usually referring to the pre-20th century practice of walking with them and herding them similar to a cowhand. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Texas longhorn is ecologically adapted to the sparse and rugged grazing land of Texas. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1888. ... // Definition and Usage The Geier Hitch is a tool or technique used in livestock management and animal husbandry. ... An animal transporter is a vehicle, or something towed by a vehicle, used to transport animals over long distances, such as a horse box. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Grand Timcheh of Qoms Bazaar. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... First Monday Trade Days is a monthly flea market held in Canton, Texas. ... Canton is a city located in Van Zandt County, Texas, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 3,292. ...


Stock shows and fairs

Stock shows and fairs are events where people bring their best livestock to compete with one another. Organizations like 4-H and FFA encourage young people to raise livestock for show purposes. Special feeds are purchased and hours may be spent prior to the show grooming the animal to look its best. In cattle, sheep, and swine shows, the winning animals are frequently auctioned off to the highest bidder and the funds placed into a scholarship fund for its owner. The movie Grand Champion, released in 2004, is the story of a young Texas boy's experience raising a prize steer. An Agricultural Show is a public event showcasing the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associated with the occupations of agriculture and animal husbandry. ... Roundabouts (or carousels) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairs. ... Sign announcing 4-H membership on a ranch in Larimer County, Colorado. ... The National FFA Organization is an American youth organization known as a Career and Technical Student Organization, based on high school classes that promote and support agricultural education. ... The Grand Champion, starring Jacob Fisher, George Strait, Emma Roberts and Nataile Maines, is about a young boy who wants his calf Hokey to grow up to be the Grand Champion. ...

Poultry Building, Western Fair 1923.
Poultry Building, Western Fair 1923.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x762, 116 KB) Western Fair, London Ontario. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x762, 116 KB) Western Fair, London Ontario. ...

Animal welfare and surmised rights

The issue of rearing livestock for human benefit raises the issue of the relationship between humans and animals, in terms of the status of animals and obligations of people.


Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals under human care should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer unnecessarily. What is ‘unnecessary’ suffering may vary. Generally though, the animal welfare perspective is based on an interpretation of scientific research on farming practices. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


By contrast, Animal rights is the viewpoint that using animals for human benefit is, by its nature, generally exploitation regardless of the farming practice used. It is a position based on anthropomorphism, in which individuals seek to place themselves in the position of an animal. Animal rights activists would generally be vegan or vegetarian, whereas it is consistent with the animal welfare perspective to eat meat depending on production processes. A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ...


Animal welfare groups generally seek to generate public discussion on livestock rearing practices and secure greater regulation and scrutiny of livestock industry practices. Animal rights groups usually seek the abolition of livestock farming, although some groups may recognise the necessity of achieving more stringent regulation first. Animal welfare groups, such as the RSPCA, are often – in first world countries - given a voice at governmental level in the development of policy. Animal rights groups find it harder to find methods of input, and may go further and advocate civil disobedience or violence. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A civet, or sea fox, photographed in the Zigong Peoples Zoo, Sichuan, 2001. ...


Animal husbandry practices that have led to legislation in some countries and that may be the subject of current campaigns

  • Confinement of livestock in small and unnatural spaces: For economic or health reasons animals may be kept in the minimum size of cage or pen with little or no space to exercise or engage in normal actions or grooming. Close confinement is most common with chickens, pigs, and calves raised for veal.
  • Unnatural living environments: Even when allowed to move, animals may be denied a natural environment. For example ducks may be kept in free-range barns but have no access to water in which to swim. Cattle may be kept in barns with no chance to graze. Dogs or cats may be kept indoors with no chance to hunt.
  • Overuse of pharmaceuticals and hormones: Intensive raising of livestock may lead to a health problems and the necessity to use antibiotics to prevent disease. In some cases antibiotics and hormones are also fed to livestock to produce rapid weight gain.
  • Overwork and exhaustion of animals: Where livestock are used as a source of power they may be pushed beyond their limits to the point of exhaustion. The public visibility of this abuse meant it was one of the first areas to receive legislation in the nineteenth century in European countries but it still goes on in parts of Asia.
  • Modification to the bodies of living animals: Broiler hens may be de-beaked, pigs have deciduous teeth pulled, cattle de-horned and branded, dairy cows and sheep have tails cropped, merino sheep mulesed, many types of male animals castrated.
  • Long distance transportation of livestock: Animals may be transported long distances to market and slaughter. Overcrowded conditions, heat from tropical-area shipping and lack of food, water and rest breaks have been subject to legislation and protest. (See Live Export)
  • Slaughter of livestock: Slaughter was an early target for legislation. Campaigns continue to target Halal and Kosher religious ritual slaughter.

Live export is an agriculture term referring to the international transport of livestock. ... Slaughter is the term used to describe the killing and butchering of domestic livestock. ... Halal (حلال, alāl, halaal) is an Arabic term meaning permissible. In the English language it most frequently refers to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ...

Environmental impact

Livestock can have an enormous impact on its local environment. Since livestock is often kept in huge numbers, or unnaturally concentrated numbers, their most basic needs can place huge burdens on ecosystems. The most obvious problem is with their waste matter. If improperly handled it can seep into groundwater with devastating results. Browsing species, such as goats, sheep and deer can completely defoliate certain areas, destroying rare plants and the animals that depend on them and sometimes leading to erosion. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of geologic formations. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as an operation of Mathematical morphology, see Erosion (morphology) Erosion is displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of ocean currents, wind, water, or ice by downward or down-slope movement...


Some would argue that most environmental impacts can be eliminated or lessened by regulating the numbers of animals in a given area, through alternative animal husbandry techniques, or by adopting veganism. The logo of the worlds first Vegan Society, registered in 1944. ...


According to the United Nations, the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases - responsible for 18% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. In the US, which produces about 23% of global greenhouse gases, agriculture accounts for 7% of total greenhouse gas emissions (in CO2 equivalents), while transportation produces more than 25%. In comparison, the energy sector, which includes transportation, accounted for more than 85% of US greenhouse gas emissions in 2004. Agriculture produces 65% percent of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). It also generates 64% of the ammonia, which contributes to acid rain and acidification of ecosystems [1].


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Livestock - definition of Livestock in Encyclopedia (2765 words)
Livestock refers to domesticated animals, that may be kept or raised in pens, houses, pastures, or on farms as part of an agricultural or farming operation, whether for commerce or private use.
Various types of livestock are reared depending on the local conditions: climate, consumer demand, land type, native animals, and tradition all influence the predominant type of livestock in any given area.
Livestock may be kept in confinement in very small areas (cages or pens), as with poultry, rabbits or veal cattle, in sheds or barns, in fenced pastures or on large open ranges where they are only occasionally collected in "round-ups" or "musters".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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