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Encyclopedia > Livery collar
Sir Thomas More wearing the Collar of Esses as Lord Chancellor, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527).

A livery collar or chain of office is a collar or heavy gold chain worn as insignia of office or a mark of fealty in medieval Europe and the United Kingdom. Download high resolution version (888x1150, 1909 KB)Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger. ... Download high resolution version (888x1150, 1909 KB)Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger. ... Portrait of Sir Thomas More by Hans Holbein the Younger Sir Thomas More (7 February 1478–6 July 1535), posthumously known also as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, author, and politician. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Events January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat River in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Sir Thomas More wearing the Collar of Esses as Lord Chancellor, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ... Look up chain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one. ...


The best-known livery collar is the Collar of Esses, which has been in continuous use in the United Kingdom since the 15th century. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...

Contents


History

Origins

Livery collars first appeared in the 14th century. Charles V of France in 1378 granted to his chamberlain Geoffrey de Belleville the right of bearing in all feasts and in all companies the collar of the Cosse de Geneste or Broomcod, a collar which was accepted and worn even by the English kings, Charles VI sending such collars to Richard II and to his three uncles. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 31, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France (1364 to 1380) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... A Chamberlain is an officer in charge of managing the household of a sovereign. ... Charles VI the Well-Beloved, later known as the Mad (French: Charles VI le Bien-Aimé, later known as le Fol) (December 3, 1368 – October 21, 1422) was a King of France (1380 – 1422) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born at Bordeaux and became his fathers heir when his elder brother died in infancy. ...


This French collar, a chain of couples of broomcods linked by jewels, is seen in the contemporary portrait of Richard II at Wilton. The like collar was worn by Henry IV on the way to his crowning. During the sitting of the English parliament in 1394 the complaints of Richard FitzAlan, 11th Earl of Arundel against Richard II are recorded, one of his grievances being that the king was wont to wear the livery of the collar of his uncle John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, his uncle, and that people of the king's following wore the same livery. To which the king answered that soon after the return from Spain (in 1389) of his uncle, the said duke, he himself took the collar from his uncle's neck, putting it on his own, which collar the king would wear and use for a sign of the good and whole-hearted love between them, even as he wore the liveries of his other uncles. Livery collars of the king of France, of Queen Anne and of the dukes of York and Lancaster are numbered with the royal plate and jewels which in the first year of Henry IV had come to the king's hands. The inventory shows that Queen Anne's collar, was made up of sprigs of rosemary garnished with pearls. The York collar had falcons and fetterlocks, and the Lancaster collar was doubtless that Collar of Esses (or S S) used by the duke's son, Henry of Bolingbroke (Henry IV), as an earl, duke and king. This famous livery collar, which has never passed out of use, takes many forms, its Esses being sometimes linked together chainwise, and sometimes, in early examples, bestowed as the ornamental bosses of a garter-shaped strap-collar. The oldest effigy bearing it is that in Spratton church of Sir John Swinford, who died in 1371. Swinford was a follower of John of Gaunt, and the date of his death easily disposes of the fancy that the Esses were devised by Henry IV to stand for his motto or "word" of Soverayne. Many explanations are given of the origin of these letters, but none has as yet been established with sufficient proof. During the reigns of Henry IV, his son (Henry V), and grandson (Henry VI), the collar of Esses was a royal badge of the Lancastrian house and party, the white swan being its pendant. // Birth and life before accession - relationship with Richard II - exile - return and usurpation Henry IV (April 3, 1367 – March 20, 1413) was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence the other name by which he was known, Henry of Bolingbroke. His father, John of Gaunt was the third and oldest... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here:This article is about the legislative institution. ... // Events Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, travels with King Richard II of England to Ireland. ... Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel and 10th Earl of Surrey (1346 - September 21, 1397, beheaded) was an English nobleman and military commander. ... A livery is a uniform worn by a civilian person. ... John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (June 24, 1340 - February 3, 1399), the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, gained his name because he was born at Ghent in 1340. ... Anne of Bohemia Anne of Bohemia (1366 - 1394) was the daughter of Emperor Charles IV, King of Bohemia and Elisabeth of Pomerania. ... Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, (June 5, 1341 - August 1, 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of the five sons of the Royal couple who lived to adulthood. ... Binomial name Rosmarinus officinalis L. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves that are used in cooking. ... Nuclei from Toba Pearl Island, Japan A pearl is a hard, rounded object produced by certain animals, primarily mollusks such as oysters. ... Species About 37; see text. ... // Birth and life before accession - relationship with Richard II - exile - return and usurpation Henry IV (April 3, 1367 – March 20, 1413) was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, hence the other name by which he was known, Henry of Bolingbroke. His father, John of Gaunt was the third and oldest... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 – August 31, 1422), King of England (1413-1422), son of Henry IV by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in August or September 1386 or 1387. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21/22, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471. ...


In one of Henry VI's own collars the S was joined to the Broomcod of the French device, thus symbolizing the king's claim to the two kingdoms. The kings of the house of York and their chief followers wore the Yorkist collar of suns and roses, with the white lion of March, the Clare bull, or Richard's white boar for a pendant device. Henry VIII brought back the collar of Esses, a portcullis or a rose hanging from it, although in a portrait of this king, now possessed by the Society of Antiquaries, his neck bears the rose en soleil alternating with knots, and his son (later Edward VI, when young, had a collar of roses red and white. The Sun is the spectral type G2V yellow star at the center of Earths solar system. ... Species About 100, see text A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa and the flower of this shrub. ... The title Earl of March has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. ... Richard III (2 October 1452 – 22 August 1485) was the King of England from 1483 until his death and the last king from the House of York. ... Heraldic badges were common in the Middle Ages particularly in England. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... A portcullis in Edinburgh Castle A portcullis is a grille or gate made of wood, metal or a combination of the two. ... Edward Tudor redirects here; for another (though unlikely) Edward Tudor, see a putative younger son of Henry VII of England, who, if existed, would be the uncle of this Edward Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547...


Besides these royal collars, the 14th and 15th centuries show many of private devices. A monumental brass at Mildenhall shows a knight whose badge of a dog or wolf circled by a crown hangs from a collar with edges suggesting a pruned bough or the ragged staff. Thomas of Markenfield (d. c. 1415) on his brass at Ripon has a strange collar of park palings with a badge of a hart in a park, and the Lord Berkeley (d. 1392) wears one set with mermaids. Monumental Brass is a species of engraved sepulchral memorial which in the early part of the 13th century began to take the place of tombs and effigies carved in stone. ... This article is about the village of Mildenhall, Suffolk. ... Ripon is a small cathedral city in the Harrogate borough of North Yorkshire, England, 214 miles NNW from London. ... Subfamilies Capreolinae Cervinae Hydropotinae Muntiacinae A deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. ... See: Baron Berkeley (creations of 1066, 1295 and 1421) Viscount Berkeley (1481) Marquess of Berkeley (1488) Earl Berkeley (1679) Baron Berkeley of Rathdown (1661) Baron Berkeley of Stratton (1658) Baron Berkeley of Wynondham (1611) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... The statue of The Little Mermaid, a monument to Hans Christian Andersen, in Copenhagen harbour. ...


Collars of Orders of Knighthood

Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, shown in the Schatzkammer in Vienna, Austria.
Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece, shown in the Schatzkammer in Vienna, Austria.

Collars of various devices are worn by the grand crosses of the European orders of knighthood. The custom was begun by Philip of Burgundy, who gave his knights of the Golden Fleece, badges of a golden fleece hung from a collar of flints, steels and sparks. Following this new fashion, Louis XI of France, when instituting his order of St. Michael in 1469, gave the knights collars of scallop shells linked on a chain. Neck Chain of a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Burgundian-Netherlandish), exhibited in the Schatzkammer in Vienna, Austria. ... Neck Chain of a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Burgundian-Netherlandish), exhibited in the Schatzkammer in Vienna, Austria. ... Schatzkammer in German translates as Treasury (Chamber/Vault). ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya;) Vienna is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ... There are a number of men called Philip of Burgundy: Philip of Burgundy (1323 – 1346), son of Eudes IV, Duke of Burgundy and Princess Jeanne of France. ... The Order of the Golden Fleece (Orden del Toisón de Oro in Spanish) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip III of Burgundy to celebrate his marriage to the Portuguese princess Isabelle of Aviz. ... Louis XI the Giver (French: Louis XI le Donner) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), was King of France (1461–1483). ... The Order of Saint Michael (French: LOrdre de Saint-Michel) was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis chief competitor for the allegiance... Events July 26 - Battle of Edgecote Moor October 17 - Prince Ferdinand of Aragon wed princess Isabella of Castile. ...


The chain was doubled by Charles VIII, and the pattern suffered other changes before the order lapsed in 1830. Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


Until the reign of Henry VIII, the Order of the Garter, most ancient of the great knightly orders, had no collar. But the Tudor king must needs match in all things with continental sovereigns, and the present collar of the Garter knights, with its golden knots and its buckled garters enclosing white roses set on red roses, has its origin in the Tudor age. The Garter is the most recognizable insignia of the Order of the Garter. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ...


See also

Heraldic badges were common in the Middle Ages particularly in England. ... A livery is a uniform worn by a civilian person. ... After the failure of the crusades, the crusading military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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Collar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (192 words)
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