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Encyclopedia > Liver
liver
Liver of a sheep: (1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder.
Anterior view of the position of the liver (red) in the human abdomen.
Artery hepatic artery
Vein hepatic vein, hepatic portal vein
Nerve celiac ganglia, vagus[1]
Precursor foregut
MeSH Liver

The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, and detoxification. This organ also is the largest gland in the human body. It lies below the diaphragm in the thoracic region of the abdomen. It produces bile, an alkaline compound which aids in digestion, via the emulsification of lipids. It also performs and regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions requiring very specialized tissues. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1703x1210, 291 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Liver ... Species See text. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (553x650, 118 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Liver Urinary bladder Stomach Peritoneum Cecum Small intestine Gallbladder Thoracic diaphragm Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and joins the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad. ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava (IVC), azygos vein and their tributaries. ... The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Blood proteins are proteins found in blood plasma. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ...


Medical terms related to the liver often start in hepato- or hepatic from the Greek word for liver, hēpar (ήπαρ).[2]

Contents

Anatomy

The adult human liver normally weighs between 1.4 - 1.6 kilograms (3.1 - 3.5 pounds),[3] and it is a soft, pinkish-brown "boomerang shaped" organ. It is the second largest organ (the largest organ being the skin) and the largest gland within the human body. Kg redirects here. ... This article is about the wooden implement. ... The skeleton of a Blue Whale, the largest animal on Earth. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Human submaxillary gland. ...


It is located on the right side of the upper abdomen below the diaphragm. The liver lies to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder (which stores bile). The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ...


Flow of blood

The splenic vein joins the inferior mesenteric vein, which then together join with the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein, bringing venous blood from the spleen, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, so that the liver can process the nutrients and biproducts of food digestion. The portal vein and its tributaries - the largest are the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein. ... The portal vein and its tributaries. ... The portal vein and its tributaries. ... The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The large intestine, an organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ...


The hepatic veins of the blood can be from other branches such as the superior mesenteric artery. Superior vena cava, inferior vena cava (IVC), azygos vein and their tributaries. ... In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum to the left colic flexure and the pancreas. ...


Both the portal venules & the hepatic arterioles enter approximately one million identical lobules acini, likened to and changes in the size of chylomicrons lipoproteins of dietary origin brought about by the quantity & types of food fats. A acinus (adjective: acinar, plural acini) refers to the berry-shaped termination of an exocrine gland, where the secretion is produced. ...


Approximately 60% to 80% of the blood flow to the liver is from the portal venous system, and 1/4 is from the hepatic artery.


Flow of bile

The bile produced in the liver is collected in bile canaliculi, which merge to form bile ducts. Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... Bile canaliculus (plural:Bile canaliculi) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. ...


These eventually drain into the right and left hepatic ducts, which in turn merge to form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct (from the gallbladder) joins with the common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct. The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). ... The cystic duct is the short (usually around a centimetre or so) duct that joins the gall bladder to the common bile duct. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The common hepatic duct is the duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver). ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ...


Bile can either drain directly into the duodenum via the common bile duct or be temporarily stored in the gallbladder via the cystic duct. The common bile duct and the pancreatic duct enter the duodenum together at the ampulla of Vater. In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... A duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to supply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... The Ampulla of Vater is the part of the duodenum where the common bile duct empties into the second part of the duodenum, so named because it has the appearance of an ampulla. ...


The branchings of the bile ducts resemble those of a tree, and indeed the term "biliary tree" is commonly used in this setting. A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ...

The Biliary Tree.
The Biliary Tree.

Regeneration

The liver is among the few internal < math > InsertformulahereBold text --></math>human organs capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue; as little as 25% of remaining liver can regenerate into a whole liver again. In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ...


This is predominantly due to the hepatocytes acting as unipotential stem cells (i.e. a single hepatocyte can divide into two hepatocyte daughter cells). There is also some evidence of bipotential stem cells, called ovalocyte (o´və-lo-sīt), which exist in the Canals of Hering. These cells can differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes (cells that line the bile ducts). Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... Multipotent progenitor cells can give rise to several other cell types, but those types are limited in number. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ... The Canals of Hering, or intrahepatic bile ductules, are part of the outflow system of exocrine bile product from the liver. ... Hepatocytes make up 60-80% of the cytoplasmic mass of the liver. ... Cholangiocytes are the epithelial cells of the bile duct. ... X-Ray of the bile duct during a laprascopic cholecystectomy A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ...


Traditional (Surface) anatomy

Peritoneal ligaments

Apart from a patch where it connects to the diaphragm, the liver is covered entirely by visceral peritoneum, a thin, double-layered membrane that reduces friction against other organs. The peritoneum folds back on itself to form the falciform ligament and the right and left triangular ligaments. In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... A term often used in usability enginering or user interface design Often conected with the Emotional feelings in a product signifies the WOW feeling when seeing a new product. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracal cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity) and pericardium (heart sac). ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... The falciform ligament is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform in shape, its base being directed downward and backward, its apex upward and backward. ... The right triangular ligament is situated at the right extremity of the bare area, and is a small fold which passes to the diaphragm, being formed by the apposition of the upper and lower layers of the coronary ligament. ... The left triangular ligament is a fold of some considerable size, which connects the posterior part of the upper surface of the left lobe to the diaphragm; its anterior layer is continuous with the left layer of the falciform ligament. ...


These "ligaments" are in no way related to the true anatomic ligaments in joints, and have essentially no functional importance, but they are easily recognizable surface landmarks. In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... This article is about a joint in zootomical anatomy. ...


Lobes

Traditional gross anatomy divided the liver into four lobes based on surface features. In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension[1][2] which can be determined without the use of a microscope (at the gross anatomy level. ...


The falciform ligament is visible on the front (anterior side) of the liver. This divides the liver into a left anatomical lobe, and a right anatomical lobe. The falciform ligament is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform in shape, its base being directed downward and backward, its apex upward and backward. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The left lobe is smaller and more flattened than the right. ... The right lobe is much larger than the left; the proportion between them being as six to one. ...


If the liver flipped over, to look at it from behind (the visceral surface), there are two additional lobes between the right and left. These are the caudate lobe (the more superior), and below this the quadrate lobe. A term often used in usability enginering or user interface design Often conected with the Emotional feelings in a product signifies the WOW feeling when seeing a new product. ... The caudate lobe (posterior hepatic segment I, Spigelian lobe) is situated upon the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver, opposite the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. ... The quadrate lobe is situated on the under surface of the right lobe, bounded in front by the anterior margin of the liver; behind by the porta; on the right, by the fossa for the gall-bladder; and on the left, by the fossa for the umbilical vein. ...


From behind, the lobes are divided up by the ligamentum venosum and ligamentum teres (anything left of these is the left lobe), the transverse fissure (or porta hepatis) divides the caudate from the quadrate lobe, and the right sagittal fossa, which the inferior vena cava runs over, separates these two lobes from the right lobe. The ligamentum venosum is the fibrous remnant of the ductus venosus of the fetal circulation. ... For other structures with similar name, see round ligament. ... The porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm long, extending transversely across the under surface of the left portion of the right lobe of the liver, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border. ... The porta or transverse fissure is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm. ... The caudate lobe (posterior hepatic segment I, Spigelian lobe) is situated upon the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver, opposite the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. ... The quadrate lobe is situated on the under surface of the right lobe, bounded in front by the anterior margin of the liver; behind by the porta; on the right, by the fossa for the gall-bladder; and on the left, by the fossa for the umbilical vein. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ...


Each of the lobes is made up of lobules, a vein goes from the centre of each lobule which then joins to the hepatic vein to carry blood out from the liver.


On the surface of the lobules there are ducts, veins and arteries that carry fluids to and from them.


Modern (Functional) anatomy

The central area where the common bile duct, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic artery enter the liver is the hilum or "porta hepatis". The duct, vein, and artery divide into left and right branches, and the portions of the liver supplied by these branches constitute the functional left and right lobes. Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... The portal vein is a major vein in the human body draining blood from the digestive system and its associated glands. ... The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and joins the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad. ... Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ... The porta or transverse fissure is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm. ...


The functional lobes are separated by a plane joining the gallbladder fossa to the inferior vena cava. This separates the liver into the true right and left lobes. The middle hepatic vein also demarcates the true right and left lobes. The right lobe is further divided into an anterior and posterior segment by the right hepatic vein. The left lobe is divided into the medial and lateral segments by the left hepatic vein. The fissure for the ligamentum teres (the ligamentum teres becomes the falciform ligament) also separates the medial and lateral segments. The medial segment is what used to be called the quadrate lobe. In the widely used Couinaud or "French" system, the functional lobes are further divided into a total of eight subsegments based on a transverse plane through the bifurcation of the main portal vein. The caudate lobe is a separate structure which receives blood flow from both the right- and left-sided vascular branches.[4][5] The subsegments corresponding to the anatomical lobes are as follows: In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... For the meaning of medial in anatomy, see anatomical terms of location. ... Latera is a small town and comune in the Province of Viterbo, Italy. ... For other structures with similar name, see round ligament. ... The quadrate lobe is situated on the under surface of the right lobe, bounded in front by the anterior margin of the liver; behind by the porta; on the right, by the fossa for the gall-bladder; and on the left, by the fossa for the umbilical vein. ... Claude Couinaud is a French surgeon and anatomist who made significant contributions in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. ... The caudate lobe (posterior hepatic segment I, Spigelian lobe) is situated upon the posterior surface of the right lobe of the liver, opposite the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. ...

Segment* Couinaud segments
Caudate 1
Lateral 2, 3
Medial 4a, 4b
Right 5, 6, 7, 8
  • or lobe in the Caudate's case.

Each number in the list corresponds to one in the table. Claude Couinaud is a French surgeon and anatomist who made significant contributions in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. ...

  1. Caudate
  2. Superior subsegment of the lateral segment
  3. Inferior subsegment of the lateral segment
    1. Superior subsegment of the medial segment
    2. Inferior subsegment of the medial segment
  4. Inferior subsegment of the anterior segment
  5. Inferior subsegment of the posterior segment
  6. Superior subsegment of the posterior segment
  7. Superior subsegment of the anterior segment

Physiology

The various functions of the liver are carried out by the liver cells or hepatocytes. Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patients liver. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ...

Currently, there is no artificial organ or device capable of emulating all the functions of the liver. Some functions can be emulated by liver dialysis, an experimental treatment for liver failure. Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for some carbohydrate metabolism. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Glycogen Glucose Glucose-6-phosphate Glycogenolysis is the catabolism of glycogen by removal of a glucose monomer and addition of phosphate to produce glucose-1-phosphate. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Some common lipids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... {{refimprove|date=October 2007} Ausra yra maza mergaite. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Fibrin is a protein involved in the clotting of blood. ... Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor V is a protein of the coagulation system, rarely referred to as proaccelerin or labile factor. ... Factor VII (formerly known as proconvertin) is one of the central proteins in the coagulation cascade. ... Factor IX (or Christmas factor or Christmas-Eve factor) is one of the serine proteases (EC 3. ... Factor X, also known by the eponym Stuart-Prower factor or as thrombokinase, is an enzyme ( EC 3. ... Factor XI or plasma thromboplastin antecent is one of the enzymes ( EC 3. ... Protein C is a major physiological anticoagulant. ... Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein synthesized in the liver and it functions as a cofactor to Protein C in the inactivation of Factors Va and VIIIa. ... Image:Antithrombin. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Biliverdin is a green pigment formed as a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. ... Toxic redirects here, but this is also the name of a song by Britney Spears; see Toxic (song) Look up toxic and toxicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... Toxication is the process of drug metabolism in which the metabolite of a compound is more toxic than the parent drug or chemical. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... The reticuloendothelial system (RES), part of the immune system, consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, primarily monocytes and macrophages. ... Albumin can refer to ovalbumin, the principal protein in egg white albumins, a group of proteins including serum albumin and together constituting roughly 60% of the protein in blood plasma. ... In chemistry, the osmole (Osm) is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solutions osmotic pressure. ... Liver dialysis or artificial extracorporeal liver support is a detoxification treatment for liver failure and has shown promise for patients with hepatorenal syndrome. ... Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ...


Diseases of the liver

Many diseases of the liver are accompanied by jaundice caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the system. The bilirubin results from the breakup of the hemoglobin of dead red blood cells; normally, the liver removes bilirubin from the blood and excretes it through bile. Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ...

  • Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons, autoimmunity or hereditary conditions.
  • Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can for example be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals.
  • Haemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage.
  • Cancer of the liver (primary hepatocellular carcinoma or cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic cancers, usually from other parts of the gastrointestinal tract).
  • Wilson's disease, a hereditary disease which causes the body to retain copper.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis, an inflammatory disease of the bile duct, likely autoimmune in nature.
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune disease of small bile ducts.
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome, obstruction of the hepatic vein.
  • Gilbert's syndrome, a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism, found in about 5% of the population.
  • Glycogen storage disease type II,The build-up of glycogen causes progressive muscle weakness (myopathy) throughout the body and affects various body tissues, particularly in the heart, skeletal muscles, liver and nervous system.

There are also many pediatric liver disease, including biliary atresia, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, alagille syndrome, and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, to name but a few. Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper dietary iron metabolism (making it an iron overload disorder), which causes the accumulation of iron in a number of body tissues. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer of the bile ducts, which drain bile from the liver into the small intestine. ... Gut redirects here. ... Wilsons disease or hepatolenticular degeneration is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease, with an incidence of about 1 in 30,000 in most parts of the world and a male preponderance. ... A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a form of cholangitis due to an autoimmune reaction. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In medicine (gastroenterology and hepatology), Budd-Chiari syndrome is the clinical picture caused by occlusion of the hepatic vein. ... Gilberts syndrome, often shortened to the acronym GS, is the most common hereditary cause of increased bilirubin, and is found in up to 5% of the population (though some Gastroenterologists maintain that it is closer to 10%). The main symptom is otherwise harmless jaundice which does not require treatment... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Glycogen storage disease type II (also called Pompe disease or infantile acid maltase deficiency) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency in the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is needed to break down glycogen, a stored form of sugar used for energy. ... Biliary atresia is a rare condition in newborn children in which the biliary tract between the liver and the intestine is blocked or absent. ... Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or Alpha-1) is a genetic disorder caused by reduced levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin in the blood. ... Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the liver, heart, and other systems of the body. ... Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) refers to a group of familial cholestatic conditions caused by defects in biliary epithelial transporters. ...


A number of liver function tests are available to test the proper function of the liver. These test for the presence of enzymes in blood that are normally most abundant in liver tissue, metabolites or products. Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patients liver. ...


Liver transplantation

Main article: Liver transplantation

Human liver transplant was first performed by Thomas Starzl in USA and Roy Calne in Cambridge, England in 1963 and 1965 respectively. Thomas Starzl was a pioneer in transplant surgery and has often been referred to as the modern-day father of transplantation. ... Sir Roy Calne is a fellow of the Royal Society. ...


Liver transplantation is the only option for those with irreversible liver failure. Most transplants are done for chronic liver diseases leading to cirrhosis, such as chronic hepatitis C, alcoholism, autoimmune hepatitis, and many others. Less commonly, liver transplantation is done for fulminant hepatic failure, in which liver failure occurs over days to weeks. Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Liver failure is the final stage of liver disease. ...


Liver allografts for transplant usually come from non-living donors who have died from fatal brain injury. Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed and used to replace the entire liver of the recipient. This was first performed in 1989 for pediatric liver transplantation. Only 20% of an adult's liver (Couinaud segments 2 and 3) is needed to serve as a liver allograft for an infant or small child. An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following: long-term alcohol abuse, long-term untreated Hepatitis C infection, long-term... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


More recently, adult-to-adult liver transplantation has been done using the donor's right hepatic lobe which amounts to 60% of the liver. Due to the ability of the liver to regenerate, both the donor and recipient end up with normal liver function if all goes well. This procedure is more controversial as it entails performing a much larger operation on the donor, and indeed there have been at least 2 donor deaths out of the first several hundred cases. A recent publication has addressed the problem of donor mortality, and at least 14 cases have been found.[6] The risk of postoperative complications (and death) is far greater in right sided hepatectomy than left sided operations. In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ...


With the recent advances of non-invasive imaging, living liver donors usually have to undergo imaging examinations for liver anatomy to decide if the anatomy is feasible for donation. The evaluation is usually performed by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonence imaging (MRI). MDCT is good in vascular anatomy and volumetry. MRI is used for biliary tree anatomy. Donors with very unusual vascular anatomy, which makes them impossible for donation, could be screened out to avoid unnessary operation.

Development

Fetal blood supply

In the growing fetus, a major source of blood to the liver is the umbilical vein which supplies nutrients to the growing fetus. The umbilical vein enters the abdomen at the umbilicus, and passes upward along the free margin of the falciform ligament of the liver to the inferior surface of the liver. There it joins with the left branch of the portal vein. The ductus venosus carries blood from the left portal vein to the left hepatic vein and then to the inferior vena cava, allowing placental blood to bypass the liver. Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... The falciform ligament is a broad and thin antero-posterior peritoneal fold, falciform in shape, its base being directed downward and backward, its apex upward and backward. ... In the fetus, the ductus venosus connects the left umbilical vein with the upper inferior vena cava. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ...


In the fetus, the liver develops throughout normal gestation, and does not perform the normal filtration of the infant liver. The liver does not perform digestive processes because the fetus does not consume meals directly, but receives nourishment from the mother via the placenta. The fetal liver releases some blood stem cells that migrate to the fetal thymus, so initially the lymphocytes, called T-cells, are created from fetal liver stem cells. Once the fetus is delivered, the formation of blood stem cells in infants shifts to the red bone marrow. The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... Thymus, see Thyme. ... A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell involved in the human bodys immune system. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ...


After birth, the umbilical vein and ductus venosus are completely obliterated two to five days postpartum; the former becomes the ligamentum teres and the latter becomes the ligamentum venosum. In the disease state of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, the umbilical vein can open up again. For other structures with similar name, see round ligament. ... The ligamentum venosum is the fibrous remnant of the ductus venosus of the fetal circulation. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... In medicine, portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the portal vein and its branches. ...


Liver as food

Pork liver
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 130 kcal   560 kJ
Carbohydrates     2.5 g
Fat 3.7 g
Protein 21 g
Vitamin A equiv.  6500 μg  722%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  3 mg   200%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  15 mg   100%
Vitamin B6  0.7 mg 54%
Folate (Vit. B9)  212 μg  53%
Vitamin B12  26 μg   1083%
Iron  23 mg 184%
Sodium  87 mg 6%
Beef and chicken liver are comparable.
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Mammal and bird livers are commonly eaten as food. Liver can be baked, broiled, or fried (often served as liver and onions) or eaten raw (liver sashimi), but is perhaps most commonly made into a spread (examples including liver pâté, foie gras, Braunschweiger, chopped liver, and leverpostej) or sausage (liverwurst). Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Liver and Onions is a dish that is currently more common to the southern United States than northern or coastal states. ... Assorted sashimi Sashimi (Japanese: ) is a Japanese delicacy primarily consisting of very fresh raw seafoods, thinly sliced into pieces about 2. ... Bold text--76. ... Pâté de foie gras redirects here. ... Braunschweiger (named after Braunschweig, Germany) is a type of pork liver sausage, nearly always smoked, distinguished from other liverwurst in that it is soft enough to be used as a spread (and typically is). ... Chopped liver is a spread from the Jewish cuisine. ... Leverpostej (Danish, pronounced leh-wer-po-sty), leverpostei (Norwegian), leverpastej (Swedish) or leverpastei (Dutch) is a pâté made of pork liver, which is a popular spread in northern Europe. ... Slices of Liverwurst Liverwurst, literally meaning liver sausage, is a typical sausage served in Germany (German: Leberwurst) and the Netherlands (Dutch: leverworst). ...


Animal livers are rich in iron and Vitamin A, and cod liver oil is commonly used as a dietary supplement. Very high doses of Vitamin A can be toxic; in 1913, Antarctic explorers Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were both poisoned, the latter fatally, from eating husky liver. In the US, the USDA specifies 3000 μg per day as a tolerable upper limit, which amounts to about 50 g of raw pork liver or, as reported in a non scientific source, 3 g of polar-bear liver.[7] However, acute vitamin A poisoning is not likely to result from liver consumption, since it is present in a less toxic form than in many dietary supplements.[8] Retinol, the animal form of vitamin A, is a yellow fat-soluble, antioxidant vitamin important in vision and bone growth. ... Capsules of Cod Liver Oil Cod liver oil, as its name suggests, is an oil extracted from cod livers. ... The effects of excessive vitamin A intake include: birth defects liver abnormalities, reduced bone mineral density that may result in osteoporosis coarse bone growths hair loss excessive skin dryness/peeling Signs of acute toxicity include nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of muscular coordination. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Antarctica (disambiguation). ... “Mawson” redirects here. ... Xavier Mertz (1883–1912) was a Swiss explorer, principally famous for his adventures in the Antarctic. ... Sled dogs, known also as sleigh dogs, sledge dogs or sleddogs are a group of dogs that are used to pull a wheel-less vehicle on runners (a sled or sleigh) over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines. ...


Cultural allusions

In Greek mythology, Prometheus was punished by the gods for revealing fire to humans by being chained to a rock where a vulture (or an eagle) would peck out his liver, which would regenerate overnight. Curiously, the liver is the only human internal organ that actually can regenerate itself to a significant extent; this characteristic may have already been known to the Greeks due to survived injuries in battle. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Genera Several, see text. ...


The Talmud (tractate Berakhot 61b) refers to the liver as the seat of anger, with the gallbladder counteracting this. The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... This article is about the emotion. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ...


In Arabic and Persian language, the liver is used in figurative speech to refer to courage and strong feelings, or "their best," e.g. "This Mecca has thrown to you the pieces of its liver!" [9] This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


The legend of Liver-Eating Johnson says that he would cut out and eat the liver of each man killed. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the motion picture The Message, Hind bint Utbah is implied or portrayed eating the liver of Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib during the Battle of Uhud. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Hind bint Utbah (هند بنت عتبة) was an Arabic woman who lived in the late 6th and early 7th centuries CE; she was the wife of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, a powerful man of Mecca, in western Arabia. ... Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (Arabic: حمزه بن عبدالمطلب) was the uncle of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad. ... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the...


Inuit will not eat the liver of polar bears (due to the fact a polar bear's liver contains so much Vitamin A as to be poisonous to humans) or seals [10] For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ...


Further reading

The following are standard medical textbooks:
  • Eugene R. Schiff, Michael F. Sorrell, Willis C. Maddrey, eds. Schiff's diseases of the liver, 9th ed. Philadelphia : Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2003. ISBN 0-7817-3007-4
  • Sheila Sherlock, James Dooley. Diseases of the liver and biliary system, 11th ed. Oxford, UK ; Malden, MA : Blackwell Science. 2002. ISBN 0-632-05582-0
  • David Zakim, Thomas D. Boyer. eds. Hepatology: a textbook of liver disease, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders. 2003. ISBN 0-7216-9051-3
These are for the lay reader or patient:
  • Sanjiv Chopra. The Liver Book: A Comprehensive Guide to Diagnosis, Treatment, and Recovery, Atria, 2002, ISBN 0-7434-0585-4
  • Melissa Palmer. Dr. Melissa Palmer's Guide to Hepatitis and Liver Disease: What You Need to Know, Avery Publishing Group; Revised edition May 24, 2004, ISBN 1-58333-188-3. her webpage.
  • Howard J. Worman. The Liver Disorders Sourcebook, McGraw-Hill, 1999, ISBN 0-7373-0090-6. his Columbia University web site, "Diseases of the liver"

See also

Look up liver in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), which include liver enzymes, are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give information about the state of a patients liver. ... Sinusoid of a rat liver with fenestrated endothelial cells. ... Bile canaliculus (plural:bile canaliculi; also called bile capillaries) is a thin tube that collects bile secreted by hepatocytes. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ...

References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30
  2. ^ The Greek word "ήπαρ" was derived from hēpaomai (ηπάομαι): to mend, to repair, hence hēpar actually means "repairable", indicating that this organ can regenerate itself spontaneously in the case of lesion.
  3. ^ Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, 7th Edition, p. 878
  4. ^ Three-dimensional Anatomy of the Couinaud Liver Segments - University of Iowa
  5. ^ Limitations and Pitfalls of Couinaud`s Segmentation of the Liver in Transaxial Imaging - Prof. Dr. Holger Strunk
  6. ^ Bramstedt K (2006). "Living liver donor mortality: where do we stand?". Am J Gastroenterol 101 (4): 755-9. PMID 16494593. 
  7. ^ A. Aggrawal, Death by Vitamin A
  8. ^ Myhre et al., "Water-miscible, emulsified, and solid forms of retinol supplements are more toxic than oil-based preparations", Am. J. Clinical Nutrition, 78, 1152 (2003)
  9. ^ THE GREAT BATTLE OF BADAR (Yaum-e-Furqan)
  10. ^ Man's best friend? - Student BMJ

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ...

Additional images

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Liver
A duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to supply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. ... The pancreatic duct, or Duct of Wirsung, is a duct joining the pancreas to the bile duct to apply pancreatic juice which aid in digestion provided by the exocrine pancreas. Most people have one pancreatic duct, which joins the biliary tract just prior to the ampulla of Vater. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ... The hepatopancreatic ampulla, also commonly called the Ampulla of Vater, is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the bile duct. ... The Sphincter of tOddi, also called the hepatopancreatic sphincter or Glissons sphincter, controls secretions from the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder into the duodenum of the small intestine. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liver Degenerative Disease: Online Reference For Health Concerns (2709 words)
The causes of liver damage are numerous and may include congenital defects (malformed or absent bile ducts); obstructed bile ducts (cholestasis); autoimmune disorders; metabolic disorders (hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease); tumors; toxins (drugs, overdoses, poisons); alcohol-related conditions (cirrhosis); bacterial and parasitic infections; and viral infections (hepatitis B and C).
Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder characterized by the liver's inability to metabolize copper, resulting in the accumulation of excessive amounts of copper in the brain, liver, kidney, cornea, and other tissues.
Most liver transplants in the United States are a result of hepatitis C. Hepatitis C has a frightening tendency to result in chronic hepatitis, resulting in cirrhosis (15-20% of those infected) or hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer) (Ou 2002).
Liver - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2016 words)
The liver is among the few internal human organs capable of natural regeneration of lost tissue; as little as 25% of remaining liver can regenerate into a whole liver again.
Living donor liver transplantation is a technique in which a portion of a living person's liver is removed and used to replace the entire liver of the recipient.
The umbilical vein enters the abdomen at the umbilicus, and passes upward along the free margin of the falciform ligament of the liver to the inferior surface of the liver.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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