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Encyclopedia > Little Rock Nine
Bottom row, left to right: Thelma Mothershed, Minnijean Brown, Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Ray; Top row, left to right: Jefferson Thomas, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Carlotta Walls, Daisy Bates (NAACP President), Ernest Green

The Little Rock Nine was a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of President Dwight Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.[1] Little Rock Nine from Library of Congress But why are there ten people in this picture? File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Little Rock Nine from Library of Congress But why are there ten people in this picture? File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Little Rock redirects here. ... Little Rock Central High School is a secondary school in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ...

Contents

History

Brown v. Board of Education

The U.S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483, on May 17, 1954. The decision declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional, and it called for the desegregation of all schools throughout the nation.[2] After the decision the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) attempted to register black students in previously all-white schools in cities throughout the South. In Little Rock, the capital city of Arkansas, the Little Rock School Board agreed to comply with the high court's ruling. Virgil Blossom, the Superintendent of Schools, submitted a plan of gradual integration to the school board on May 24, 1955, which the board unanimously approved. The plan would be implemented during the 1958 school year, which would begin in September 1957. By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High, selected on the criteria of excellent grades and attendance.[3] The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Historic Southern United States. ... There is also a Littlerock, California. ... The Little Rock School District is a school district in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


The entrance blocked

Several segregationist "citizens' councils" threatened to hold protests at Central High and physically block the black students from entering the school. Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to support the segregationists on September 4, 1957. The sight of a line of soldiers blocking nine black students from attending high school made national headlines and polarized the city. On September 9, "The Council of Church Women" issued a statement condemning the governor's deployment of soldiers to the high school and called for a citywide prayer service on September 12. Even President Dwight Eisenhower attempted to de-escalate the situation and summoned Governor Faubus to meet him. The President warned the governor not to interfere with the Supreme Court's ruling.[4] Orval Eugene Faubus (7 January 1910 – 14 December 1994) was a six-term Democratic Governor of Arkansas, having served from 1955-1967. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Federal intervention

Attorneys from the U.S. Justice Department requested an injunction against the governor's deployment of the National Guard from the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas in Little Rock. Judge Ronald Davies granted the injunction and ordered the governor to withdraw the National Guard on September 20.[5] Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas is further subdivided into six divisions, which collectively cover 41 Arkansas counties. ... Ronald Davies was a graduate of the University of North Dakota (UND) and a federal judge. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Members of the 101st US-Airborne Division escorting the Little Rock Nine to school

The governor backed down and withdrew the National Guard, and the Little Rock Police Department took their place. Hundreds of protesters, mostly parents of the white students attending Central High, remained entrenched in front of the school. On Monday, September 23, the police quietly slipped the nine students into the school. When the protesters learned that the nine black students were inside, they began confronting the outnumbered line of policemen. When white residents began to riot[6], the nine students were escorted out of the school.[7] Image File history File links Little_Rock_Nine_Escorting. ... Image File history File links Little_Rock_Nine_Escorting. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Armed escort

The next day, Woodrow Mann, the Mayor of Little Rock, asked President Eisenhower to send federal troops to enforce integration and protect the nine students. On September 24, the President ordered the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army to Little Rock and federalized the entire 10,000 member Arkansas National Guard, taking it out of the hands of Governor Faubus. The 101st took positions immediately, and the nine students successfully entered the school on the next day, Wednesday, September 25, 1957. is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


An ad hoc unit, Task Force 153rd Infantry, was hastily organized at Camp Robinson from guardsmen drawn from units statewide. The bulk of the Arkansas Guard was quickly discharged from federalized status, but Task Force 153rd Infantry remained, taking over the entire operation when the paratroopers left at Thanksgiving, and remaining on duty until the end of the school year. For the Canadian holiday, see Thanksgiving (Canada). ...


A tense year

By the end of September 1957, the nine were admitted to Little Rock Central High under the protection of the U.S. Army (and later the Arkansas National Guard), but they were still subjected to a year of physical and verbal abuse (spitting on them, calling them names) by many of the white students. Melba Pattillo had acid thrown into her eyes.[8] Another one of the students, Minnijean Brown, was verbally confronted by a group of white, male students in December 1957 in the school cafeteria during lunch. She dumped her lunch, a bowl of chili, on the students, and was suspended as a result; she later transferred to New Lincoln High School in New York City.[3] Melba Pattillo Beals (Born December 7, 1941) is a journalist and member of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who were the first to integrate Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... Minnijean Brown-Trickey (born 1941)[1] was one of a group of African-American teenagers known as the Little Rock Nine. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


1958-1959

The citizens' council continued to protest and pressured the Little Rock School Board into reversing its decision to desegregate the public schools. In August 1958, with support from Governor Faubus and the Arkansas State Legislature, the school board canceled the entire 1958-59 school year for its three high schools rather than integrate them. Thousands of high school students left the city to attend high schools in other school districts, or enrolled in all-white private schools. One year later, additional federal court rulings and the Little Rock Chamber of Commerce pressured the school board into reopening the school system. By the fall of 1959, Little Rock public schools had reopened as an integrated school system.[3] The Arkansas General Assembly is the legislative branch of the Arkansas government. ...


Names

The Little Rock Nine were:

Green, a senior, became the first African-American to graduate from Central High. Ernest G. Green (born September 22, 1941) was one of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who, in 1957, were the first black students ever to attend classes at Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.A.. Green, the eldest of the... Elizabeth Eckford is depicted in this photograph taken by Will Counts in 1957. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Terrence Roberts (born 1941 in Little Rock, Arkansas) gained national prominence as one of the Little Rock Nine. ... Carlotta Walls Lanier was the youngest member of the Little Rock Nine the nine African American students who integrated Little Rock Central High School in 1957. ... Minnijean Brown-Trickey (born 1941)[1] was one of a group of African-American teenagers known as the Little Rock Nine. ... Gloria Ray Karlmark was born in 1942 and she was one of the Little Rock Nine. ... Thelma Mothershead-Wair is part of the Little Rock Nine. ... Melba Pattillo Beals (Born December 7, 1941) is a journalist and member of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who were the first to integrate Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas. ... Twelfth grade (called Grade 12 in some regions, also known as senior year in the U.S.) is the final year of secondary education in the United States and many other nations. ...


Analysis

Governor Faubus

The Little Rock Nine depicted in Testament, a 2005 sculpture by John and Cathy Deering, on the grounds of the Arkansas State Capitol[9]

Governor Faubus's opposition to desegregation may have been politically and racially motivated.[10] Faubus had indicated that he would consider bringing Arkansas into compliance with the high court's decision in 1956. However, desegregation was opposed by his own southern conservative Democratic Party, which dominated all Southern politics at the time. Faubus, a conservative, risked losing political support in the upcoming 1958 gubernatorial primary if he showed support for integration. Image File history File links Little_Rock_Nine_thedance. ... Image File history File links Little_Rock_Nine_thedance. ... The Capitol Building The Arkansas State Capitol Building, located in Little Rock, is the seat of government of the state of Arkansas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Most histories of the crisis conclude that Faubus, facing pressure as he campaigned for a third term, decided to appease racist elements in the state by calling out the National Guard to prevent the black students from entering Central High.


Harry Ashmore, the editor of the Arkansas Gazette, won a 1958 Pulitzer Prize for his editorials on the crisis. Ashmore portrayed the fight over Central High as a crisis manufactured by Faubus; in his interpretation, Faubus used the Arkansas National Guard to keep black children out of Central High School because he was frustrated by the success his political opponents were having in using segregationist rhetoric to stir white voters. Harry Scott Ashmore (1916-1998) was an American journalist who won a Pulitzer Prize for his editorials in 1957 on the school integration conflict in Little Rock, Arkansas. ...


Congressman Brooks Hays, who tried to mediate between the federal government and Faubus, was later defeated by a last minute write-in candidate, Dale Alford, a member of the Little Rock School Board who had the backing of Faubus's allies. A few years later, despite the incident with the "Little Rock Nine", Faubus ran as a moderate segregationist against Dale Alford, who was challenging Faubus for the Democratic nomination for governor in 1962. Brooks Lawrence Hays (9 August 1898_11 October 1981) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of Arkansas. ... Thomas Dale Alford, (28 January 1916 - 25 January 2000) was an American ophthalmologist and politician from the State of Arkansas who served as a conservative Democrat in the United States House of Representatives from Little Rock from 1959-1963. ...


Eisenhower's deployment of federal troops was charactered by some white southerners as a "second invasion", in reference to the Civil War and Reconstruction. This accusation was repeated in other federal interventions, such as the U.S. Marshals who escorted James Meredith to University of Mississippi in 1962. As such, segregationists were just as hostile and confrontational with the "invaders" as they were to the black students. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... “U.S. Marshals” redirects here. ... Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ...


Legacy

During their ordeal, the Little Rock Nine were advised by Little Rock journalist and activist Daisy Bates. Bates and the Little Rock Nine received the Spingarn Medal in 1958. The Little Rock Nine were awarded the Congressional Gold Medal on November 9, 1999. For other people with this name, see Daisy Bates. ... The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a Black American. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


Little Rock Central High School still functions as part of the Little Rock School District, and is now a National Historic Site that houses a Civil Rights Museum, administered in partnership with the National Park Service, to commemorate the events of 1957.[11] Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


In 1981, the TV movie Crisis at Central High dramatized the events of the crisis. Crisis at Central High was a 1981 made-for-television movie about the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957, based on a draft of the memoir by the same name by former assistant principal Elizabeth Huckaby. ...


In 1996, seven of the Little Rock Nine appeared on the Oprah Winfrey Show. They came face to face with a few of the white students who had tormented them as well as one student who had befriended them. Oprah Winfrey during her car giveaway to the entire audience. ...


In 2007, the United States Mint made available a commemorative silver dollar to "recognize and pay tribute to the strength, the determination and the courage displayed by African-American high school students in the fall of 1957." The obverse depicts students accompanied by a soldier, with nine stars symbolizing the Little Rock Nine. The reverse depicts an image of Little Rock Central High School, circa 1957. Proceeds from the coin sales are to be used to improve the National Historic Site.[12] Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ... Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. ...


See also

Holding The states are bound by the Courts decisions, and cannot choose to ignore them. ... Crisis at Central High was a 1981 made-for-television movie about the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957, based on a draft of the memoir by the same name by former assistant principal Elizabeth Huckaby. ... The McDonogh Three were three young African American girls who integrated McDonogh No. ... Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... James Hood was one of the first two African Americans to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963 and was made famous when Alabama Governor George Wallace tried to block them from entering, triggering a showdown with federal troops. ... Vivian Malone Jones (born Vivian Juanita Malone on July 15, 1942, in Mobile, Alabama) was an African-American woman, one of the first two African-Americans to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963 and was made famous when Alabama Governor George Wallace tried to block them from entering... Lee Lorch (born 1915) is a mathematician and was an early civil rights activist. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Little Rock Nine ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  2. ^ Warren, Earl, Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Cornell Law School. Brown v. Topeka Board of Education.
  3. ^ a b c Craig Rains. Little Rock Central High 40th Anniversity.
  4. ^ "Retreat from Newport," Time. Monday, 23 September 1957.
  5. ^ "Case No. 3113," Time. Monday, 30 September 1957.
  6. ^ Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience Page 573
  7. ^ Front pages of the Arkansas Democrat and Arkansas Gazette. Little Rock 1957.
  8. ^ Melba Pattillo Beals. Teachers' Domain. WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.
  9. ^ "Secretary of State Hosts Little Rock Nine Civil Rights Monument Unveiling at the Arkansas State Capitol". Arkansas Secretary of State. Press Release. 26 August 2005. URL retrieved 4 April 2007.
  10. ^ Bentley 2007
  11. ^ United States National Park Service, Little Rock Central High School, National Historic Site.
  12. ^ Little Rock Central High School Desegregation Silver Dollar Program. United States Mint. Retrieved on 2007-05-19.

For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • [1] "Through a Lens, Darkly," by David Margolick. Vanity Fair, Sept. 24, 2007.
  • The Tiger, Student Paper of Little Rock Central High.
  • "Civil Rights", Kids Discover, Volume 16, Issue 1, ISSN 1054-2868, January 2006.
  • Beals, Melba Pattillo. Warriors Don't Cry: A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little Rock's Central High. (ISBN 0-671-86638-9)
  • Branton, Wiley A. "Little Rock Revisited: Desegregation to Resegregation." Journal of Negro Education 1983 52(3): 250-269. Issn: 0022-2984 Fulltext in Jstor
  • Faubus, Orval Eugene. Down from the Hills. Little Rock: Democrat Printing & Lithographing, 1980. 510 pp. autobiography.
  • Elizabeth Jacoway. Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, the Crisis That Shocked the Nation (2007).
  • Kirk, John A, Redefining the Color Line: Black Activism in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1940-1970 (University of Florida Press, 2002).
  • Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997).

American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ...

External links


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