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Encyclopedia > Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. Climatologists and historians find it difficult to agree on either the start or end dates of this period. Some confine the Little Ice Age to approximately the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. It is generally agreed that there were three minima, beginning about 1650, about 1770, and 1850, each separated by slight warming intervals. [1] The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum was an unusually warm period in history lasting from about the 10th century to about the 14th century. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A graph illustrating local min/max and global min/max points In mathematics, maxima and minima, also known as extrema, are points in the domain of a function at which the function takes the largest (maximum), or smallest (minimum) value either within a given neighbourhood (local extrema), or on the... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Battle of Chesma, by Ivan Aivazovsky. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

The reconstructed depth of the Little Ice Age varies between different studies.

It was initially believed that the LIA was a global phenomenon; it is now less clear if this is true. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), based on Bradley and Jones, 1993; Hughes and Diaz, 1994; Crowley and Lowery, 2000 describes the LIA as "a modest cooling of the Northern Hemisphere during this period of less than 1°C," and says, "current evidence does not support globally synchronous periods of anomalous cold or warmth over this timeframe, and the conventional terms of 'Little Ice Age' and Medieval Warm Period appear to have limited utility in describing trends in hemispheric or global mean temperature changes in past centuries."[2] There is evidence, however, that the Little Ice Age did affect the Southern Hemisphere. Image File history File links 2000_Year_Temperature_Comparison. ... Image File history File links 2000_Year_Temperature_Comparison. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ...

Contents

Dating of the Little Ice Age

There is no agreed beginning year to the Little Ice Age, although there is a frequently referenced series of events preceding the known climatic minima. Starting in the 13th century, pack ice began advancing southwards in the North Atlantic, as did glaciers in Greenland. The three years of torrential rains beginning in 1315 ushered in an era of unpredictable weather in Northern Europe which did not lift until the 19th century. There is anecdotal evidence of expanding glaciers almost worldwide. In contrast a climate reconstruction based on glacial length [3] shows no great variation from 1600 to 1850, though it shows strong retreat thereafter. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


For this reason, any of several dates ranging over 400 years may indicate the beginning of the Little Ice Age:

  • 1250 for when Atlantic pack ice began to grow
  • 1300 for when warm summers stopped being dependable in Northern Europe
  • 1315 for the rains and Great Famine of 1315-1317
  • 1550 for theorized beginning of worldwide glacial expansion
  • 1650 for the first climatic minimum

In contrast to its uncertain beginning, there is a consensus that the Little Ice Age ended in the mid-19th century. An icebreaker navigates some through young (1 year) sea ice Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... The Great Famine of 1315-1317 (or to 1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity...


Northern Hemisphere

The Little Ice Age brought bitterly cold winters to many parts of the world, but is most thoroughly documented in Europe and North America. In the mid-17th century, glaciers in the Swiss Alps advanced, gradually engulfing farms and crushing entire villages. The River Thames and the canals and rivers of the Netherlands often froze over during the winter, and people skated and even held frost fairs on the ice. The first Thames freeze was in 1607; the last in 1814, although changes to the bridges and the addition of an embankment affected the river flow and depth, hence the possibility of freezes. The freeze of the Golden Horn and the southern section of the Bosphorus took place in 1622. The winter of 1794/95 was particularly harsh when the French invasion army under Pichegru could march on the frozen rivers of the Netherlands, whilst the Dutch fleet was fixed in the ice in Den Helder harbour. In the winter of 1780, New York Harbor froze, allowing people to walk from Manhattan to Staten Island. Sea ice surrounding Iceland extended for miles in every direction, closing that island's harbors to shipping. World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Swiss Alps are the central portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland. ... The Thames is a river flowing through southern England, and one of the major waterways in England. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are artificial channels for water. ... The Frost Fair of 1814 by Luke Clenell. ... Victoria Embankment, London The Victoria Embankment, previously the Thames Embankment is a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London in the cities of Westminster and London. ... View of Golden Horn from Eyup Sultan Cemetery The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Charles Pichegru (February 16, 1761 - April 15, 1804), French general, was born at Arbois, or, according to Charles Nodier, at Les Planches, near Lons-le-Saulnier. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... Manhattan is a borough of New York City, New York, USA, coterminous with New York County. ... For other uses, see Staten Island (disambiguation) Staten Island, shown in an enhanced satellite image Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located on an island of the same name on the west side of the Narrows at the entrance of New York Harbor. ...


The severe winters affected human life in ways large and small. The population of Iceland fell by half, but this was perhaps also due to fluorosis caused by the eruption of the volcano Laki in 1783 [2]. The Viking colonies in Greenland, however, clearly died out (in the 1400s) because they could no longer grow enough food there. In North America, American Indians formed leagues in response to food shortages [4]. The word Fluorosis can refer to: Skeletal fluorosis Dental fluorosis This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The name Laki has more than one meaning:- A town called Laki in Plovdiv district in Bulgaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


"In many years, snowfall was much heavier than recorded before or since, and the snow lay on the ground for many months longer than it does today [3]." Many springs and summers were outstandingly cold and wet, although there was great variability between years and groups of years. Crop practices throughout Europe had to be altered to adapt to the shortened, less reliable growing season, and there were many years of death and famine (such as the Great Famine of 1315-1317, although this may have been before the LIA proper). Viticulture entirely disappeared from some northern regions. Violent storms caused massive flooding and loss of life. Some of these resulted in permanent losses of large tracts of land from the Danish, German, and Dutch coasts [4]. The Great Famine of 1315-1317 (or to 1322) was the first of a series of large-scale crises that struck Europe early in the 14th century, causing millions of deaths over an extended number of years and marking a clear end to an earlier period of growth and prosperity... wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine. ...


The extent of mountain glaciers had been mapped by the late 1800s. In both the north and the south temperate zones of our planet, snowlines (the boundaries separating zones of net accumulation from those of net ablation) were about 100 m lower than they were in 1975 [5]. In Glacier National Park, the last episode of glacier advance came in the late 18th and early 19th century [6]. In Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, large temperature excursions during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (~800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [7]. Glacial and Glaciation redirect here. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... There is also a non-adjoining national park in Canada by the same name. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... A simplified summary of the path of the Thermohaline Circulation. ...


In Ethiopia and Mauritania, permanent snow was reported on mountain peaks at levels where it does not occur today. Timbuktu, an important city on the trans-Saharan caravan route, was flooded at least 13 times by the Niger River; there are no records of similar flooding before or since. In China, warm weather crops, such as oranges, were abandoned in Jiangxi Province, where they had been grown for centuries. In North America, the early European settlers also reported exceptionally severe winters. For example, in 1607-1608 ice persisted on Lake Superior until June [8]. Timbuktu (Archaic English: Timbuctoo; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu; French: Tombouctou) is a city in Tombouctou Region, Mali. ... Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending over 2500 miles (about 4180 km). ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; pinyin: Jiāngxī; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Year 1607 (MDCVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events March 18 - Sissinios formally crowned Emperor of Ethiopia May 14 - Protestant Union founded in Auhausen. ... Lake Superior, bounded by Ontario, Canada and Minnesota, USA, to the north and Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, to the south, is the largest of North Americas Great Lakes. ...


Antonio Stradivari, the famous violin maker, produced his instruments during the LIA. It has been proposed that the colder climate caused the wood used in his violins to be denser than in warmer periods, contributing to the superb tone of Stradivari's instruments[9]. Antonio Stradivari examining an instrument, in a Romantic 19th-century print. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ...


The Little Ice Age (Basic Books, 2000), by anthropology professor Brian Fagan of the University of California at Santa Barbara, tells of the plight of European peasants during the 1300 to 1850 chill: famines, hypothermia, bread riots, and the rise of despotic leaders brutalizing an increasingly dispirited peasantry. In the late 17th century, writes Fagan, agriculture had dropped off so dramatically that “Alpine villagers lived on bread made from ground nutshells mixed with barley and oat flour.” Finland lost perhaps a third of its population to starvation and disease.


Life was particularly difficult for those who lived under the constant threat of advancing glaciers in the French Alps. One, the Des Bois glacier on the slopes of Mont Blanc, was said to have moved forward “over a musket shot each day, even in the month of August.” When the Des Bois threatened to dam up the Arve river in 1644, residents of the town of Chamonix begged the bishop of Geneva to petition God for help. In early June, the bishop, with 300 villagers gathered around him, blessed the threatening glacier and another near the village of Argentiere. For a while, salvation seemed at hand. The glaciers retreated for about 20 years, until 1663. But they had left the land so barren that new crops would not grow. The Arve (right) meets the Rhône in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


Depictions of winter in European painting

February, from the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, ca.1410

Burroughs (Weather, 1981) analyses the depiction of winter in paintings. He notes that this occurred almost entirely from 1565 to 1665, and was associated with the climatic decline from 1550 onwards. He claims (quite wrongly [5]) that before this there were almost no depictions of winter in art, and hypothesises that the unusually harsh winter of 1565 inspired great artists to depict highly original images, and the decline in such paintings was a combination of the "theme" having been fully explored, and mild winters interrupting the flow of painting. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1141x1899, 438 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Février the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1141x1899, 438 KB) Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Février the Musée Condé, Chantilly. ... An illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (or simply the Très Riches Heures) is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, le roi des...


The famous winter paintings by Pieter Brueghel the Elder (e.g. Hunters in the Snow) all appear to have been painted in 1565. Snow also dominates many village-scapes by the Pieter Brueghel the Younger, who lived from 1564 to 1638. Burroughs states that Pieter Brueghel the Younger "slavishly copied his father's designs. The derivative nature of so much of this work makes it difficult to draw any definite conclusions about the influence of the winters between 1570 and 1600...". Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Download high resolution version (1400x1000, 207 KB)Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ... Anthony van Dyck: Portrait of Pieter Brueghel the Younger Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564/65-1636) was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Brueghel the Elders paintings and nicknamed Hell Brueghel for his fantastic treatments of fire and grotesque imagery. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... Anthony van Dyck: Portrait of Pieter Brueghel the Younger Pieter Brueghel the Younger (1564/65-1636) was a Flemish painter, known for numerous copies after his father Pieter Brueghel the Elders paintings and nicknamed Hell Brueghel for his fantastic treatments of fire and grotesque imagery. ...


Dutch painting of the theme appears to begin with Avercamp after the winter of 1608. There is then an interruption of the theme between 1627 and 1640, with a sudden return thereafter; this hints at a milder interlude in the 1630s. The 1640s to the 1660s cover the major period of Dutch winter painting, which fits with the known proportion of cold winters then. The final decline in winter painting, around 1660, does not coincide with an amelioration of the climate; Burroughs therefore cautions against trying to read too much into artistic output, since fashion plays a part. He notes that winter painting recurs around the 1780s and 1810s, which again marked a colder period. Great Migration (Puritan) Thirty Years War in full swing in Europe 1632 - Just a couple of months before his death in battle, Swedish king Gustav II Adolf The Great ratifies the establishment of University of Tartu, the second university in the Swedish Empire September 8, 1636 - A vote of the... Events and Trends The personal union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal ends due to a revolution in the latter (1640). ... Events and Trends Samuel Pepys begins his famous diary in 1660 and ends it, due to failing eyesight in 1669. ... Nothing much really happened in the 1780s only that Mary-Anne Tobin was hung in public for wearing a flase beard and voting. ... Events and Trends End of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe (1803 - 1815). ...


Southern Hemisphere

An ocean sediment core from the eastern Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula shows centennial events that the authors link to the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period [10]. The authors note "other unexplained climatic events comparable in duration and amplitude to the LIA and MWP events also appear." The LIA is easily distinguished in the Quelccaya Ice Cap (Peruvian Andes, South America) [11] Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ... The Quelccaya Ice Cap is the largest glaciated area in the tropics. ...


The Siple Dome (SD) has a climate event with an onset time that is coincident with that of the LIA in the North Atlantic based on a correlation with the GISP2 record. This event is the most dramatic climate event seen in the SD Holocene glaciochemical record [12]. The Siple Dome ice core also contained its highest rate of melt layers (up to 8%) between 1550 and 1700, most likely due to warm summers during the LIA. [13]


Law Dome ice cores show lower levels of CO2 mixing ratios during 1550-1800 AD, probably as a result of colder global climate [14]. Law Dome () is a large ice dome which rises to 1,395 m directly south of Cape Poinsett. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


Sediment cores (Gebra-1 and Gebra-2) in Bransfield Basin, Antarctic Peninsula, have neoglacial indicators by diatom and sea-ice taxa variations during the period of the LIA [15].


In 1836, snow fell in the city centre of Sydney, Australia, the only time since European settlement in 1788 that this has occurred. This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ...


Tropical Pacific coral records indicate the most frequent, intense El Niño-Southern Oscillation activity occurred in the mid-17th century, during the Little Ice Age [16]. Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. ...


Climate patterns

In the North Atlantic, sediments accumulated since the end of the last ice age nearly 12,000 years ago show regular increases in the amount of coarse sediment grains deposited from icebergs melting in the now open ocean, indicating a series of 1-2°C (2-4°F) cooling events recurring every 1,500 years or so. The most recent of these cooling events was the Little Ice Age. These same cooling events are detected in sediments accumulating off Africa, but the cooling events appear to be larger, ranging between 3-8°C (6-14°F) [17]. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Causes

Scientists have identified two causes of the Little Ice Age from outside the ocean/atmosphere/land systems: decreased solar activity and increased volcanic activity. Research is ongoing on more ambiguous influences such as internal variability of the climate system, and anthropogenic influence (Ruddiman). Ruddiman has speculated that depopulation of Europe during the Black Death, with the resulting decrease in agricultural output and reforestation taking up more carbon from the atmosphere, may have prolonged the Little Ice Age [18]. 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ...


One of the difficulties in identifying the causes of the Little Ice Age is the lack of consensus on what constitutes "normal" climate. While some scholars regard the LIA as an unusual period caused by a combination of global and regional changes, other scientists see glaciation as the norm for the Earth and the Medieval Warm Period (as well as the Holocene interglacial period) as the anomalies requiring explanation (Fagan). The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC). ...


Solar activity

Solar activity events recorded in radiocarbon.
Solar activity events recorded in radiocarbon.

During the period 16451715, in the middle of the Little Ice Age, there was a period of low solar activity known as the Maunder Minimum. The physical link between low sunspot activity and cooling temperatures has not been established, but the coincidence of the Maunder Minimum with the deepest trough of the Little Ice Age is suggestive of such a connection [19]. The Spörer Minimum has also been identified with a significant cooling period near the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Other indicators of low solar activity during this period are levels of the isotopes carbon-14 and beryllium-10 [20]. Download high resolution version (1002x317, 24 KB)Carbon-14 record for last 1,100 years (inverted scale). ... Download high resolution version (1002x317, 24 KB)Carbon-14 record for last 1,100 years (inverted scale). ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Year 1715 (MDCCXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Maunder minimum in a 400 year history of sunspot numbers The Maunder Minimum is the name given to the period roughly from 1645 to 1715 A.D., when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time. ... The Spörer Minimum was a period of low solar activity which lasted from about 1420 to 1570 (some say 1450 to 1550). ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ...


Volcanic activity

Throughout the Little Ice Age, the world also experienced heightened volcanic activity.[21] When a volcano erupts, its ash reaches high into the atmosphere and can spread to cover the whole earth. This ash cloud blocks out some of the incoming solar radiation, leading to worldwide cooling that can last up to two years after an eruption. Also emitted by eruptions is sulfur in the form of SO2 gas. When this gas reaches the stratosphere, it turns into sulfuric acid particles, which reflect the sun's rays, further reducing the amount of radiation reaching the earth's surface. The 1815 eruption of Tambora in Indonesia blanketed the atmosphere with ash; the following year, 1816, came to be known as the Year Without A Summer, when frost and snow were reported in June and July in both New England and Northern Europe. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Development of global average temperatures during the last 1000 years. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


End of Little Ice Age

Beginning around 1850, the climate began warming and the Little Ice Age ended. Some global warming critics believe that the Earth's climate is still recovering from the Little Ice Age and that human activity is not the decisive factor in present temperature trends,[6][7] but this idea is not widely accepted. Instead, mainstream scientific opinion on climate change is that warming over the last 50 years is caused primarily by the increased proportion of CO2 in the atmosphere caused by human activity. There is less agreement over the warming from 1850 to 1950. For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ... Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for relatively recent changes observed in the Earths climate. ...


See also

Three temperature records, the GRIP one clearly showing the Younger Dryas event at around 11 kyr BP The Younger Dryas stadial, named after the alpine / tundra wildflower Dryas octopetala, and also referred to as the Big Freeze [1], was a brief (approximately 1300 ± 70 years [1]) cold climate period following... The 8. ... Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park (US) showing recession since 1850 of 1. ... Global cooling in general can refer to a cooling of the Earth; more specifically, it is a theory positing an overall cooling of the Earths surface and atmosphere along with a posited commencement of glaciation. ... Brian Murray Fagan is an author of popular archaeology books as well as being emeritus professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA. The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeologists in Egypt. ...

References

  1. ^ Little Ice Age defination. Earth Observatory. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  2. ^ Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. UNEP/GRID-Arendal. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  3. ^ Worldwide glacier retreat. RealClimate. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  4. ^ SVS Science Story: Ice Age. NASA Scientific Visualization Studion. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  5. ^ Winter scenes were a staple of Labours of the Months cycles, and there are many famous ones of harsh conditions, notably that of the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry of ca.1410 [1]. It is true that there are few before the 14th century.
  6. ^ http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/mostread/s_492572.html
  7. ^ http://www.canada.com/nationalpost/news/story.html?id=94b7d021-c5da-4e82-b37f-53d338709fb1
  • Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300-1850 Basic Books, December 24, 2001. ISBN 0-465-02272-3

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Labours of the Months refers to cycles seen in Medieval and early Renaissance art depicting in twelve scenes the rural activities that commonly took place in the months of the year. ... An illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (or simply the Très Riches Heures) is probably the most important illuminated manuscript of the 15th century, le roi des...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Abrupt Climate Change Information from the Ocean & Climate Change Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
  • The Next Ice Age (discussion of Woods Hole research)
  • Little Ice Age a global event and Annotated Bibliography
  • IPCC on Was there a Little Ice Age and a Medieval Warm Period?
  • Huascaran (Peru) Ice Core Data from the NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program
  • Abrupt Decrease in Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Salinity at End of Little Ice Age ("indicates that sea surface temperature and salinity were higher in the 18th century than in the 20th century")
  • Dansgaard cycles and the Little Ice Age (LIA) (it is not easy to see a LIA in the graphs)
  • The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warming in South Africa
  • Was El Niño unaffected by the Little Ice Age?
  • Evidence for the Little Ice Age in Spain
  • On LIA
  • Dutch Cloud an Landscape Painting in the LIA

  Results from FactBites:
 
Little Ice Age - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2436 words)
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum.
Some confine the Little Ice Age to 1550-1850, lasting approximately from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries while others prefer a span from the 13th to 17th centuries.
The Little Ice Age can be seen in the art of the time; for example, snow dominates many village-scapes by the Flemish painter Pieter Brueghel the Younger, who lived from 1564 to 1638.
ES 331/767 Lecture 19 (2210 words)
Cold climate and glacier expansion during the Little Ice Age are documented from all continents (except Antarctica) and on major islands from New Zealand to Svalbard (Grove 1988).
The Little Ice Age was a time of exceptional poverty, misery and suffering in Iceland, as a result of severe winters, major volcanic eruptions, and oppressive Danish colonial rule.
The end of the Little Ice Age occurred earliest--mid-1800s--for interior mountains of northern mid-latitudes, such as the European Alps, and took place latest--early 1900s--on islands of the South Pacific, as in New Zealand.
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