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Encyclopedia > Lithium ion polymer battery
A prototype Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery at NASA Glenn Research Center.
A prototype Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery at NASA Glenn Research Center.
Battery specifications
Energy/weight 130-200 Wh/kg
Energy/size 300 Wh/L
Power/weight
Charge/discharge efficiency
Energy/consumer-price
Self-discharge rate
Time durability long
Cycle durability

Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries. Ultimately, the lithium salt electrolyte is not held in an organic solvent like in the proven lithium ion design, but in a solid polymer composite such as polyacrylonitrile. There are many advantages of this design over the classic lithium ion design, including the fact that the solid polymer electrolyte is not flammable (unlike the organic solvent that the Li-Ion cell uses); thus, these batteries are less hazardous if mistreated. Lithium ion polymer batteries started appearing in consumer electronics around 1996. Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Image File history File links NASA_Lithium_Ion_Polymer_Battery. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/gray Atomic mass 6. ... An electrolyte is a substance that dissociates into free ions when dissolved (or molten), to produce an electrically conductive medium. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Polymer is a term used to describe molecules consisting of structural units and a large number of repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a resinous, fibrous, or rubbery organic polymer. ...

Contents

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Overview

Cells sold today as polymer batteries have a different design from the older lithium ion cells. Unlike lithium ion cylindrical, or prismatic cells, which have a rigid metal case, polymer cells have a flexible, foil-type (polymer laminate) case, but they still contain organic solvent. The main difference between commercial polymer and lithium ion cells is that in the latter cells, the rigid case presses the electrodes and the separator onto each other, whereas in polymer cells this external pressure is not required because the electrode sheets and the separator sheets are laminated onto each other.


Since no metal battery cell casing is needed, the battery can be lighter and it can be specifically shaped to fit the device it will power. Because of the denser packaging without intercell spacing between cylindrical cells and the lack of metal casing, the energy density of Li-Poly batteries is over 20% higher than that of a classical Li-Ion battery and approximately three times better than NiCd and NiMH batteries. The nickel-cadmium battery (commonly abbreviated NiCd or NiCad) is a popular type of rechargeable battery for portable electronics and toys. ... NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ...


The voltage of a Li-Poly cell varies from about 2.7 V (discharged) to about 4.23 V (fully charged), and Li-Poly cells have to be protected from overcharge by limiting the applied voltage to no more than 4.235 V per cell used in a series combination. During discharge on load, the load has to be removed as soon as the voltage drops below approximately 3.0 V per cell (used in a series combination), or else the battery will subsequently no longer accept a charge.


Early in its development, lithium polymer technology had problems with internal resistance. Other challenges include longer charge times and slower maximum discharge rates compared to more mature technologies. Li-Po batteries typically require more than an hour for a full charge. Recent design improvements have increased maximum discharge currents from two times to 15 or even 20 times the cell capacity (discharge rate in amps, cell capacity in amp-hours). In March 2005 Toshiba announced a new design offering a much faster (about 1-3 minutes) rate of charge. These cells have yet to reach the market but should have a dramatic effect on the power tool and electric vehicle industries, and a major effect on consumer electronics; especially electrically-powered model aeroplanes. The output impedance, source impedance, or internal impedance of an electronic device is the opposition exhibited by its output terminals to the flow of an alternating current (AC) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, induction and capacitance. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... General Motors EV1 // An electric vehicle, or EV, is a vehicle with one or more electric motors for vehicle propulsion. ...


When compared to the lithium ion battery, Li-Poly had a greater life cycle degradation rate. However, in recent years, manufacturers have been declaring upwards of 500 charge-discharge cycles before the capacity drops to 80% (see Sanyo). Another variant of Li-Poly cells, the "thin film rechargeable lithium battery" has been shown to provide more than 10,000 cycles. Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... Old logo New logo Sanyo Electric Co. ...

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Applications

A compelling advantage of Li-Poly is that manufacturers can shape the battery almost however they please, which can be important to mobile phone manufacturers constantly working on smaller, thinner, and lighter phones. Another advantage of lithium polymer cells over nickel cadmium and nickel metal hydride cells is that the rate of self discharge is much lower.


Li-Poly batteries are also gaining favor in the world of Radio-controlled aircraft, where the advantages of both lower weight and greatly increased run times can be sufficient justification for the price. However, lithium polymer-specific chargers are required to avoid fire and explosion. Electronic motor speed controls calibrated to prevent excessive discharge and subsequent battery damage are required as well. They are also gaining ground in PDAs and laptop computers, such as Apple's MacBook and small digital music devices such as iPods and other MP3 players, as well as portable gaming devices like the Sony PSP or Nintendo's Game Boy Advance SP, where small form factors and energy density outweigh cost considerations. ParkZone Slo-V Radio-controlled aircraft (also called RC aircraft) are small model aircraft that can be controlled remotely. ... palmOne Tungsten T5 Personal Digital Assistants(PDAs) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organisers, but became much more versatile over the years. ... A laptop computer or simply laptop (also notebook computer or notebook) is a small mobile personal computer, usually weighing from one to three kilograms, depending on size, materials and other factors. ... Apple Computer, Inc. ... The MacBook is a line of consumer Macintosh notebook computers developed and marketed by Apple Computer. ... A white 5th generation iPod with a sleeve and earbuds. ... An embedded hard drive-based player (Apple iPod) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) A flash-based player (iBox Mediaman) A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ... The PlayStation Portable (officially abbreviated PSP) is a handheld game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment. ... Nintendo Company, Limited (Japanese: 任天堂, ニンテンドー Nintendō; NASDAQ: NTDOY, TYO: 7974 ) is a multinational corporation founded on September 23, 1889[1] in Kyoto, Japan by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce handmade hanafuda cards, for use in a Japanese playing card game of the same name. ... The Game Boy Advance SP, released in March 2003, is an upgraded version of Nintendos Game Boy Advance. ...


These batteries may also power the next generation of battery electric vehicles. The cost of an electric car of this type is prohibitive, but proponents argue that with increased production, the cost of Li-Poly batteries will go down. Until power density and reliability issues are resolved, any speculation on successful use in this application is premature. The Toyota RAV4 EV is powered by twenty-four 12 volt batteries, with an operational cost equivalent of over 165 miles per gallon at 2005 US gasoline prices. ...

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Technology

There are currently two commercialized technologies, both lithium-ion-polymer (where "polymer" stands for "polymer electrolyte/separator"). They are called "polymer electrolyte batteries".


The idea is to use an ion-conducting polymer instead of the traditional combination of a microporous separator and a liquid electrolyte. This promises not only better safety, as polymer electrolyte does not burn as easily, but also the possibility to make battery cells very thin, as they don't require pressure applied to "sandwich" cathode+anode together. Polymer electrolyte seals both electrodes together like a glue.


The design is: anode (Li or carbon-Li intercalation compound)/conducting polymer electrolyte-separator/cathode (LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4) Intercalation induces structural distortions. ...


Typical reaction:

Polymer electrolyte/separator can be real solid polymer (polyethyleneoxide, PEO) +LiPF6 or other conducting salt +SiO2 or other filler for better mechanical properties (such systems are not available commercially yet). Some are planning to use metallic Li as the anode, whereas others want to go with the proven safe carbon intercalation anode. Diagram of a zinc anode in a Daniells cell. ... Look up Separator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Separator can refer to: a component of a lithium polymer cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Chemical structure of the polymeric polyethylene glycol Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers having an identical structure except for chain length and end groups, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ...


Both currently commercialized technologies use PVdF (a polymer) gelled with conventional solvents and salts, like EC/DMC/DEC etc. The difference between the two technologies is that one (Bellcore/Telcordia technology) uses LiMn2O4 as the cathode, and the other, more conventional LiCoO2. PVDF, or PolyVinylidine DiFluoride, is a highly non-reactive and pure thermoplastic fluoropolymer. ... Telcordia Technologies, formerly Bell Communications Research, Inc. ...


Other, more exotic (although not yet commercially available) Li-polymer batteries use a polymer cathode. For example, Moltech is developing a battery with a plastic conducting carbon-sulfur cathode. However, as of 2005 this technology seems to have problems with self-discharge and manufacturing cost.


Yet another proposal is to use organic sulfur containing compounds for the cathode in combination with an electrically conducting polymer such as polyaniline. This approach promises high power capability (i.e. low internal resistance) and high discharge capacity, but has problems with cycleability and cost.

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External links

  • World's First Electric Powered Paraglider - running on Lipo.
  • 2005.11.02 - A123Systems Launches New Higher-Power, Faster Recharging Li-Ion Battery Systems [1]
    2006.05.19 - Hybrid vehicle application note
  • Altair gets order for 1000 kg of lithium titanate spinel electrode nanomaterials [2] [3] [4] [5]
  • Toshibas High-Rate (50C) Li, scheduled for 2006 production [6]
  • Kokam's lithium ion polymer technical specifications
  • Worley Energy Cells
  • ITN Energy Systems - Lipo(no gel) lifetimes greater than 50,000 cycles
  • Cymbet Corporation - 900 Wh/L Lip cells
  • Sanyo - 500 charge cycles
  • Micro Tech Group Inc.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lithium ion battery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1800 words)
Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics.
Lithium-ion batteries have a nominal voltage of 3.6 V and a typical charging voltage of 4.2 V. The charging procedure is one of constant voltage with current limiting.
The anode is made from carbon, the cathode is a metal oxide, and the electrolyte is a lithium salt in an organic solvent.
Lithium ion polymer battery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1038 words)
Lithium ion polymer batteries, or more commonly lithium polymer batteries (Abbreviated Li-Poly or LiPo) are rechargeable batteries which have technologically evolved from lithium ion batteries.
Ultimately, the lithium salt electrolyte is not held in an organic solvent like in the proven lithium ion design, but in a solid polymer composite such as polyacrylonitrile.
The main difference between commercial polymer and lithium ion cells is that in the latter cells, the rigid case presses the electrodes and the separator onto each other, whereas in polymer cells this external pressure is not required because the electrode sheets and the separator sheets are laminated onto each other.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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