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Encyclopedia > Lithium hydride
Ionic lattice structure of lithium hydride
Ionic lattice structure of lithium hydride

Lithium hydride (LiH) is the compound of lithium and hydrogen. It is a colourless crystalline solid, although commercial samples appear gray. Characteristic of a salt-like hydride, it has a high melting point (689 °C or 1272 °F). Its density is 780 kilograms per cubic metre. It has a standard heat capacity of 29.73 J/mol*k with thermal conductivity that varies with composition and pressure (from at least 10 to 5 W/m*K at 400 K) and decreases with temperature. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1052, 755 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lithium hydride ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1052, 755 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lithium hydride ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... A hydride is a compound of hydrogen with more electropositive elements. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German-Dutch physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... Kilogram per cubic metre is the SI measure of density and is represented as kg/m³, where kg stands for kilogram and m³ stands for cubic metre. ...


It is a flammable solid and very reactive with water, producing the corrosive compound lithium hydroxide as well as hydrogen. Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a corrosive alkali. ...

LiH + H2O → LiOH + H2

Contents

Synthesis

It is produced by reacting lithium metal with hydrogen gas:

2 Li + H2 rightarrow 2 LiH

Uses

LiH has numerous uses, as a desiccant, as a precursor for the synthesis of lithium aluminium hydride, in hydrogen generators, as both a coolant and shielding in nuclear reactors, and in the manufacture of ceramics. LiH has the highest hydrogen content of any saline hydride. The hydrogen content of LiH is three times that of NaH, because lithium is lighter than sodium and other metals. A dessicant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately-well sealed container. ... Lithium aluminium hydride (LiAlH4), commonly abbreviated to LAH, is a powerful reducing agent used in organic chemistry. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Standard atomic weight 6. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ...


The corresponding lithium deuteride, formula LiD, is the fusion fuel in thermonuclear weapons. In warheads of the Teller-Ulam design, LiD is compressed and heated by the explosion of the fission primary to the point where fusion occurs. Lithium deuteride, unlike tritium, is non-radioactive. Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ...


Safety

LiH is flammable in air, and it reacts explosively with water to give corrosive LiOH together with hydrogen gas.


See also

A hydride is a compound of hydrogen with more electropositive elements. ...

Related compounds

Sodium hydride is a highly flammable, and corrosive chemical compound with formula NaH and CAS number 7646-69-7. ...

In popular culture

In Larry Niven's science fiction book Protector, his character Brennan describes the by-products of a bussard ramjet as being an assortment of strange chemicals including "Lithium Hydride... a normally impossible chemical..." The book was published in 1973. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Artists conception of a Bussard ramjet. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hydride - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (980 words)
Ionic hydrides are usually used as reducing agents in synthetic chemistry, but they are too strongly basic and reactive to be used in pure form.
Lithium hydride is reduced in reactivity by forming lithium aluminium hydride (often abbreviated as LAH) with aluminium chloride.
Covalent hydrides behave as molecules with the weak London forces and hence are volatile at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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