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Encyclopedia > Literature
Old book bindings at the Merton College library.
Old book bindings at the Merton College library.

Literature is a body of written works related by subject-matter, by language or place of origin, or by dominant cultural standards.[1] Literally translated, the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter). In Western culture the most basic written literary types include fiction and non-fiction. Literature is a card game for six players. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1965 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Book User:Brighterorange Merton College Library ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1965 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Book User:Brighterorange Merton College Library ... Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... -1... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ...

Contents

Definitions

Literature
Major forms

Epic · Romance · Novel
Tragedy · Comedy · Drama · Satire
For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ...

Media

Performance (play) · Book Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ...

Techniques

Prose · Poetry Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ...

History and lists

Basic topics · Literary terms
History · Modern history
Books · Writers
Literary awards · Poetry awards Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of best-selling books List of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of awards that are, or have been, given out to writers of poetry, either for a specific poem, collection of poems, or body of work. ...

Discussion

Criticism · Theory · Magazines Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ...

The word "literature" has different meanings depending on who is using it. It could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record, encompassing everything from images and sculptures to letters. In a more narrow sense the term could mean only text composed of letters, or other examples of symbolic written language (Egyptian hieroglyphs, for example). An even more narrow interpretation is that text have a physical form, such as on paper or some other portable form, to the exclusion of inscriptions or digital media. The Muslim scholar and philosopher Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (702-765 AD) defined Literature as follows: "Literature is the garment which one puts on what he says or writes so that it may appear more attractive."[2] Panghilito Luigi added that literature is a slice of life that has been given direction and meaning, an artistic interpretation of the world according to the percipient's point of views. Frequently, the texts that make up literature crossed over these boundaries. Russian Formalist Roman Jakobson defines literature as "organized violence committed on ordinary speech", highlighting literature's deviation from the day-to-day and conversational structure of words. Illustrated stories, hypertexts, cave paintings and inscribed monuments have all at one time or another pushed the boundaries of "literature." Sculptor redirects here. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ... Audio & Visual Media Digital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Jafar al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق) (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, is considered the sixth Shia imam by Ja’fari Shia Muslims & the fifth Shia imam by Shia Ismaili Muslims. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ...


People may perceive a difference between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" often serve to distinguish between individual works. For example, almost all literate people perceive the works of Charles Dickens as "literature," whereas some critics[citation needed] look down on the works of Jeffrey Archer as unworthy of inclusion under the general heading of "English literature." Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of a poor standard of grammar and syntax, of an unbelievable or disjointed story-line, or of inconsistent or unconvincing characters. Genre fiction (for example: romance, crime, or science fiction) may also become excluded from consideration as "literature." Literary fiction is a somewhat uneasy term that has come into common usage since around 1970, principally to distinguish serious fiction from the many types of genre fiction and popular fiction. ... Literary Merit a written text has Liteary Merit if it is a work of quality, that is if it has some aesthetic value. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Geoffrey Archer or Baron Archer of Sandwell. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Verisimilitude (disambiguation). ... In literature, a plot is all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect. ... Characterization is the process of conveying information about characters in fiction or conversation. ... Genre fiction is a term for fictional works (novels, short stories) written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre in order to appeal to the fans of that genre. ...


History

One of the earliest known literary works is the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem dated around 2700 B.C., which deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for eternal life. Different historical periods have emphasized various characteristics of literature. Early works often had an overt or covert religious or didactic purpose. Moralizing or prescriptive literature stems from such sources. The exotic nature of romance flourished from the Middle Ages onwards, whereas the Age of Reason manufactured nationalistic epics and philosophical tracts. Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real. The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Å umeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Age of Reason is either Thomas Paines book The Age of Reason. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Romantics redirects here. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...


Poetry

A poem is defined as a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme. One cannot readily characterize poetry precisely. Typically though, poetry as a form of literature makes some significant use of the formal properties of the words it uses — the properties attached to the written or spoken form of the words, rather than to their meaning. Metre depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on words that have similar pronunciation. Some recent poets, such as E. E. Cummings, made extensive use of words' visual form. Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Composition can refer to: // Composition in art In the fine arts, compostion may refer to any of the following: Composition (visual arts) Musical composition MIDI composition In literature, oratory, and rhetoric, composition refers, as the etymology of the word quite literally indicates, to the putting (words) together to produce a... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... Imagery is any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste). ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... Prosody may mean several things: Prosody consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words and is most often used in poetry and song. ... This article is about the art form. ... Write redirects here. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... For other uses, see Rhythm (disambiguation). ... Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a phrase. ... Edward Estlin Cummings (October 14, 1894 – September 3, 1962), popularly known as E. E. Cummings, was an American poet, painter, essayist, and playwright. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ...


Poetry perhaps pre-dates other forms of literature: early known examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form. Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Šumeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ...


Some poetry uses specific forms: the haiku, the limerick, or the sonnet, for example. A traditional haiku written in Japanese must have something to do with nature, contain seventeen onji (syllables), distributed over three lines in groups of five, seven, and five, and should also have a kigo, a specific word indicating a season. A limerick has five lines, with a rhyme scheme of AABBA, and line lengths of 3,3,2,2,3 stressed syllables. It traditionally has a less reverent attitude towards nature. Poetry not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse" For other uses, see Haiku (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limerick (disambiguation). ... The term sonnet derives from the Provençal word sonet and the Italian word sonetto, both meaning little song. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... A rhyme scheme is like the pattern of rhyming like lines in a poem or in like lyrics for music. ... For the software company, see Freeverse. ...


Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes, Greek poetry rarely rhymes, Italian or French poetry often does, English and German can go either way (although modern non-rhyming poetry often, perhaps unfairly, has a more "serious" aura). Perhaps the most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and by Milton, consists of unrhymed iambic pentameters. Some languages prefer longer lines; some shorter ones. Some of these conventions result from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others; for example, some languages contain more rhyming words than others, or typically have longer words. Other structural conventions come about as the result of historical accidents, where many speakers of a language associate good poetry with a verse form preferred by a particular skilled or popular poet. For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ...


Works for theatre (see below) traditionally took verse form. This has now become rare outside opera and musicals, although many would argue that the language of drama remains intrinsically poetic. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ...


In recent years, digital poetry has arisen that takes advantage of the artistic, publishing, and synthetic qualities of digital media. Digital poetry (also referred to as E-poetry, short for electronic poetry, also computer poetry) refers to a wide range of approaches to poetry that all have in common prominent and crucial use of computers. ...


Prose

Prose consists of writing that does not adhere to any particular formal structures (other than simple grammar); "non-poetic" writing, perhaps. The term sometimes appears pejoratively, but prosaic writing simply says something without necessarily trying to say it in a beautiful way, or using beautiful words. Prose writing can of course take beautiful form; but less by virtue of the formal features of words (rhymes, alliteration, metre) but rather by style, placement, or inclusion of graphics. But one need not mark the distinction precisely, and perhaps cannot do so. One area of overlap is "prose poetry", which attempts to convey using only prose, the aesthetic richness typical of poetry. Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... For the rules of the English language, see English grammar. ... In music: Beautiful, a song by HIM from there 2001 album Deep Shadows And Brilliant Highlights. Beautiful, a song by the Smashing Pumpkins, from their 1995 album Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness Beautiful (Mandalay song), a song by Mandalay, from their 1998 album Empathy Beautiful, a 2001 song by... // Prose poetry is usually considered a form of poetry written in prose that breaks some of the normal rules associated with prose discourse, for heightened imagery or emotional effect, among other purposes. ...


Essays

An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works by Francis Bacon or by Charles Lamb. For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... Charles Lamb (1775-1834) Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 –- 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the childrens book Tales from Shakespeare, which he produced along with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847). ...


'Essay' in English derives from the French 'essai', meaning 'attempt'. Thus one can find open-ended, provocative and/or inconclusive essays. The term "essays" first applied to the self-reflective musings of Michel de Montaigne, and even today he has a reputation as the father of this literary form. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French pronounced ) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ...


Genres related to the essay may include:

  • the memoir, telling the story of an author's life from the author's personal point of view
  • the epistle: usually a formal, didactic, or elegant letter.

As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory), or a reminiscence, forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ... An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolē, letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ...

Fiction

Narrative fiction (narrative prose) generally favours prose for the writing of novels, short stories, graphic novels, and the like. Singular examples of these exist throughout history, but they did not develop into systematic and discrete literary forms until relatively recent centuries. Length often serves to categorize works of prose fiction. Although limits remain somewhat arbitrary, modern publishing conventions dictate the following: For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ...

  • A Mini Saga is a short story of exactly 50 words
  • A Flash fiction is generally defined as a piece of prose under a thousand words.
  • A short story comprises prose writing of between 1000 and 20,000 words (but typically more than 500 words), which may or may not have a narrative arc.
  • A story containing between 20,000 and 50,000 words falls into the novella category.
  • A work of fiction containing more than 50,000 words falls squarely into the realm of the novel.

A novel consists simply of a long story written in prose, yet the form developed comparatively recently. Icelandic prose sagas dating from about the 11th century bridge the gap between traditional national verse epics and the modern psychological novel. In mainland Europe, the Spaniard Cervantes wrote perhaps the first influential novel: Don Quixote, the first part of which was published in 1605 and the second in 1615. Earlier collections of tales, such as Boccaccio's Decameron and Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, have comparable forms and would classify as novels if written today. Earlier works written in Asia resemble even more strongly the novel as we now think of it — for example, works such as the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms and the Japanese Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki. Compare to The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. // Flash fiction is fiction characterized by its extreme brevity, as measured by its length in words. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... The psychological novel is a type of novel supposed to have originated with Giovanni Boccaccio in 1344 CE, in La Fiammetta. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ... Illustration from a copy of The Decameron, ca. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Canterbury Tales (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... Ilustration of ch. ... Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部 Murasaki Shikibu, c. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...


Early novels in Europe did not, at the time, count as significant literature, perhaps because "mere" prose writing seemed easy and unimportant. It has become clear, however, that prose writing can provide aesthetic pleasure without adhering to poetic forms. Additionally, the freedom authors gain in not having to concern themselves with verse structure translates often into a more complex plot or into one richer in precise detail than one typically finds even in narrative poetry. This freedom also allows an author to experiment with many different literary and presentation styles — including poetry— in the scope of a single novel. In literature, a plot is all the events in a story particularly rendered towards the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect. ...


See Ian Watt's The Rise of the Novel. [This definition needs expansion] Literary critic and literary historian Ian Watt (1917-1999) was a professor of English at Stanford University. ...


Other prose literature

Philosophy, history, journalism, and legal and scientific writings traditionally ranked as literature. They offer some of the oldest prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names "fiction" to distinguish them from factual writing or nonfiction, which writers historically have crafted in prose. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... // Journalism is the discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... Non-fiction is a truthful account or representation of a subject which is composed of facts. ...


The "literary" nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries, as advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences; science now appears mostly in journals. Scientific works of Euclid, Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still possess great value; but since the science in them has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction, yet they remain too technical to sit well in most programmes of literary study. Outside of "history of science" programmes students rarely read such works. Many books "popularizing" science might still deserve the title "literature"; history will tell. Nature, Science and PNAS In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. ... For other uses, see Euclid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Copernicus redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ...


Philosophy, too, has become an increasingly academic discipline. More of its practitioners lament this situation than occurs with the sciences; nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. Major philosophers through history—Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Descartes, Nietzsche—have become as canonical as any writers. Some recent philosophy works are argued to merit the title "literature", such as some of the works by Simon Blackburn; but much of it does not, and some areas, such as logic, have become extremely technical to a degree similar to that of mathematics. Academic publishing describes the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Augustinus redirects here. ... René Descartes (French IPA:  Latin:Renatus Cartesius) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Simon Blackburn (born 1944) is a British academic philosopher also known for his efforts to popularise philosophy. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


A great deal of historical writing can still rank as literature, particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction. So can a great deal of journalism, such as literary journalism. However these areas have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result the writing in these fields often lacks a literary quality, although it often and in its better moments has that quality. Major "literary" historians include Herodotus, Thucydides and Procopius, all of whom count as canonical literary figures. Creative nonfiction, also known as literary journalism and narrative journalism, is a type of writing which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... Creative nonfiction is a genre of literature, also known as literary journalism, which uses literary skills in the writing of nonfiction. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...


Law offers a less clear case. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, or even the early parts of the Bible, might count as legal literature. The law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon might count. Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature. The founding documents of many countries, including the United States Constitution, can count as literature; however legal writing now rarely exhibits literary merit. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... For the computer game, see Hamurabi. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


Game Design Scripts - In essence never seen by the player of a game and only by the developers and/or publishers, the audience for these pieces is usually very small. Still, many game scripts contain immersive stories and detailed worlds making them hidden literary gems. Game design is the process of designing the content and rules of a game. ...


Most of these fields, then, through specialization or proliferation, no longer generally constitute "literature" in the sense under discussion. They may sometimes count as "literary literature"; more often they produce what one might call "technical literature" or "professional literature".


Drama

A play or drama offers another classical literary form that has continued to evolve over the years. It generally comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather than at reading. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, opera developed as a combination of poetry, drama, and music. Nearly all drama took verse form until comparatively recently. Shakespeare could be considered drama. Romeo and Juliet, for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ...


Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have substantial knowledge. Tragedy, as a dramatic genre, developed as a performance associated with religious and civic festivals, typically enacting or developing upon well-known historical or mythological themes. Tragedies generally presented very serious themes. With the advent of newer technologies, scripts written for non-stage media have been added to this form. War of the Worlds (radio) in 1938 saw the advent of literature written for radio broadcast, and many works of Drama have been adapted for film or television. Conversely, television, film, and radio literature have been adapted to printed or electronic media. Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ... On October 30, 1938, as a Halloween special, Orson Welles performed a live radio adaptation of H. G. Wells classic novel The War of the Worlds, which famously frightened many in the audience into believing that an actual Martian invasion was in progress. ...


Oral literature

The term oral literature refers not to written, but to oral traditions, which includes different types of epic, poetry and drama, folktales, ballads, legends, jokes, and other genres of folklore. It exists in every society, whether literate or not. It is generally studied by folklorists, or by scholars committed to cultural studies and ethnopoetics, including linguists, anthropologists, and even sociologists. Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... For other uses, see Ballad (disambiguation). ... A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... A joke is a short story or ironic depiction of a situation communicated with the intent of being humorous. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Folkloristics is the formal academic study of folklore and mythology. ... Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies. ... Ethnopoetics refers to poetic traditions which are typically seen as tribal or otherwise ethnic by the West (or indeed between any ethnoculturally different peoples). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... This article is about the social science. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


Other narrative forms

  • Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works which originate in digital environments.
  • Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction.
  • Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text.

Electronic literature refers to texts that take advantage of the capabilities of computers, software, or network technologies. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... The first TIME magazine cover devoted to soap operas, dated January 12, 1976. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...

Genres of literature

A literary genre refers to the traditional divisions of literature of various kinds according to a particular criterion of writing. See the list of literary genres. A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ...


List of literary genres

 * Autobiography, Memoir, Spiritual autobiography * Biography * Diaries and Journals * Electronic literature * Erotic literature * Fable, Fairy tale, Folklore * Fiction o Adventure novel o Children's literature o Comic novel o Crime fiction + Detective fiction o Fantasy (for more details see Fantasy subgenres; fantasy literature) o Gothic fiction (initially synonymous with horror) o Historical fiction o Horror o Medical novel o Mystery fiction o Philosophical novel o Political fiction o Romance novel + Historical romance o Saga, Family Saga o Satire o Science fiction (for more details see Science fiction genre) o Slave narrative o Thriller + Conspiracy fiction + Legal thriller + Psychological thriller + Spy fiction/Political thriller o Tragedy 

Literary techniques

Main article: Literary technique

A literary technique or literary device may be used by works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. Literary technique is distinguished from literary genre as military tactics are from military strategy. Thus, though David Copperfield employs satire at certain moments, it belongs to the genre of comic novel, not that of satire. By contrast, Bleak House employs satire so consistently as to belong to the genre of satirical novel. In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson, which by using the epistolary technique strengthened the tradition of the epistolary novel, a genre which had been practiced for some time already but without the same acclaim. A literary technique or literary device may be used in works of literature in order to produce a specific effect on the reader. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... For other uses, see David Copperfield. ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ... Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. ... Samuel Richardson (August 19, 1689 – July 4, 1761) was a major 18th century writer best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and Sir Charles Grandison (1753). ... Titlepage of Aphra Behns Love-Letters (1684) An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents. ...


Literary criticism

Also see:Literary criticism, Literary history, Literary theory Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ...


Literary criticism implies a critique and evaluation of a piece of literature and in some cases is used to improve a work in progress or classical piece. There are many types of literary criticism and each can be used to critique a piece in a different way or critique a different aspect of a piece.


Legal status

UK

Literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorised reproduction since at least 1710.[3] Literary works are defined by copyright law to mean any work, other than a dramatic or musical work, which is written, spoken or sung, and accordingly includes (a) a table or compilation (other than a database), (b) a computer program, (c) preparatory design material for a computer program, and (d) a database.


It should be noted that literary works are not limited to works of literature, but include all works expressed in print or writing (other than dramatic or musical works).[4]


See also

Lists

Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following are lists of authors and writers: By name A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – W – X – Y – Z By type of writing or genre List of biographers List of childrens literature... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of books by year of publication... It has been suggested that the section Literature from the article List of prizes, medals, and awards be merged into this article or section. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of literature. ... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... . ... The following are lists of authors and writers: By name A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – W – X – Y – Z By type of writing or genre List of biographers List of childrens literature...

Related topics

Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ... Childrens books redirects here. ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... Ergodic literature is literature that requires special effort to comprehend or read, perhaps due to a non linear structure. ... The Hinman Collator, an early optical collator, was an opto-mechanical device for comparing pairs of documents for differences in the text. ... The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. ... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... This is a list basic topics in the field--topics about which wed like to have articles soon. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary cycles are groups of stories grouped around common figures, based on mythical figures or loosely on historic ones. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ... The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Fifth Edition The Modern Language Association of America (MLA) is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of literature and literary criticism. ... Orature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... Postcolonial literature (less often spelled Post-colonial literature, sometimes called New English Literature(s)) is literature concerned with the political and cultural independence of people formerly subjugated in colonial empires, and the literary expression of postcolonialism. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Scientific literature is the totality of publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the sciences and social sciences. ... Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... World literature refers to literature from all over the world, including American literature, European literature, Latin American literature, Asian literature, African literature, Arabic literature and so on. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "literature" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Christopher Paolo Panlapaz. Oxford University Press, 1996. Oxford Reference Online. republic central collegesUniversity Press. Brigham Young University (BYU). 21 November 2007 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t56.e555>
  2. ^ The Great Muslim Scientist and Philosopher Imam Jafar Ibn Mohammad As-Sadiq(a.s),Imam Hussain Publication, First Edition, ISBN 964-7371 12-8
  3. ^ The Statute of Anne 1710 and the Literary Copyright Act 1842 used the term "book". However, since 1911 the statutes have referred to literary works.
  4. ^ University of London Press v. University Tutorial Press [1916]

External links

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Image File history File links Portal. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Kenneth Rexroth (December 22, 1905 – June 6, 1982) was an American poet, translator and critical essayist. ...

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