FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Literary Arabic
Literary Arabic
اللغة العربية الفصحى
Spoken in: Arab world
Total speakers: ca. 300 million
Language family: Central Semitic
 Arabic languages
  Literary Arabic 
Writing system: Arabic alphabet 
Official status
Official language of: Arab world, Israel
Regulated by: modelled after the Qur'an; in Egypt: Academy of the Arabic Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ar
ISO 639-2: ara
ISO 639-3: arb

Literary Arabic (اللغة العربية الفصحى al-luġatu l-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā "the Eloquent Arabic language") or Standard Arabic is the literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing. It is part of the Arabic macrolanguage. Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Central Semitic languages are an intermediate group of Semitic languages, of which the most prominent members are Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية) is an academy in Cairo founded in 1934 in order to develop and regulate the Egypt. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... ISO 639-3 defines some languages as macrolanguages. ...


Many western scholars distinguish two common fuṣḥā varieties: the Classical Arabic of the Qur'an and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature, and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the standard language in use today. The modern Standard language is closely based on the Classical language, and most Arabs consider the two varieties to be two registers of one and the same language. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...

Contents

Classical Arabic

Main article: Classical Arabic

Classical Arabic, also known as Qur'anic Arabic, is the language used in the Qur'an as well as in numerous literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ...


Classical Arabic is often believed to be the parent language of all the spoken varieties of Arabic, but recent scholarship, such as Clive Holes' (2004), questions this view, showing that other Old North Arabian dialects were extant in the 7th century and may be the origin of current spoken varieties. The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... The Arabic language family consists of The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO 639-3 ara), including the living varieties of Arabic as well as Classical Arabic and Standard Arabic. ...


Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the literary standard across the Middle East and North Africa, and one of the official six languages of the United Nations. Most printed matter–including most books, newspapers, magazines, official documents, and reading primers for small children–is written in MSA[citation needed]. "Colloquial" Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties derived from Arabic spoken daily across the region and learned as a first language. These sometimes differ enough from each other to be mutually incomprehensible. They are not typically written, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry) exists in many of them. Literary Arabic or classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia–the use of two distinct varieties of the same language, usually in different social contexts. Educated Arabic-speakers are usually able to communicate in MSA in formal situations across national boundaries — thus, MSA is a classic example of a Dachsprache. This diglossic situation facilitates code-switching in which a speaker switches back and forth between the two varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. In instances in which highly educated Arabic-speakers of different nationalities engage in conversation but find their dialects mutually unintelligible (e.g. a Moroccan speaking with a Lebanese), they are able to code switch into MSA for the sake of communication. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dachsprache means a language form that serves as standard language for different dialects, mostly in a dialect continuum, even though these dialects may be so different that mutual intellegibility is not possible on the basilectal level between all dialects. ... Code-switching is a term in linguistics referring to alternation between one or more languages, dialects, or language registers in the course of discourse between people who have more than one language in common. ...


Although closely based on Classical Arabic (especially from the pre-Islamic to the Abbasid period, including Qur'anic Arabic), literary Arabic continues to evolve. Classical Arabic is considered normative; modern authors attempt (with varying degrees of success) to follow the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by Classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh), and to use the vocabulary defined in Classical dictionaries (such as the Lisan al-Arab.) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sibawayh (سيبويه Sîbawayh in Arabic, سیبویه Sibuyeh in Persian) was a linguist of Persian origin born ca. ...


However, the exigencies of modernity have led to the adoption of numerous terms which would have been mysterious to a Classical author, whether taken from other languages (eg فيلم film) or coined from existing lexical resources (eg هاتف hātif "telephone" < "caller"). Structural influence from foreign languages or from the vernaculars has also affected Modern Standard Arabic: for example, MSA texts sometimes use the format "X, X, X, and X" when listing things[citation needed], whereas Classical Arabic prefers "X and X and X and X", and subject-initial sentences are significantly more common in MSA than in Classical Arabic[citation needed]. For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources.


Regional variants

MSA is used uniformly across the Middle East, but some regional variations exist due to influence from the spoken vernaculars. People who "speak" MSA during interviews often give away their national or ethnic origins by their pronunciation of certain phonemes (e.g. the realization of the Classical jīm ج (/dʒ/) as /g/ by Egyptians, and as /ʒ/ by Lebanese), and by mixing between vernacular and Classical words and forms. Classical/vernacular mixing in formal writing can also be found (e.g. in some Egyptian newspaper editorials).


Grammar

Main article: Arabic grammar

Arabic is a Semitic language. ...

References

  • Holes, Clive (2004) Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties Georgetown University Press. ISBN 1-58901-022-1

See also

Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic by Hans Wehr is widely regarded as the foremost Arabic-English bilingual or translation dictionary and has particular usefulness for students of Modern Standard Arabic. ... Title page of the first volume The Arabic English Lexicon of 1893 by Edward William Lane in eight volumes is the monumental standard work of reference for Classical Arabic in western scholarship. ...

External links

  • Classical Arabic Blog
  • Learn Arabic online with a private tutor Learn to Read, Write, and Speak Arabic
  • Arabic Gems Learn about the intricacies and subtleties of Arabic linguistics and morphology.
  • Learn Arabic WikiBook

  Results from FactBites:
 
Arabic Literature - MSN Encarta (2081 words)
Its literary style, regarded as inimitable by Muslims, is derived from that of the pre-Islamic Arab soothsayers whose utterances were in the form of brief phrases having rhyme and rhythm but no metre.
Some of the greatest medieval philosophers wrote in Arabic; their work was studied in the West and greatly influenced the development of Scholasticism.
It is generally accepted among scholars of Arabic literature that the expedition of Napoleon to Egypt in 1798 marked the beginnings of the renaissance in the Arab world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m