FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Literacy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Literacy
Children reading.
Children reading.

The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. In modern contexts, the word refers to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has drafted the following definition: "Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning to enable an individual to achieve his or her goals, to develop his or her knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in the wider society." In modern times, illiteracy is seen as a social problem to be solved through education. Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... Write redirects here. ... ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Contents

World literacy rates

See also: List of countries by literacy rate, Literacy in India, and Literacy in the United States
World literacy rates by country
World literacy rates by country

20% of the world population was illiterate in 1998 by the United Nations definition - the inability to read and write a simple sentence in any language.[1] Using a definition of: "age 15 and over can read and write", the U.S. CIA World Factbook estimated in 2007 that the overall world literacy rate was 82%."[2] East Asian and Latin American countries generally have illiteracy rates in the 10 to 15% region while developed countries have illiteracy rates of a few percent. World literacy rates by country, based on The World Factbook. ... Literacy is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation, contributing to human development and poverty reduction, says UNESCO. [3] The Right to Education is a fundamental human right. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Within ethnically homogeneous regions, literacy rates can vary widely from country to country or region to region. This often coincides with the region's wealth or urbanization, though many factors play a role. For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ...


History

Although the history of literacy goes back several thousand years to the invention of writing, what constitutes literacy has changed throughout history. At one time, a literate person was one who could sign his or her name. At other times, literacy was measured only by the ability to read and write Latin (regardless of a person's ability to read or write his or her vernacular). Even earlier, literacy was a trade secret of professional scribes, and many historic monarchies maintained cadres of this profession, sometimes—as was the case for Imperial Aramaic—even importing them from lands where a completely alien language was spoken and written. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Writing systems evolved in the Early Bronze Age (late 4th millennium BC) out of neolithic proto-writing. ... Not to be confused with the Amharic language, the official language of Ethiopia. ...


In the middle ages, literacy was measured by the ability to recite passages of scripture. In some societies, this skill was made available only to the clergy, and the ability to read and write might even have been seen as dangerous in the hands of less discerning groups. In medieval Europe, Jews consequently had an edge over the predominantly Christian population because many Jewish males received a basic (religious) education that enabled them to read, write and understand Hebrew, a skill that they also applied in secular life. This skill may be contrasted with the ability to "read" scripture, but—because it is not in the vernacular—not actually knowing what the text says.


In 12th and 13th century England, the ability to read a particular passage from the Bible entitled a common law defendant to the so-called benefit of clergy, which entitled a person to be tried before an ecclesiastical court, where sentences were more lenient, instead of a secular one, where hanging was a likely sentence. This opened the door to lay, but nonetheless literate, defendants also claiming the benefit of clergy, and—because the Biblical passage used for the literacy test was inevitably Psalm 51—an illiterate person who had memorized the appropriate verse could also claim the benefit of clergy. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In English law, the benefit of clergy was originally a provision by which clergymen could claim that they were outside the jurisdiction of the secular courts and be tried instead under canon law. ... An ecclesiastical court (also called Court Christian) is any of certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


By the mid-18th century, the ability to read and comprehend scripture (particularly when scripture was in the vernacular) led to Wales having one of the highest literacy rates. This was the result of a Griffith Jones's system of circulating schools, that aimed to enable everyone to read the Bible (in Welsh). Similarly, at least half the population of 18th century New England was literate, perhaps as a consequence of the Puritan belief in the importance of Bible reading. By the time of the American Revolution, literacy in New England is suggested to have been around 90 percent. This article is about the country. ... Griffith Jones, (1684-1761), a minister of the Church of England famous for his work in organising circulating schools in Wales. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


The ability to read did not necessarily imply the ability to write. The 1686 church law (kyrkolagen) of the Kingdom of Sweden (which at the time included all of modern Sweden, Finland, and Estonia) enforced literacy on the people and by the end of the 18th century, the ability to read was close to 100 percent. But as late as the 19th century, many Swedes, especially women, could not write.


Although the present-day concepts of literacy have much to do with the 15th century invention of the movable type printing press, it was not until the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century that paper and books became financially affordable to all classes of industrialized society. Until then, only a small percentage of the population were literate as only wealthy individuals and institutions could afford the prohibitively expensive materials. As late as 1841, 33% of all Englishmen and 44% of Englishwomen signed marriage certificates with their mark as they were unable to write (government-financed public education became available in England in 1870). Even today, the dearth of cheap paper and books is a barrier to universal literacy in some less-industrialized nations. For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see Signature (disambiguation). ...


From another perspective, the historian Harvey Graff has argued that the introduction of mass schooling was in part an effort to control the type of literacy that the working class had access to. According to Graff, literacy learning was increasing outside of formal settings (such as schools) and this uncontrolled, potentially critical reading could lead to increased radicalization of the populace. In his view, mass schooling was meant to temper and control literacy, not spread it.


Literacy has also been used as a way to sort populations and control who has access to power. Because literacy permits learning and communication that oral and sign language alone cannot, illiteracy has been enforced in some places as a way of preventing unrest or revolution. During the Civil War era in the United States, white citizens in many areas banned teaching slaves to read or write presumably understanding the power of literacy. In the years following the Civil War, the ability to read and write was used to determine whether one had the right to vote. This effectively served to prevent former slaves from joining the electorate and maintained the status quo. In 1964, educator Paulo Freire was arrested, expelled, and exiled from his native Brazil because of his work in teaching Brazilian peasants to read. Paulo Freire (Recife, Brazil September 19, 1921 - São Paulo, Brazil May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and is a highly influential theorist of education. ...

Graph of declining illiteracy rates world-wide from 1970 to 2015
Graph of declining illiteracy rates world-wide from 1970 to 2015

Between 1500 and 1800, the approaches to reading changed as well. Briggs and Burke (2002) give examples of five types of reading changes [3]: The emergence of 'critical reading', as reading was once taken literally; 'dangerous reading', where reading was seen as dangerous in the hands of less educated groups such as women or commoners; 'creative reading', the application of content via the reader's individual paradigm; 'extensive reading', especially seen in the research of a particular topic; and 'private reading', where formatting of texts changed to embrace the notion of browsing and is an aspect of the rise of individualism. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (908x618, 22 KB) Summary Made with Excel with UNESCO [1] data. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (908x618, 22 KB) Summary Made with Excel with UNESCO [1] data. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ...


Attitudes toward literacy

In South Asia, attitudes toward literacy vary by social sector. Many see literacy as associated with schooling and not with everyday life, and some see greater prestige in relying on memorized texts than on being able to read.[4] Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


In much of Africa, literacy is associated with colonialism, whereas orality is associated with native traditions.[5]


Teaching literacy

Main article: Reading education

Literacy comprises a number of subskills, including phonological awareness, decoding, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Mastering each of these subskills is necessary for students to become proficient readers. Reading education is the process by which an individual learns to read, that is, to construct meaning from printed language. ... Phononological awareness is often confused with phonics but it is really a precursor to phonics. ... For the study of sounds and speech sounds, see Acoustics and Phonetics. ... Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise. ... Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ...


Many children of average and above average intelligence experience difficulty when learning to read. According to Dr. Grover Whitehurst, Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Education, learning to read is difficult for several reasons. First, reading requires the mastery of a code that maps human speech sounds to written symbols, and this code is not readily apparent or easy to understand. Second, reading is not a natural process; it was invented by humans fairly recently in our development. The human brain is wired for spoken language, but it is not wired to process the code of written language. Third, confusion can be introduced at the time of instruction by teachers who do not understand what the code is or how it needs to be taught. [6]


Readers of alphabetic languages must understand the alphabetic principle in order to master basic reading skills. A writing system is said to be alphabetic if it uses symbols to represent individual language sounds,[7] though some alphabetic languages (such as Spanish) feature nearly exact correspondences of sounds to letters while others (such as English) do not. In contrast, logographic writing systems (such as Chinese) use a symbol to represent an entire word, and syllabic writing systems (such as Japanese kana) use a symbol to represent a single syllable. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ...


Phonics is an instructional technique that teaches readers to attend to the letters or groups of letters that make up words. A common method of teaching phonics is synthetic phonics, in which a novice reader pronounces each individual sound and "blends" them to pronounce the whole word. In addition to teaching phonological awareness and sound-symbol correspondence, comprehensive phonics programs also include instruction in irregular words, the 6 syllable types, morphology (root words, prefixes, suffixes, etc) and word origin. For the study of sounds and speech sounds, see Acoustics and Phonetics. ...


Another common method of instruction is whole language education, in which novice readers learn a little about the individual letters in words, especially the consonants and the "short vowels." Teachers provide this knowledge opportunistically, in the context of stories that feature many instances of a particular letter. This is known as "embedded phonics." Children use their letter-sound knowledge in combination with context to read new and difficult words.[8] Whole language describes a literacy instructional philosophy which emphasizes that children should focus on meaning and moderates skill instruction. ...


Some educators believe that children need to learn to analyze text (comprehend it) even before they can read it on their own, and reading comprehension instruction generally begins in pre-Kindergarten or Kindergarten. Other educators consider this reading approach to be completely backward for very young children, arguing that the children must learn how to decode the words in a story through phonics before they can analyze the story itself. Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. ...


Economics

Many policy analysts[attribution needed] consider literacy rates a crucial measure of a region's human capital. This claim is made on the grounds that literate people can be trained less expensively than illiterate people, generally have a higher socio-economic status[9] and enjoy better health and employment prospects. Policy makers also argue that literacy increases job opportunities and access to higher education. In Kerala, India, for example, female and child mortality rates declined dramatically in the 1960s, when girls who were educated in the education reforms after 1948 began to raise families. Recent researchers however, [10]argue that correlations such as the one listed above may have more to do with the overall effects of schooling rather than literacy alone. In addition to the potential for literacy to increase wealth, wealth may promote literacy, through cultural norms and easier access to schools and tutoring services.[citation needed] Human capital refers to the stock of productive skills and technical knowledge embodied in labor. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Education reform is a plan or movement which attempts to bring about a systematic change in educational theory or practice across a community or society. ...


Broader and complementary definitions

Traditional definitions of literacy consider the ability to "read, write, spell, listen, and speak."[11] Since the 1980s, some have argued that literacy is ideological, which means that literacy always exists in a context, in tandem with the values associated with that context.[12] Prior work viewed literacy as existing autonomously. [13]


Some have argued that the definition of literacy should be expanded. For example, in the United States, the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association have added "visually representing" to the traditional list of competencies. Similarly, in Scotland, literacy has been defined as: "The ability to read and write and use numeracy, to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and lifelong learners."[14] The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has worked to advance teaching, research, and student achievement in English language arts at all scholastic levels since 1911. ... The International Reading Association is a professional organization that was created in 1956 to improve reading instruction, facilitate dialogue about research on reading, and encourage the habit of reading. ...


A basic literacy standard in many societies is the ability to read the newspaper. Increasingly, communication in commerce or society in general requires the ability to use computers and other digital technologies. [15] Since the 1990s, when the Internet came into wide use in the United States, some have asserted that the definition of literacy should include the ability to use tools such as web browsers, word processing programs, and text messages. Similar expanded skill sets have been called multimedia literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, and technacy.[16] An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ... A received SMS being announced on a Nokia phone. ... Multimedia literacy is a new aspect of literacy that is being recognised as technology expands the way people communicate. ... For information on the Silicon Valley retailer, see Computer Literacy Bookstore. ... Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. ... Technacy is the ability to understand, skilfully apply and communicate creative and balanced technological solutions that are based on understanding the contextual factors involved. ...


"Arts literacy" programs exist in some places in the United States,[17] Australia, Canada, and Finland.[citations needed]


Other genres under study by academia include critical literacy, media literacy, and health literacy[18] Critical literacy, since around 1992 [1], has become a popular approach to teaching English to students in English speaking countries [2]. At the heart of this approach to teaching is the belief that while literacy enables students to make meaning from texts, critical literacy will empower them to understand how... Media literacy is the process of accessing, analyzing, evaluating and creating messages in a wide variety of forms. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


It is argued[attribution needed] that literacy necessarily includes the cultural, political, and historical contexts of the community in which communication takes place.[19]


See also

Reading education is the process by which an individual learns to read, that is, to construct meaning from printed language. ... For the study of sounds and speech sounds, see Acoustics and Phonetics. ... Whole language describes a literacy instructional philosophy which emphasizes that children should focus on meaning and moderates skill instruction. ... Dick and Jane were the main characters in popular basal readers written by Zerna Sharp that were used to teach children to read during the 1930s through the 1960s. ... The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) has worked to advance teaching, research, and student achievement in English language arts at all scholastic levels since 1911. ... Signing ceremony at Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio. ... Family literacy is a method of education. ... Adolescence, the period between age 12 and 20, is a time of rapid psychological and neurological development, during which children develop morally (truly understanding the consequences of their actions), cognitively (problem-solving, reasoning, remembering), and socially (responding to feelings, interacting, cooperating). ... Functional illiteracy refers to the inability of an individual to use reading, writing, and computational skills efficiently in everyday life situations. ... The information age has changed how literacy can be defined. ... Critical literacy, since around 1992 [1], has become a popular approach to teaching English to students in English speaking countries [2]. At the heart of this approach to teaching is the belief that while literacy enables students to make meaning from texts, critical literacy will empower them to understand how... The International Reading Association is a professional organization that was created in 1956 to improve reading instruction, facilitate dialogue about research on reading, and encourage the habit of reading. ... World literacy rates by country, based on The World Factbook. ... Literacy is an indispensable means for effective social and economic participation, contributing to human development and poverty reduction, says UNESCO. [3] The Right to Education is a fundamental human right. ... This is a list of the first-level administrative divisions of the Peoples Republic of China (P.R.C.), including all provinces, autonomous regions, special administrative regions and municipalities, in order of their illiteracy rate for people aged 15 and above in 2004. ... International Literacy Day 2006 UNESCO poster September 8 was proclaimed the International Literacy Day by UNESCO in November 17, 1965. ... Dr. Frank C. Laubach (September 2, 1884—June 11, 1970) was a Christian Evangelical missionary and mystic known as The Apostle to the Illiterates. ... Paulo Freire (Recife, Brazil September 19, 1921 - São Paulo, Brazil May 2, 1997) was a Brazilian educator and is a highly influential theorist of education. ... Griffith Jones, (1684-1761), a minister of the Church of England famous for his work in organising circulating schools in Wales. ... Dame Marie Mildred Clay, DBE, FRSNZ, (1926 - April 13, 2007) was a distinguished researcher in educational literacy in the world. ... For information on the Silicon Valley retailer, see Computer Literacy Bookstore. ... ntent creators will assume the audience already possesses. ... // Electracy is a neologism developed by theorist Gregory Ulmer to describe the kind of “literacy” or skill and facility necessary to exploit the full communicative potential of new electronic media such as video, hypertext, social software, and virtual reality worlds like Second Life. ... Financial literacy is the ability of individuals to make appropriate decisions in managing their personal finances. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Several conceptions and definitions of information literacy have become prevalent. ... A Voting test is a test designed to determine ones ability to read and write a given language. ... Media literacy is the process of accessing, analyzing, evaluating and creating messages in a wide variety of forms. ... Mental literacy is a pseudoscientific and popular psychological term coined by Tony Buzan. ... Multimedia literacy is a new aspect of literacy that is being recognised as technology expands the way people communicate. ... Numeracy is a term that emerged in the United Kingdom as a contraction of numerical literacy. In the United States, it is familiar to math educators and intellectuals but not in the common usage. ... Orality can be defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population. ... Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... Statistical literacy is a term used to describe an individuals ability to understand statistics. ... Technacy is the ability to understand, skilfully apply and communicate creative and balanced technological solutions that are based on understanding the contextual factors involved. ... Transliteracy is (PART 2007) Transliteracy is a term derived from the verb to transliterate, meaning to write or print a letter or word using the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language. ... Visual literacy is the set of skills involved in the interpretation and criticism of images. ...

References

  1. ^ Glossary, The Economist, <http://www.economist.com/screensaver/glossary.cfm>. Retrieved on 14 November 2007
  2. ^ The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, November 1, 2007, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html>. Retrieved on 14 November 2007
  3. ^ Briggs and Burke, 2002, A Social History of the Media.
  4. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=bcuIz1M0AzQC&pg=PA87&sig=rD6pUisRFeozNYCrcHpBhhr5hB8
  5. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=AIT-xLytIrkC&pg=PA69&sig=flx3W6cOpr03Ik2FEwV9EQOzcZA
  6. ^ Dr. Grover Whitehurst, Evidence Based Education Science and the Challenge of Learning to Read, <http://www.childrenofthecode.org/interviews/whitehurst.htm>. Retrieved on 11 December 2007
  7. ^ Wren, Sebastian (1999), Phonics Rules, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL), <http://www.sedl.org/pubs/catalog/items/read07.html>. Retrieved on 7 July 2007
  8. ^ Tompkins, G. 2006. Literacy for the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  9. ^ PHONICS. It's Profitable, [www.thephonicspage.org The Phonics Page], <http://www.thephonicspage.org/On%20Phonics/profitable.html>. Retrieved on 11 December 2007
  10. ^ Graff, 2003
  11. ^ Moats, L.C. Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers, p. 3. Paul H. Brookes Co., 2000
  12. ^ Street, B. (1984) Literacy in theory and practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. ^ Goody, J. (1986). The logic of writing and the organization of society. New York: Cambridge University.
  14. ^ Curriculum Framework for Adult Literacy in Scotland (pdf)
  15. ^ Literacy in the Information Age: Final Report of the International Adult Literacy Survey, OECD 2000. PDF
  16. ^ Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge.
  17. ^ Kennedy Center Partners in Education, Washington, D.C.; ABC school in South Carolina; A Plus schools in a half dozen states; Value Plus in Tennessee
  18. ^ Zarcadoolas, C., Pleasant, A., & Greer, D. (2006). Advancing health literacy: A framework for understanding and action. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA.
  19. ^ Knobel, M. (1999). Everyday literacies: Students, discourse, and social practice. New York: Lang; Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideologies in Discourses. Philadelphia: Falmer.

is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Look up Literacy in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Critical Issue: Addressing the Literacy Needs of Emergent and Early Readers (0 words)
Children's growth from emergent to conventional literacy is influenced by their continuing literacy development, their understanding of literacy concepts, and the efforts of parents, caregivers, and teachers to promote literacy.
Emergent literacy also is based on behaviors modeled and supported by adults (Vygotsky) that encourage children to change and refine their own ideas to more closely match conventional notions.
One example of this interface between literacy acquisition and literacy instruction is the child's development of phonemic awareness (awareness that spoken words are made with individual sounds).
Teachers (140 words)
Literacy Matters was designed for middle and high school teachers—not only English language arts teachers, but also content area teachers (e.g., science, social studies, and mathematics).
The goal of our comprehensive (and ever expanding) web site is to provide information about research-based literacy practices, online professional development opportunities, rich lesson plans, and links to web sites in order to strengthen literacy learning for all students, particularly those whose problems with reading and writing become barriers to successful learning.
Currently, Literacy Matters is focusing on three key "matters" in adolescent literacy development: Adolescent Literature, Content Literacy, and Literacy and Technology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

There are 1 more (non-authoritative) comments on this page

Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m