FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
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Encyclopedia > Lists of incumbents

These are lists of incumbents, i.e. lists of people in various offices and positions, including heads of states or of subnational entities (in no particular order). A historical discipline, archontology, focuses on the study of past and current incumbents.

Lists of people
By name
By belief
By nationality
By occupation
By office held
By prize won

Current incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes on 2004 in politics, and past leaders on State leaders by year.

Various articles group lists by title, function or topic: e.g. abdication, assassinated persons, cabinet, chancellor, ex-monarchs (20th century), first names, head of government, head of state, lieutenant governor, mayor, military commanders, minister (and ministers by portfolio below), order of precedence, peerage, president, prime minister, Reichstag participants (1792), Secretary of State.


Religious leaders


Roman Catholic




  • Archbishops of Armagh - Primate of All Ireland (Catholic)



Anglican Communion

England & Ecclesiastical Dependencies



  • Archbishops of Armagh - Primate of All Ireland (Church of Ireland)
  • Archbishop of Armagh
  • Archbishop of Dublin
  • Bishop of Cashel and Ossory
  • Bishop of Clogher
  • Bishop of Connor
  • Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross
  • Bishop of Derry and Raphoe
  • Bishop of Down and Dromore
  • Bishop of Kilmore, Elphin and Ardagh
  • Bishop of Limerick and Killaloe
  • Bishop of Meath and Kildare
  • Bishop of Tuam, Killala and Achonry

Orthodox Christian


  • Presidents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints


  • Chief Rabbis of Israel



See also: Religious leaders by year

Heads of International Organizations

See also: List of international organization leaders in 2003, 2004

Heads of State or Government (Defunct Entities)

Ancient World

Middle Ages



Asia (excl. Latin, Hellenic and Arabic)

Near Eastern (Arabic, Turk, Kurd)


Hellenic and Latin/Crusader States


Heads of State or Government (Modern Entities)

See also: List of national leaders (in office), state leaders by year.


  Results from FactBites:
Incumbent (475 words)
Incumbents also have easier access to campaign finance, as well as government resources (such as the franking privilege) that can be indirectly used to boost a campaign.
For example, a Democratic incumbent in historically conservative Texas would have a less likely chance of winning than a Democratic incumbent in liberal New York City, because Texas has shifted away from the Democratic party in terms of voting.
Popularly known as the anti-incumbency factor, situations of this kind occur when the incumbent has proven himself not worthy of office during his tenure and the challenger demonstrates this fact to the voters.
  More results at FactBites »



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