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Encyclopedia > List of war crimes

Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
Eras

Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval
Early Modern · Industrial · Modern For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ...

Battlespaces

Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ...

Weapons

Armor · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry
Chemical · Electronic · Infantry
Nuclear · Psychological For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ...

Tactics

Attrition · Guerilla · Maneuver
Siege · Total war · Trench Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

Lists

Battles · Commanders · Operations
Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ...

This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Convention of 1907. In addition, those incidents which have been judged in a court of justice to be Crimes Against Peace that have been committed since these crimes were first defined are also included.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ...


Since many war crimes are not ultimately prosecuted (due to lack of political will, lack of effective procedures, or other practical and political reasons[2]), historians and lawyers will often make a serious case that war crimes occurred, even if there was no formal investigations or prosecution of the alleged crimes or an investigation cleared the alleged perpetrators.


War crimes under international law were firmly established by international trials such as the 1945 Nuremberg Major War Crimes Trials and the Tokyo trial of 1946, in which German and Japanese leaders were prosecuted for war crimes committed during World War II. For purpose of selectivity, only war crimes since the customary laws of war were clarified in the Hague Conventions of 1907 are included, because in the judgement at the Major War Crimes Trial in Nuremberg in 1945, it was stated that "by 1939 these rules laid down in the Hague Convention of 1907 were recognised by all civilised nations, and were regarded as being declaratory of the laws and customs of war".[3] Nürnberg redirects here. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ...

Contents

1937-1945: Second Sino-Japanese War

This section includes war crimes until 8 December 1941 when the United States declared war on Japan so entering World War II. For war crimes after this date see the section called World War II: Japan perpetrated crimes. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Second Sino-Japanese War Japan
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Nanking Massacre,[4] China, 1937-38 Mass murder of civilian population, rape, looting General Asaka Yasuhiko, commander, Japanese Shanghai Expeditionary Force, Imperial Japanese Army. General Iwane Matsui, Commanding general of Japanese forces in China, Imperial Japanese Army. Chief of staff of the Army Kotohito Kan'in, Minister of War Hajime Sugiyama. Debate still is ongoing as to the culpability of Emperor Hirohito in the events. After the Battle of Nanking, on 13 December, 1937, Japanese entered the city virtually resistance free. From then for a period of about 6 weeks after, until early February 1938, widespread war crimes were committed including mass rape, looting, arson, the killing of civilians and prisoners of war.
Hankow massacre,China, 1938 Mass execution of prisoners General Shunroku Hata, commander, China Expeditionary Army , Imperial Japanese Army. war crimes were committed including the killing of civilians and prisoners of war[5].
Changjiao massacre,China, 1943 Mass murder of civilian population, rape, looting General Shunroku Hata, commander, China Expeditionary Army , Imperial Japanese Army. war crimes were committed including mass rape, looting, arson, the killing of civilians and prisoners of war.

[6] [7] [8] Combatants China  United States1 Soviet Union2  Empire of Japan Collaborationist Chinese Army3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata... Rape of Nanking redirects here. ... Asaka Yasuhiko (朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asakanomiya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Kanin (Kotohito) of Japan (Kanin-no-miya Kotohito Shinnō) (10 November 1865 - 21 May 1945), was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1931 to 1940. ... Hajime Sugiyama (Sujiyama; 1880—September 12, 1945) was a chief of the Japanese General Staff, Inspector-General of military training, minister of war and a Commander-in-Chief of the 1st General Army during World War II. In 1941 Sugiyama confidently told Emperor Hirohito that Japanese operations in the South... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... The Battle of Nanjing ended with the fall of the capital city of Nanjing in 1937 to Japanese troops two months after the Republic of China Government had evacuated the city and relocated to Chongqing. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Hankou (漢口; pinyin: Hànkǒu; Wade-Giles: Hankow) is one of the three towns, together with Wuchang and Hanyang, which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... The Japanese China Expeditionary Army of the Imperial Japanese Army, was formed in 1937 as an offshoot of the Kwangtung Army. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The Changjiao massacre (Chinese:厂窖惨案) was a massacre aiming the chinese civilians by Japanese China Expeditionary Army in Hunan,ChangJiao. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... The Japanese China Expeditionary Army of the Imperial Japanese Army, was formed in 1937 as an offshoot of the Kwangtung Army. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Attack on China in 1937 Waging unprovoked war against China (count 27 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Sadao Araki, Kenji Doihara, Kingoro Hashimoto, Shunroku Hata, Kiichiro Hiranuma, Koki Hirota, [Naoki Hoshino]], Seishiro Itagaki, Okinori Kaya, Koichi Kido, Heitaro Kimura, Kuniaki Koiso, Jiro Minami, Akira Muto, Takasumi Oka, Hiroshi Oshima, Kenryo Sato, Mamoru Shigemitsu, Shigetaro Shimada, Teiichi Suzuki, Toshio Shiratori, Shigenori Togo, Hideki Tojo, Yoshijiro Umezu
Attack on the United States in 1941[4] Waging aggressive war against the United States. (count 29 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Kenji Doihara, Shunroku Hata, Kiichiro Hiranuma, Naoki Hoshino, Seishiro Itagaki, Okinori Kaya, Koichi Kido, Heitaro Kimura, Kuniaki Koiso, Akira Muto, Takasumi Oka, Kenryo Sato, Mamoru Shigemitsu, Shigetaro Shimada, Teiichi Suzuki, Shigenori Togo, Hideki Tojo, Yoshijiro Umezu[4] Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet started the war with the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, December 7, 1941. war crimes were committed including the killing of civilians in an undeclared war.

President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Kingoro Hashimoto (1890-1957) was a Japanese soldier and politician. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors to the Emperor at... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Jiro Minami (1874 - 1955) was the General Officer Commanding 16th Division from 1926 to 1927, Vice Chief General Staff from 1927 to 1929, Commander in Chief Chosen Army from 1929 to 1930 Japanese Minister of War in 1931, a member of the Supreme War Council from 1931 to 1934, commander... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku ÅŒshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (September 24, 1883 – June 7, 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Was graduated from Naval Academy. ... Toshio Shiratori (1887-1949) was the Japanese ambassador to Italy from 1938 to 1940, advisor to the Japanese foreign minister in 1940, and one of the 14 Class-A war criminals enshrined at Yasukuni. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Naoki Hoshino , 1892-04-10–1978-01-26) was a militarist and right-wing ideologist who served in the Japanese Army in creating the Empire of Manchoukou and served during the Konoye Cabinet period. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors to the Emperor at... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (September 24, 1883 – June 7, 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Was graduated from Naval Academy. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...

1939-1945 World War II

Axis powers (listed by country)

The Axis Powers (particularly Germany and Japan) were perhaps the most systematic perpetrators of war crimes in human history. Contributing factors included Nazi race theory, a desire for "living space" that justified the eradication of native populations, and militaristic indoctrination that encouraged the terrorization of conquered peoples and prisoners of war. The Holocaust, the German attack on Russia and occupation of Western Europe, and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria and attack on China contributed to well over half of the civilian deaths in World War II and the conflicts that led up to the war. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Croatian perpetrated crimes

Numerous concentration camps were built in Croatia, most notably Jasenovac (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац / Logor Jasenovac), the largest, where hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Gypsies (Roma), Jews and some Croatian dissidents died. It was established by the Ustaša regime of the Independent State of Croatia in August 1941 and not dismantled until April 1945, shortly before the end of the war. Jasenovac is a municipality in Central Croatia, in the southern part of the Sisak-Moslavina county at the confluence of the river Una into Sava. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Jasenovac was a complex of five subcamps and three smaller camps spread out over 240 square kilometers (93 square miles), in relatively close proximity to each other, on the bank of the Sava river. Most of the camp was at Jasenovac, about 100 km (62 miles) southeast of Zagreb. The complex also included large grounds at Donja Gradina directly across the Sava river, a camp for children in Sisak to the northwest, and a women's camp in Stara Gradiška to the southeast.


Ante Pavelić, leader of the Ustasha, fled to Madrid, and was never extradited to stand trial for his war crimes. Ante Pavelić (July 14, 1889 – December 28, 1959) was the leader (Poglavnik) and founding member of the Croatian national socialist/fascist UstaÅ¡e movement in the 1930s and later the leader of the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state[1] [2] of Nazi Germany during World War II. // Paveli... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...

See Ustaša.

The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ...

Italian perpetrated crimes

Balkan redirects here. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...

German perpetrated crimes

According to the Nuremberg Trials, there were four major war crimes that were alleged against German military (and Waffen-SS and NSDAP) men and officers, each with individual events that made up the major charges. The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ...


1. Participation in a common plan of conspiracy for the accomplishment of crimes against peace In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ...


2. Planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace

3. War Crimes These were limited to atrocities against combatants or conventional crimes committed by military units (see War crimes of the Wehrmacht), and include: This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ... War crimes of the Wehrmacht are those carried out by traditional German armed forces during World War II. While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German political armies (the Waffen-SS and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht...

4. Crimes against Humanity These were crimes that were committed well away from the lines of battle and were unconnected in any way to military activity. For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... The pacification operations in German-occupied Poland were the unlawful use of military force and punitive measures conducted during World War II by the German state with the goal of suppressing any Polish resistance. ... Le Paradis massacre occurred during the Battle of France in 1940, members of the Royal Norfolk Regiment were victims of a German SS war crime at Le Paradis in the Pas-de-Calais on May 26. ... The Royal Norfolk Regiment, orignally formed as the Norfolk Regiment, was a regiment of the British Army. ... May 27th, 1941 Fritz Knoechlein (1911 in Munich - January 28, 1949) was SS Obersturmführer. ... The Wormhoudt massacre was an atrocity against soldiers hors de combat in World War II that occurred on Tuesday 28 May 1940 when the German Infantry Regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler under the command of Sepp Dietrich, and allegedly specifically the 2nd Battalion controlled by Hauptsturmführer Wilhelm Mohnke, killed... The 12. ... Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer in 1942 after being awarded the Oakleaves to the Knights Cross Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer (December 23, 1910-December 23, 1961) served as an officer in the Waffen-SS during the Second World War. ... United States soldiers discover the aftermath of the Malmedy Massacre. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Verviers Coordinates , , Area 99. ... On April 13, 1945, German SS and Luftwaffe troops, retreating from the Allied advance, murdered 1016 political and military prisoners near the German town of Gardelegen. ... The Marzabotto massacre was a World War II massacre that took place in the small Italian town of Marzabotto. ... SantAnna di Stazzema is a village in Italian Tuscany where, on August 12, 1944, SS of 16. ... Geography The capital of the Cephallonia prefecture is Argostoli. ... Oradour-sur-Glane was a village in the Limousin région of France that was destroyed on 10 June 1944, when 642 of its inhabitants — including men, women and children — were murdered by a German Waffen-SS company. ... Lidice (Liditz in German) is a village in former Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic) which was completely destroyed by the Germans during World War II. About 340 men, women, and children from the village were murdered by the Germans. ... German soldiers of the 117th Jäger Division in the burning town of Kalavryta The Holocaust of Kalavryta (Greek: ), or the Massacre of Kalavryta (Σφαγή των Καλαβρύτων), refers to the extermination of the male population and the subsequent total destruction of the town of Kalavryta, in Greece, by German occupying forces during World... The Distomo Massacre was the extermination of 218 Greek citizens in the village Distomo, Boeotia Prefecture in Greece, on 10 June 1944 by Nazi forces. ... For other uses, see Warsaw Uprising (disambiguation). ... The city of Warsaw was nearly destroyed in a planned way by Nazi Germany after the fall of Warsaw Uprising in 1944. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... Vinkt is a small village in Belgium, with about 1200 inhabitants, now part of the town of Deinze and situated 20 km South West of Gent. ...

Other crimes against humanity included: For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Auschwitz, in English, commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built near the town of Oświęcim, by Nazi Germany during World War II. Rarely, it may refer to the Polish town of Oświęcim (called by the Germans Auschwitz) itself. ... Gate with the words Jedem das Seine (literally, “to each his own”, but figuratively “everyone gets what he deserves”) Buchenwald concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain) near Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, in July 1937, and one of the largest such camps on German soil. ... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... Majdanek Memorial, containing the ashes of cremated victims Majdanek fence in the winter (2005) Majdanek (originally Konzentrationslager Lublin) is the site of a German Nazi concentration and extermination camp, roughly 2. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... Sobibór was a Nazi extermination camp that was part of Operation Reinhard. ... The CheÅ‚mno extermination camp was a Nazi extermination camp that was situated 70 km from Łódź near a small village called CheÅ‚mno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr, in German), in Greater Poland (which was, in 1939, annexed and incorporated into Germany under the name of Reichsgau Wartheland). ... The main entrance just after the liberation Memorial at the camp in 1997 Dachau was a Nazi German concentration camp, and the first one opened in Germany, located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory near the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km (10 miles) northwest of Munich... Prisoners of Sachsenhausen, 19 Dec 1938 Sachsenhausen (IPA: ) was a concentration camp in Germany, operating between 1936 and 1950. ... Mauthausen is a small town in Upper Austria about 20 kilometers east of the city of Linz. ... Bergen-Belsen, sometimes referred to as just Belsen, was a German concentration camp in the Nazi era. ... Dachau concentration-camp inmates on a death march through a German village in April 1945. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Slave redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Babi Yar (Ukrainian: Бабин яр, Babyn yar; Russian: Бабий яр, Babiy yar) is a ravine in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, located between the Frunze and Melnykov streets and between the St. ... Rumbula Forest is a pine forest enclave in Riga, Latvia. ... REDIRECT Dnipropetrovsk ... Located outside of the Lithuanian city of Kaunas, the Ninth Fort was used as a Nazi prison camp, and site of the killing of thousands of Jews. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Paneriai (Polish: , German: ) is a suburb of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city centre. ... Belligerents Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (Å»OB, Å»ZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Ludwig Hahn Odilo Globocnik Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman Marek... Izieu is a village and commune in the Ain département in central-eastern France on the Rhône River, located between the cities of Lyon and Chambery. ...

  • The Porajmos, the Nazi pogrom against the Romany peoples of Europe
  • The Łapanka or "Catching Game," -- Nazi roundups of Poles in the major cities for slave labor and other purposes
  • Nikolaev Massacre
  • Operation Tannenberg, the AB Action and the Massacre of Lwów professors, all Nazi actions in Poland meant to mass murder the Polish intelligentsia and other potential leaders of resistance.
  • The Nazi T-4 Euthanasia Program, an aborted eugenics program meant to kill German children who were mentally or physically handicapped. 200,000 people were gassed to death due to this program.

Well over 10 million people were systematically killed by the Nazi regime (some accountings place the figure at over 20 million) from crimes against humanity, in particular the Holocaust. Of this figure, the largest amount of deaths happened among the Jews. The common estimate is that 5 to 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis, although a complete count may never be known. After the war, the Nazi regime was put on trial in two tribunals in Nuremberg, Germany by the victorious Allied powers from 1945 to 1949. The first tribunal indicted 24 major Nazi war criminals, and resulted in 19 convictions (of which 12 led to death sentences) and 3 acquittals. The second tribunal indicted 185 members of the military, economic, and political leadership of Nazi Germany, of which 142 were convicted and 35 were acquitted. In subsequent decades, approximately 20 additional war criminals who escaped capture in the immediate aftermath of World War II were tried in West Germany and Israel. In Germany and many other European nations, the Nazi Party is outlawed. Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Romany (or Romani) relates to: The Roma: a people sometimes pejoratively called Gypsies. Their language Romany was the pseudonym of a broadcaster and writer of Roma descent, George Bramwell Evens. ... A łapanka in Warsaws Żoliborz district, 1941. ... Operation Tannenberg (German: Unternehmen Tannenberg) was the codename for one of the extermination actions directed at the Polish people during World War II, part of the Generalplan Ost. ... AB-Aktion was a campaign to kill leaders of the Polish resistance and cause fear among the Polish population. ... Monument to the victims in Wrocław, Poland The murder of the Lwów professors was the mass execution of approximately 45 Polish professors of the University of Lwów (a. ... This poster reads: 60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community during his lifetime. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... In the common law legal system, an indictment (IPA: ) is a formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense. ... In law, a conviction is the verdict which results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of committing a crime. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... Chief prosecutor Telford Taylor opens the prosecution case in the Krupp Trial The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials (or, more formally, the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT)) were a series of twelve U.S. military trials for war crimes against surviving members of the military, political, and...


Hungarian perpetrated crimes

Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Ip massacre[citation needed] Murder of civilians no prosecutions

This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Japanese perpetrated crimes

Main article: Japanese war crimes

This section includes war crimes from 8 December 1941 when the United States declared war on Japan so entering World War II. For war crimes before this date which took place during the Second Sino-Japanese War please see the section above called 1937-1945: Second Sino-Japanese War. Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
World War II[citation needed] Crimes against peace General Doihara Kenji, Baron Hirota Koki, General Itagaki Seishiro, General Kimura Heitaro, General Matsui Iwane, General Muto Akira, General Tojo Hideki, General Araki Sadao, Colonel Hashimoto Kingoro, Field Marshal Hata Shunroku, Baron Hiranuma Kiichiro, Hoshino Naoki, Kaya Okinori, Marquis Kido Kōichi, General Koiso Kuniaki, General Minami Jiro, Admiral Oka Takasumi, General Oshima Hiroshi, General Sato Kenryo, Admiral Shimada Shigetaro, Shiratori Toshio, General Suzuki Teiichi, General Umezu Yoshijiro, Togo Shigenori, Shigemitsu Mamoru Were tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East
Waging aggressive war against the British Commonwealth (count 31 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Kenji Doihara, Shunroku Hata, Kiichiro Hiranuma, Naoki Hoshino, Seishiro Itagaki, Okinori Kaya, Koichi Kido, Heitaro Kimura, Kuniaki Koiso, Akira Muto, Takasumi Oka, Kenryo Sato, Mamoru Shigemitsu, Shigetaro Shimada,Teiichi Suzuki, Shigenori Togo, Hideki Tojo, Yoshijiro Umezu[4] War started with attacks on Hongkong and Malaya
Waging aggressive war against the Netherlands(count 32 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Kenji Doihara, Shunroku Hata, Kiichiro Hiranuma, Naoki Hoshino, Seishiro Itagaki, Okinori Kaya, Koichi Kido, Heitaro Kimura, Kuniaki Koiso, Akira Muto, Takasumi Oka, Kenryo Sato, Mamoru Shigemitsu, Shigetaro Shimada,Teiichi Suzuki, Shigenori Togo, Hideki Tojo, Yoshijiro Umezu[4]
Waging aggressive war against France in Indochina (count 33 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Mamoru Shigemitsu, Hideki Tojo[4]
Waging aggressive war against the USSR (counts 35 and 36 or both at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Kenji Doihara, Kiichiro Hiranuma, Seishiro Itagaki[4]
"ordered, authorized, and permitted" inhumane treatment of Prisoners of War (POWs) and others. (count 54 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Kenji Doihara, Seishiro Itagaki, Heitaro Kimura, Akira Muto, Hideki Tojo[4]
"deliberately and recklessly disregarded their duty" to take adequate steps to prevent atrocities. (counts 55 at the Tokyo Trials)[4] Shunroku Hata, Koki Hirota, Heitaro Kimura, Kuniaki Koiso, Iwane Matsui, Akira Muto, Mamoru Shigemitsu[4]
Banka Island Massacre,[citation needed] Dutch East Indies, 1942 Murder of civilians no prosecutions The merchant ship Vyner Brooke was sunk by Japanese aircraft. The survivors who made it to Banka Island were all shot or bayonetted. One nurse Vivian Bullwinkel survived the massacre and later testified at a war crimes trial in Tokyo in 1947[9]
Bataan Death March,[citation needed] Philippines, 1942[citation needed] Torture and murder of POWs General Masaharu Homma was convicted by an Allied commission of war crimes, including the atrocities of the death march out of Bataan, and the atrocities at Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan that followed. He was executed on April 3, 1946 outside Manila. Approximately 75,000 Filipino and US soldiers, commanded by Major General Edward P. King, Jr. formally surrendered to the Japanese, under General Masaharu Homma, on April 9, 1942, which forced Japan to accept emaciated captives outnumbering them. Captives were forced to march, beginning the next day, about 100 kilometers north to Nueva Ecija to Camp O'Donnell, a prison camp. Prisoners of war were beaten randomly and denied food and water for several days. Those who fell behind were executed through various means: shot, beheaded or bayoneted. Deaths estimated at 650-1,500 U.S. and 2,000 to over 5,000 Filipino-,[5]
Operation Sankō (Three Alls Policy)[citation needed] Extermination of civilians General Yasuji Okamura Authorized in December 1941 to implement a scorched earth policy in North China by Imperial General Headquarters. According to historian Mitsuyoshi Himeta, "more than 2,7 millions" civilians were killed in this operation that began in May 1942.
Parit Sulong massacre,[citation needed] Malaysia, 1942 Murder of POWs Lieutenant General Takuma Nishimura, was convicted for this crime by an Australian Military Court and hanged on June 11, 1951.[10] Recently captured Australian and Indian POWs, who had been too badly wounded to escape through the jungle, were murdered by Japanese soldiers. Accounts differ on how they were killed. Two wounded Australians managed to escape the massacre and provide eyewitness accounts of the Japanese treatment of wounded prisoners of war, as did locals who witnessed the massacre. Official records indicate that 150 wounded men were killed.
Laha massacre,[citation needed] 1942 Murder of POWs In 1946, the Laha massacre and other incidents which followed the fall of Ambon became the subject of the largest ever war crimes trial, when 93 Japanese personnel were tried by an Australian tribunal, at Ambon. Among other convictions, four men were executed as a result. Commander Kunito Hatakeyama, who was in direct command of the four massacres, was hanged; Rear Admiral Koichiro Hatakeyama, who was found to have ordered the killings, died before he could be tried.[11] After the battle Battle of Ambon, more than 300 Australian and Dutch prisoners of war were chosen at random and summarily executed, at or near Laha airfield in four separate massacres. "The Laha massacre was the largest of the atrocities committed against captured Allied troops in 1942.".[12]
Alexandra Hospital massacre, Battle of Singapore, 1942 Murder of civilians no prosecutions At about 1pm on February 14, Japanese soldiers approached Alexandra Barracks Hospital. Although no resistance was offered, some of them shot or bayoneted staff members and patients. More staff and patients were murdered over the next two days.[13]
Sook Ching Massacre, 1942[citation needed] Murder of civilians In 1947, the British Colonial authorities in Singapore held a war crimes trial to bring the perpetrators to justice. Seven officers, were charged with carrying out the massacre. While Lieutenant General Saburo Kawamura, Lieutenant Colonel Masayuki Oishi received the death penalty, the other five received life sentences The massacre was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military administration during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942.
Manila Massacre[citation needed] Murder of civilians Tomoyuki Yamashita commander, Akira Muto chief of staff As commander of the 14th Area Army in the Philippines, Gen. Yamashita failed to stop his troops from killing over 100,000 Filipino citizens of Manila during the fighting with both native resistance forces and elements of the Sixth U.S. Army during the capture of the city in February, 1945. Yamashita pleaded inability to act and lack of knowledge of the massacre, due to his commanding other operations int the area. The defense failed, establishing the Yamashita Standard, which holds that a commander who makes no meaningful effort to uncover and stop atrocities is as culpable as if he had ordered them. His chief of staff Akira Muto was condemned by the Tokyo tribunal.
Unit 100[citation needed] biological warfare experiments on humans no prosecutions
Unit 731[citation needed] violating human right laws 12 members of the Kantogun were found guilty for the manufacture and use of biological weapons. Including: General Yamada Otsuzo, former Commander-in-Chief of the Kwantung Army and Major General Kawashima Kiyoshi, former Chief of Unit 731. The Soviet Union tried some members of Unit 731 at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. However those who surrendered to the Americans were never brought to trial as General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological weapons [14] .
Unit 8604[citation needed] biological warfare experiments on humans no prosecutions
Unit 9420[citation needed] biological warfare experiments on humans no prosecutions
Unit Ei 1644[citation needed] violating human rights no prosecutions Unit 1644 conducted tests to determine human susceptibility to a variety of harmful stimuli ranging from infectious diseases to poison gas. It was the largest germ experimentation center in China. Unit 1644 regularly carried out human vivisections as well as infecting humans with cholera, typhus, and bubonic plague.
construction of Burma-Thai Railway, the "Death Railway"[citation needed] POWs forced to support war effort no prosecutions
Comfort Women[citation needed] violating human rights laws no prosecutions Women were forced to work in Japanese military brothels.
Sandakan Death Marches[citation needed] Murder of civilian slave laborers and POWs Three Allied POWs survived to give evidence at war crimes trials in Tokyo and Rabaul. Hokijima was found guilty and hanged on April 6, 1946
War Crimes in Manchukuo Slave labor Kōa-in According to historian Zhifen Ju, more than 10 million Chinese civilians were mobilized by the Imperial Japanese Army for slave labor in Manchukuo under the supervision of the Kōa-in. [15]
Kaimingye germ weapon attack[citation needed] use of biological weapons no prosecutions These alleged attacks were a joint Unit 731 and Unit Ei 1644 endeavor.
Alleged Changteh Chemical Weapon Attack April and May, 1943[citation needed] use of chemical and biological weapons no prosecutions Alleged Chemical weapons supplied by Unit 516.

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of illegally starting a war. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二 Doihara Kenji, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese spy who served in northeastern China since 1913. ... Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... Col. ... Hyotaro Kimura (Kimura Hyōtarō, sometimes spelled Kimura Heitaro) was a Japanese army officer who played a major, although comparatively little-known role in Japanese planning and policy before and during World War 2. ... Gen. ... Akira Muto was born in Japan in 1883. ... Hideki Tojo Hideki Tojo (東條 英機 Tōjō Hideki) (December 30, 1884–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese general and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Hata Shuroku (born 1879 - died 1962), was a Japanese General during World War II. He entered the Imperial Japanese Army in 1888. ... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Naoki Hoshino , 1892-04-10–1978-01-26) was a militarist and right-wing ideologist who served in the Japanese Army in creating the Empire of Manchoukou and served during the Konoye Cabinet period. ... Marquis Koichi Kido ) (July 18, 1889 – April 6, 1977), served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II. Kido Kōichi was the grandson of Kido Takayoshi, one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. ... Kuniaki Koiso Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 国昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Jiro Minami ), (10 August 1874 – 5 December 1955) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and Governor-General of Korea between 1936 and 1942. ... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku ÅŒshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (1883 – 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. A graduate of Japan’s Naval Academy, Shimada rose through the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy and eventually became an admiral. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Yoshijiro Umezu (梅酢芳次郎 Umezu Yoshijirō, 1882-1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. Along with War Minister Korechika Anami and Soemu Toyoda, Chief of Staff of the Navy, Umezu opposed surrender in August of 1945; he believed that the military should fight on... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Naoki Hoshino , 1892-04-10–1978-01-26) was a militarist and right-wing ideologist who served in the Japanese Army in creating the Empire of Manchoukou and served during the Konoye Cabinet period. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors to the Emperor at... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (September 24, 1883 – June 7, 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Was graduated from Naval Academy. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Naoki Hoshino , 1892-04-10–1978-01-26) was a militarist and right-wing ideologist who served in the Japanese Army in creating the Empire of Manchoukou and served during the Konoye Cabinet period. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... Marquis Koichi Kido (木戸幸一 Kido Kōichi, July 18, 1889 - April 6, 1977), grandson of Kido Takayoshi, served as Lord Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was Emperor Hirohitos closest advisor throughout World War II. He was also one of the more cautious advisors to the Emperor at... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Shigetaro Shimada Shigetaro Shimada (嶋田繁太郎 Shimada Shigetaro) (September 24, 1883 – June 7, 1976) was one of the leading members of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Was graduated from Naval Academy. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Kenji Doihara (土肥原 賢二) Doihara Kenji, August 8, 1883 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese officer and spy who served in northeastern China from 1913 and who became a major military commander in Japans invasion of China over the following decades. ... Itagaki Seishiro (板垣 征四郎 Itagaki SÄ“shirō; January 21, 1885 - December 23, 1948) was a Japanese military officer in the Guandong Army. ... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... President of the Tribunal, Sir William Webb, Justice of the High Court of Australia, presiding over the Tribunal in 1946. ... Hata Shuroku (born July 26, 1879 - died May 10, 1962), was a Japanese general during World War II. Military career 2nd Lt (Artillery), June 1901 Graduated from War College with top scholarly rank, November 1910 Army General Staff, December 1910 Military student, Germany, March 1912 Major, July 1914; official duty... Koki Hirota Koki Hirota (広田 弘毅 Hirota Kōki, February 14, 1878–December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 32nd Prime Minister of Japan from March 9, 1936 to February 2, 1937. ... Heitaro Kimura graduated from the Japanese Military Academy in 1908, and from Japanese War College in 1916. ... Kuniaki Koiso (小磯 國昭 Koiso Kuniaki, March 22, 1880–November 3, 1950) was the 41st Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944 to April 7, 1945. ... General Iwane Matsui , July 27, 1878 - December 23, 1948) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army and the commander of the expeditionary forces sent to China. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Mamoru Shigemitsu (重光 葵, 1887 - June 27, 1957) was the Japanese Minister of Foreign affairs at the end of World War II. He, along with Yoshijiro Umezu, was the one who signed the instrument of surrender on September 2, 1945. ... The Banka Island Massacre, took place on 16 February 1942. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sister Vivian Bullwinkel (18 December 1915- 3 July 2000) was an Australian army nurse during the Second World War. ... Note on correct pronunciation: Filipino (Tagalog) speakers pronounce Bataan as (phonetically) Bata-An. In English, the name is rendered Baaa-Tan or Bat-tan. The Bataan Death March (also known as The Death March of Bataan) took place in the Philippines in 1942 and was later accounted as a Japanese... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Masaharu Homma (本間雅晴 Honma Masaharu, 1888 in Sado, Niigata Prefecture, Japan - April 3, 1946 in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, also known as the Poet General, was the Japanese General in charge of the troops and actions that created the Bataan death march in Philippines during 1942 and the bombing of... Camp ODonnell was a facility of the United States Air Force in Tarlac, The Philippines. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Major General Edward P. King Edward P. King was a Major General in the United States Army who gained prominence for leading the defense of the Bataan Peninsula in the Battle of Bataan against the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in WWII. Education He was born in Atlanta, Georgia in... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nueva Ecija is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... The Three Alls Policy (Japanese: 三光作戦, Sankō Sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sánguáng Zhèngcè) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although the Chinese characters literally mean three lights policy, in this case, the character for light actually means all. Thus, the term is more... General Yasuji Okamura (1884-1966) Yasuji Okamura was a Japanese General, commanding 2nd Division at the begining of the Second Sino-Japanese War. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Takuma Nishimura (1899–1951) was a soldier of the Empire of Japan. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30-February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During 1941, as the western Allies perceived the possibility of war with Japan, Ambon was seen to be a strategic location... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... The Battle of Ambon occurred on the island of Ambon in the Dutch East Indies, on January 30-February 3, 1942 during the Pacific campaign of World War II. During 1941, as the western Allies perceived the possibility of war with Japan, Ambon was seen to be a strategic location... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Summary execution of NVA spy during the Vietnam War. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... Chinatown was an enclave for the early Chinese immigrants in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki,) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II era. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... The Sixth United States Army was a field army of the United States Army. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were a series of hearings held between December 25 - 31st, 1949 in the Russian industrial city of Khabarovsk, (Хабáровск) situated on the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк). Here, twelve members of the Japanese Kwantung Army were tried as war criminals for manufacturing and using biological weapons during World War... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... Biological Weapons: Friend or Foe? By Dom Harris There is great debate about whether biological weapons are good or bad, and whether the world should be concerned about their development. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is an extreme diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support... Alternate Japanese name Chinese name Korean name Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for the thousands of women who were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese military brothels during World War II.[1] There is still some disagreement about exactly how many women were victimized. ... October 24, 1945. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... War crimes in Manchukuo are war crimes committed during the Japanese rule of Manchukuo, from 1931 to 1945. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... Changteh Chemical Weapon Attack: Reffering to Japanese Chemical toxic gas agent agression during Battle of Changteh,in Chinese Province of Hunan during May 1943. ... Unit 516 was a top secret Japanese chemical weapons facility, operated by the Kempeitai, in Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾), China. ...

Romanian perpetrated crimes

Incident type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Iasi pogrom[citation needed] murder of civilians, ethnic cleansing no prosecutions
Odessa massacre[citation needed] murder of civilians, ethnic cleansing no prosecutions
Aita Seaca massacre[citation needed]

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Odessa Massacre was the extermination of Jews and Communists in Odessa during the autumn of 1941. ...

Allied powers (listed by country)

Main article Allied war crimes during World War II

Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or military personnel of the Axis Armed Forces. ...

Soviet Union perpetrated crimes

Main article: Soviet war crimes
Concurrent with World War II
Incident type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Katyń massacre[citation needed] Murder of Polish POWs Lavrenty Beria, Joseph Stalin An NKVD-committed massacre of tens of thousands of Polish officers and intelligentsia throughout the spring of 1940. Originally believed to have been committed by the Nazis in 1941 (after the invasion of eastern Poland and the USSR), it was finally admitted by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990 that it had been a Soviet operation.
Invasion of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia[citation needed] Deportation and murder of civilian population Vladimir Dekanozov, Andrey Vyshinsky, Andrei Zhdanov, Ivan Serov, Joseph Stalin An NKVD-committed deportation of hundreds of thousands of Baltic intelligentsia, land holders and their families in June 1941 and again in January 1949.
Nemmersdorf, East Prussia Pillaging, and rape and murder of civilians, in contravention of Hague Conventions of 1907 "IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land" [16] Articles: 28,43,46,47,50 No prosecutions Nemmersdorf (today Mayakovskoye in Kaliningrad) was one of the first German settlements to fall to the advancing Red Army on October 22, 1944. It was recaptured by the Germans soon afterwards and the German authorities reported that the Red Army killed civilians there. Nazi propaganda widely disseminated the description of the event with horrible details, supposedly to boost the determination of German soldiers to resist the general Soviet advance. Because the incident was investigated by the Nazis and reports were disseminated as Nazi propaganda, discerning the facts from the fiction of the incident is difficult.
invasion of East Prussia War crimes in contravention of Hague Conventions of 1907 "IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land"[16] War crimes committed by Soviet troops in the areas of Germany occupied by the Red Army. Estimated number of civilian victims in the years 1944-46: at least 300.000 (but not all of them victims of war crimes, many died through starvation, the cold climate and diseases[17][18][19]
Treuenbrietzen Murder of German civilians Following the capture of the German city of Treuenbrietzen after fierce fighting. Over a period of several days at the end of April and beginning of May roughly 1000 inhabitants of the city, most of them men, were executed by Soviet troops.[20]
Battle of Berlin Mass rape[21]
Evacuation of Karafuto and Kuriles[citation needed] murder of civilians
Evacuation of Manchukuo[citation needed]
Expulsion of Germans during World War II mass murder, forced rape, others, during an illegal mass forcement of ethnic Germans from their homes in Prussia, Pomerania, Silesia [citation needed] War crimes committed by Soviet troops in the areas of Germany occupied by the Red Army. Estimated number of civilian victims in the years 1944-46: at least 300.000 (but not all of them victims of war crimes, many died through starvation, the cold climate and diseases[22][23][24]

Soviet war crimes gives a short overview about serious crimes, which probably offend against international law, committed by the Red Armys (1918-1946, later Soviet Army) leadership and an unknown number of single members of the Soviet armed forces during in 1919 - 1990 including those in Eastern Europe in... Photo taken in 1943, during the Nazi German exhumations of the Polish dead from the Katyn forest sites. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... The occupation of Baltic states generally refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) by the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany during World War II, and to the Soviet presence in the Baltics from 1945 until the re-establishment of their independence. ... Vladimir Georgievich Dekanozov Владимир Георгиевич Деканозов (June 1898, Baku - 23 December 1953) headed the Soviet foreign intelligence service INO in (GUGB), part of the NKVD, from 1938 to 1939. ... Andrey Vyshinsky Andrey Yanuaryevich Vyshinskiy (Андре́й Януа́рьевич Выши́нский) (December 10, 1883 [O.S. November 28]–November 22, 1954), also spelt Vishinsky, Vyshinski, was a Russian and Soviet jurist and later diplomat. ... Andrei Zhdanov Andrei Aleksandrovich Zhdanov (Андре́й Алекса́ндрович Жда́нов) (February 26 [O.S. February 14] 1896–August 31, 1948) was a Soviet politician. ... Ivan Aleksandrovich Serov (Иван Александрович Серов in Russian) (8. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Mayakovskoye in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia (formerly Nemmersdorf), was a German village in East Prussia. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law. ... Treuenbrietzen is a town in the Bundesland of Brandenburg, Germany. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500... The evacuation of Karafuto and the Kuriles refers to the events that took place as the Japanese population left these areas, to the north-west of the main islands of Japan, in August 1945. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Pommern redirects here. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ...

United Kingdom perpetrated crimes

Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Unrestricted submarine warfare against merchant shipping Breach of London Naval Treaty(1930) no prosecutions It was the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trials of Karl Dönitz that Britain had been in breach of the Treaty "in particular of an order of the British Admiralty announced on the 8 May, 1940, according to which all vessels should be sunk at sight in the Skagerrak"[25]

Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ...

United States perpetrated crimes

Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Unrestricted submarine warfare against merchant shipping Breach of London Naval Treaty (1930) no prosecutions During the post war Nuremberg Trials, in evidence presented at the trial of Karl Dönitz on his orders to the U-boat fleet to breach the London Rules, Admiral Chester Nimitz stated that unrestricted submarine warfare was carried on in the Pacific Ocean by the United States from the first day that nation entered the war.[25]
Canicattì massacre[citation needed] Murder of civilians no prosecutions During the Allied invasion of Sicily, eight civilians, including an eleven year old girl, were killed, though the exact number of casualties is uncertain. [6] The incident was covered up fearing that it would lead to reprisals from the civilian population.
Biscari massacre[citation needed] Murder of POWs Sergeant Horace T. West: court-martialed and was found guilty, stripped of rank and sentenced to life in prison, though he was later released as a private. Captain John T. Compton was court-martialed for killing 40 POWs in his charge. He claimed to be following orders. The investigating officer and the Judge Advocate declared that Compton's actions were unlawful, but he was acquitted. Following the capture of Biscari Airfield in Sicily on July 14, 1943, seventy-six German and Italian POWs were shot by American troops of the 180th Regimental Combat Team, 45th Division during the Allied invasion of Sicily. These killings occurred in two separate incidents between July and August 1943.
Dachau massacre[citation needed] Murder of POWs no prosecutions
Salina, Utah POW massacre[citation needed] Murder of POWs Private Clarence V. Bertucci determined to be insane and confined to a mental institution Private Clarence V. Bertucci fired a machine gun from one of the guard towers into the tents that were being used to accommodate the German prisoners of war. Nine were killed and 20 were injured.
Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan, 1945: A Japanese court stated in a judicial review that the attacks were on undefended cities. no prosecutions In 1963 the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the subject of a judicial review in Ryuichi Shimoda et al. v. The State.[26] The District Court of Tokyo declined to rule on the legality of nuclear weapons in general, but found that "the attacks upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused such severe and indiscriminate suffering that they did violate the most basic legal principles governing the conduct of war."[27] Francisco Gómez points out in an article published in the International Review of the Red Cross that, with respect to the "anti-city" or "blitz" strategy, that "in examining these events in the light of international humanitarian law, it should be borne in mind that during the Second World War there was no agreement, treaty, convention or any other instrument governing the protection of the civilian population or civilian property." [28] The United States have stated that they consider the possibility that the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings could be considered war crimes to be "intolerable and unacceptable", and that this is one of the major reasons for their not agreeing to be bound by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.[29]
Rheinwiesenlager[30] Deaths of POWs no prosecutions The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were transit camps for millions of German POWs after World War II. There were at least thousands of deaths, dying mostly from starvation and exposure. These estimates range from just over 3,000 to as many as 71,000.
American Mutilation of Japanese War Dead[31][32][33] Abuse of Remains - Many dead Japanese were desecrated and/or mutilated, for example by urinating on them, shooting corpses, or taking Japanese body parts (such as skulls) as souvenirs or trophies. This is in violation of the 1929 Geneva Convention on the sick and wounded, which provided that: After every engagement, the belligerent who remains in possession of the field shall take measures to search for wounded and the dead and to protect them from robbery and ill treatment.[34]

Unrestricted submarine warfare is a kind of naval warfare in which submarines sink merchant ships without warning. ... The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which to regulate submarine warfare and limited military shipbuilding. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... Combatants  United States  United Kingdom  Canada  Free French  Nazi Germany Italy Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery George S. Patton Albert Kesselring Alfredo Guzzoni Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin Strength 160,000 men 14,000 vehicles 600 tanks 1,800 guns 365,000 Italians 40,000 Germans Casualties... The Biscari massacre was a war crime committed by U.S. troops during World War II, where unarmed German and Italian prisoners of war were supposedly killed at Biscari in 1943. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Dachau massacre The Dachau Massacre took place in the Dachau concentration camp, near Dachau, Germany, on April 29, 1945 during World War II. The incident happened following the surrender of Dachau concentration camp to soldiers of the 45th Division of the US Seventh Army. ... The Salina, Utah Prisoners of War Massacre occured in Salina, Utah which was the home of some 250 German prisoners of war who were being used as workers on the local harvest. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ryuichi Shimoda et al. ... The International Review of the Red Cross (ISSN 1560-7755) is a quarterly periodic journal published by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement which, according to its publisher, aims to promote debate, reflection and critical analysis on international humanitarian law, humanitarian action and policy during international armed conflict... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... The Rheinwiesenlager (Rhine meadow camps) were transit camps for millions of German POWs after World War II. There were some deaths, with a few thousand German POWs dying from starvation and exposure. ...

Yugoslavian partisans perpetrated crimes

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Yugoslavia campaign Yugoslavian partisans
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Foibe massacres Murder of prisoners of war and civilians no prosecutions Following Italy's 1943 armistice with the Allied powers, Yugoslavian resistance forces executed an estimated 1,300-1,600 Italian troops and ethnic Italians living in Slovenian/Croatian territories adjacent to Italy.[35]
Bleiburg massacre Murder of prisoners of war and civilians no prosecutions The victims were Croatian soldiers and civilians (as well as a number of Chetniks), executed without trial as an act of vengeance for the crimes committed by the pro-Axis Ustaše regime controlled territories during World War II[36]. Estimates vary, from 30,000 to 55,000.

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ... Bleiburg memorial in Zagrebs Mirogoj cemetery The Bleiburg massacre, (also known in a more emotional context as the Bleiburg tragedy[1]) is a generalising name that encompasses events that took place during May 1945, after the formal end of World War II in Europe, but at a time when... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ... An UstaÅ¡e guard pose among the bodies of prisoners murdered in the Jasenovac concentration camp The UstaÅ¡e (also known as Ustashas or Ustashi) was a Croatian extreme nationalist movement. ...

1968-1973: Vietnam War

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Vietnam War United States
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
My Lai Massacre[citation needed] Murder of civilians Lt. William Calley convicted in 1971 of premeditated murder of 22 civilians for his role in the massacre and sentenced to life in prison. He served 3½ years under house arrest. In March, 1968, a US army platoon led by Lt. William Calley killed (and in some cases raped) hundreds of civilians – primarily women, children, and old men – in the village of My Lai. 26 US soldiers, including 14 officers, were charged with crimes related to the My Lai massacre and its coverup. Most of the charges were eventually dropped, and only Lt. Calley was convicted.
Operation Ranch Hand[citation needed] Use of chemical weapon on civilians no prosecutions
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
List of war crimes
  • "Vietnam War Crimes Working Group Files"[citation needed] - Briefly declassified (1994) and subsequently reclassified (2002?) documentary evidence compiled by a Pentagon task force detailing endemic war crimes. Substantiating 320 incidents by Army investigators, including seven massacres from 1967 through 1971 in which at least 137 civilians died (not including My Lai). Seventy-eight other attacks on noncombatants in which at least 57 were killed, 56 wounded and 15 sexually assaulted. One hundred forty-one instances in which U.S. soldiers tortured civilian detainees or prisoners of war.

Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: thảm sát Mỹ Lai) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 defenseless Vietnamese civilians, mostly women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968, in the hamlet of My Lai, during the Vietnam War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and became a national scandal. ... Operation Ranch Hand was a part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The United States National Archives and Records Administration houses a collection of formerly secret documents compiled by Pentagon investigators in the early 1970s. ...

North Vietnam

North Vietnam: The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the...

  • North Vietnamese troops executed 2500 civilians while occupying the city of Hue in 1968. An additional 3500 people are suspected to have been executed, but never found. See: Massacre at Huế.
  • U.S. Prisoners of war held at the so-called "Hanoi Hilton" were subject to torture and other mistreatment by their North Vietnamese captors.[citation needed]
  • Thousands of South Vietnamese perished in the concentration or "re-education" camps shortly after the fall of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City)[citation needed]

Huế (順化 in Chinese characters) is a city in Vietnam. ... The Massacre at Huế is the name given to describe the summary executions and mass killings that occurred during the Viet Cong and North Vietnams capture, occupation and withdrawal from the city of Huế during the Tet Offensive, considered one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam... This article is about the incarceration center for prisoners of war used during the Vietnam War. ...

1971: Bangladesh War

Armed conflict Perpetrator
1971 Bangladesh War Pakistan
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
1971 Bangladesh atrocities murder of civilians; genocide Allegedly the Pakistan Government, and the Pakistan Army and its local collaborators. A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on September 20, 2006 for crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity.[7] During the Bangladesh War of 1971, widespread atrocities were committed against the Bengali population of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), at a level that within Bangladesh, ‘genocide’ is the term that is still used to describe the event in almost every major publication and newspaper.[37][38] Although the word ‘genocide’ was and is still used frequently amongst observers and scholars of the events that transpired during the 1971 war, the allegations that a genocide took place during the Bangladesh War of 1971 were never investigated by an international tribunal set up under the auspices of the United Nations, so the alleged genocide is not recognised as a genocide under international law.
Civilian Casualties murder of civilians no prosecutions The number of civilians that died in the liberation war of Bangladesh is not known in any reliable accuracy. There has been a great disparity in the casualty figures put forth by Pakistan on one hand (26,000, as reported in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission[39]) and India and Bangladesh on the other hand (From 1972 to 1975 the first post-war prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, mentioned that 3 million died on a dozen occasions[40]).
Atrocities on women and minorities torture, rape and murder of civilians no prosecutions The minorities of Bangladesh, especially the Hindus, were specific targets of the Pakistan army.[41] Numerous East Pakistani women were tortured, raped and killed during the war. The exact numbers are not known and are a subject of debate. Bangladeshi sources cite a figure of 200,000 women raped, giving birth to thousands of war-babies. Some other sources, for example Susan Brownmiller, refer to an even higher number of over 400,000. Pakistani sources claim the number is much lower, though having not completely denied rape incidents.[42][43][44]
Killing of intellectuals murder of civilians no prosecutions During the war, the Pakistan Army and its local collaborators carried out a systematic execution of the leading Bengali intellectuals. A number of university professors from Dhaka University were killed during the first few days of the war.[45][46] However, the most extreme cases of targeted killing of intellectuals took place during the last few days of the war. On December 14, 1971, only two days before surrendering to the Indian military and the Mukhti Bahini forces, the Pakistani army – with the assistance of the Al Badr and Al Shams – systematically executed well over 200 of East Pakistan's intellectuals and scholars.[47][48]

Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The Bangladesh Liberation War (two other names are also used occasionally) refers to an approximately nine month long armed conflict between current day Bangladesh. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Susan Brownmiller (b. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...

Cambodian civil war 1970-1994

Cambodian Civil War. Khmer Rouge killed many persons due to political affiliation, education, class origin, occupation, and ethnicity. 12 Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted...


Lao civil war 1960-1975

Lao civil war. Murder of the royal family and people associated with the former government in re-education camps.[citation needed] Combatants Kingdom of Laos, United States, Thailand, Republic of Vietnam Pathet Lao Democratic Republic of Vietnam The Secret War (1962-1975) also known as the Laotian Civil War was a term used to describe the Laotian front of the Vietnam War. ...


1980-1988: Iran-Iraq War

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Iran-Iraq War Iraq
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Iran-Iraq War[citation needed] Waging a war of aggression no prosecutions In 1980, Iraq invaded neighboring Iran, allegedly to capture Iraqi territory held by Iran.
Use of chemical weapons Violation of 1925 Geneva Protocol[8] No prosecutions Iraq made extensive use of chemical weapons, including mustard gas and nerve agents such as tabun. Iraqi chemical weapons were responsible for over 100,000 Iranian casualties (including 20,000 deaths).[49]
Attacks on neutral shipping[citation needed] Attacks against parties not involved in a war No prosecutions Iraq attacked oil tankers from neutral nations in an attempt to disrupt enemy trade
Halabja poison gas attack Dutch court has ruled that the incident involved War Crimes and Genocide. Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti , officially titled Secretary General of the Northern Bureau of the Ba'ath Party from March 1987 to April 1989, and advisor to Saddam Hussein, was convicted in June 2007 of war crimes and was sentenced to death by an Iraqi court, along with accomplices Sultan Hashem Ahmed and Hussein Rashid Mohammed.
Frans van Anraat war crime.
Iraq also used chemical weapons against their own Kurdish population causing casualties estimated between several hundred up to 5,000 deaths[9]. On December 23, 2005 a Dutch court ruled in a case brought against Frans van Anraat for supplying chemicals to Iraq, that "[it] thinks and considers legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the genocide conventions as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq." and because he supplied the chemicals before 16 March 1988, the date of the Halabja attack, he is guilty of a war crime but not guilty of complicity in genocide.[50][51]
Armed conflict Perpetrator
Iran-Iraq War Iran
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Attacks on neutral shipping[citation needed] Attacks against parties not involved in the war no prosecutions Iran attacked oil tankers from neutral nations in an attempt to disrupt enemy trade.
Laid mines in international waters[citation needed] no prosecutions Mines damaged the US frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts

Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... This article is about the chemical. ... Tabun or GA (Ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate) is an extremely toxic substance that is one of the worlds most dangerous military weapons. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... Photo said to have been taken in the aftermath of the attack. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Frans Cornelis Adrianus van Anraat (born August 9, 1942 in Den Helder) is a Dutch businessman who sold raw materials for the production of chemical weapons to Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frans Cornelis Adrianus van Anraat (born August 9, 1942 in Den Helder) is a Dutch businessman who sold raw materials for the production of chemical weapons to Iraq during the reign of Saddam Hussein. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victims of the gas attack by Iraqi forces in 1988 Halabja (Arabic: , Kurdish: Helepçe) is a Kurdish town in Iraq about 150 miles northeast of Baghdad and 8-10 miles from the Iranian border. ... A tanker is usually a vehicle carrying large amounts of liquid fuel. ... USS (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navys Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided missile frigates. ...

Circa 1985-: Lord's Resistance Army v. Ugandan Government (kidnap, rape, and forced murder involving children)

  • 20 years warfare
  • The Times reports (Nov 26 2005 p.27):
Almost 20 years of fighting... has killed half a million people. Many of the dead are children... The LRA [a cannibalism cult][52] kidnaps children and forces them to join its ranks. And so, incredibly, children are not only the main victims of this war, but also its unwilling perpetrators... The girls told me they had been given to rebel commanders as "wives" and forced to bear them children. The boys said they had been forced to walk for days knowing they would be killed if they showed any weakness, and in some cases forced even to murder their family members... every night up to 10,000 children walk into the centre of Kitgum... because they are not safe in their own beds... more than 25,000 children have been kidnapped ...this year an average of 20 children have been abducted every week.

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Combatants Uganda Peoples Defence Force Lords Resistance Army Commanders Yoweri Museveni Joseph Kony The Lords Resistance Army (LRA),[1] formed in 1987, is a rebel guerrilla army operating mainly in northern Uganda and parts of Sudan. ... Kidnapper redirects here. ... Kitgum is a district in northern Uganda of 9,773. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...

Sabra and Shatila massacre 1982

See Sabra and Shatila massacre The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was an attack carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut. ...


Yugoslav wars 1991-1999

Croatian War of Independence 1991-1995

Also see List of ICTY indictees for a variety of war criminals and crimes during this era. This is a complete listing of all indictees of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia along with their ethnic origin, rank or occupation, details of charges against them and the disposition of their cases. ...

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Croatian War of Independence Yugoslav People's Army, Army of Serbian Krajina and paramilitary units.
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Borovo Selo killings [53] Murder of 12 and wounding of 20 policemen Serb paramilitary units commanded by Vojislav Šešelj. Šešelj is on trial at ICTY. 2 May 1991
Ovčara massacre [54] Over 264 civilians and wounded POWs executed after Battle of Vukovar Serb Territorial Defense and paramilitary units. Mile Mrkšić sentenced to 20 years, Veselin Šljivančanin sentenced to 5 years. Miroslav Radić acquitted. 18 November - 21 November 1991; bodies buried in a mass grave
Dalj killings[55] Execution of 11 detainees Territorial Defense of SAO SBWS under Željko Ražnatović. Dalj was also one of the charges on the Slobodan Milošević ICTY indictment. 21 September 1991; bodies buried in a mass grave in the village of Celija
Dalj massacre [56] Massacre of 28 detainees Territorial Defense of SAO SBWS under Željko Ražnatović. Dalj was also one of the charges on the Slobodan Milošević ICTY indictment. 4 October 1991
Lovas massacre[57] Massacre of 21-30 detainees, most of whom were civilians. Yugoslav People's Army, Territorial Defense of SAO SBWS and Dušan Silni paramilitary unit. Ljuban Devetak and 17 individuals are being tried by Croatian Courts. Lovas was also one of the charges on the Slobodan Milošević ICTY indictment. 10 October 1991
Široka Kula massacre[58] Massacre of 40 civilians. JNA and Krajina Serb Territorial Defense. Široka Kula near Gospić. On October 13, 1991.
Baćin massacre[58] Massacre of approximately 110 civilians. Serb Territorial Defense forces and SAO Krajina militia. Milan Babić and Milan Martić convicted by ICTY. Baćin was also one of the charges on the Slobodan Milošević ICTY indictment. On 21 October 1991.
Massacre in Vukovići (near Poljanak)[59] Massacre of 10 civilians. Serb-led JNA and TO forces. Milan Babić and Milan Martić convicted. On November 7, 1991.
Saborsko massacre[58] Massacre of 29 civilians. Serb-led JNA (special JNA unit from Niš) and rebel Serbs militia. Milan Babić and Milan Martić convicted. On November 12, 1991.
Škabrnja massacre[60] Massacre of 86 civilians and POWs. Serb forces. Milan Babić and Milan Martić convicted. On November 18, 1991.
Siege of Dubrovnik[61] Shelling of civilian targets that killed almost 90 civilians JNA and Montenegrin territorial forces. Several JNA commanders sentenced. Shelling of UNESCO protected World Heritage site. October 1991.
Voćin massacre[62] Massacre of 32 civilians. White Eagles paramilitary group under Vojislav Šešelj, indicted by ICTY. Voćin was also one of the charges on the Slobodan Milošević ICTY indictment. 13 December 1991.
Bruška massacre[63] Massacre of civilians. Serb forces. Milan Babić and Milan Martić convicted. On December 21, 1991.
Zagreb rocket attack[64] Shelling of civilian targets in 1995 that killed 6 and wounded at least 175. RSK Serb forces. Leader Milan Martić bragged on Television about ordering the assault, the videotape being used against him at ICTY, convicted. Rocket attack was started as revenge for Serb military defeat in Operation Flash.
Ethnic cleansing in Serb Krajina[58] Expulsion of almost 78,000 non-Serbs (mostly Croats) JNA and Serb paramilitaries. Many people, including leaders Milan Babić and Milan Martić, convicted at ICTY and Croatian courts. June-December 1991
Armed conflict Perpetrator
Croatian War of Independence Croatian Army and paramilitary units
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Lora prison camp[65] Torture of POWs Croatian army. Several people convicted by Croatian courts.[citation needed] Croatian internment camp for Serb soldiers and civilians between 1992 and 1997
Gospić massacre[66] Massacre of 50-100 civilians Croatian army. Commander Mirko Norac and others convicted by Croatian courts. 16 October - 18 October 1991
Miljevci plateau incident[67] Killings of 40 militiamen Croatian army. No prosecutions 21 June 1992; invasion and permanent occupation of territory under international protection; bodies buried in mass graves nearby
Battle for Maslenica Bridge[68] Killings of 490 or 491 individuals Croatian army. No prosecutions 22 January - 1 February 1993; invasion of territory under international protection
Mirlovic Polje incident[69] Murder of 7 elderly civilians Croatian paramilitaries. No prosecutions 6 September 1993; 5 men and 2 women, four were executed and three burned alive at the stake
Operation Medak Pocket Killings of at least 31 civilians; wounding 4 UN peacekeepers[70] Croatian army. Commanders Janko Bobetko and Rahim Ademi. Ademi is on trial at ICTY; Bobetko died in the meantime 9 September - 17 September 1993; invasion of territory under international protection and assault on UN peacekeeping forces
Operation Flash[71] Killings of 83 civilians and causing an exodus of 30,000 Croatian army. No prosecutions 1 May - 3 May 1995; Western Slavonia fully taken from RSK; 53 were killed in their own homes, while 30 during the Croatian raids of the refugee colons; invasion and permanent occupation of territory under international protection
Operation Storm[72] Killings of hundreds, approximately 677, and expulsions of approximately 200,000-250,000 civilians Croatian army. Generals Ante Gotovina, Ivan Čermak and Mladen Markač. The three are on trial at ICTY 4 August - 15 November 1995; considered by ICTY to be a part of a "joint criminal enterprise" by the Croatian state core in an attempt to expel the Croatian Serb population; invasion and permanent occupation of territory under international protection; ended the war in Croatia

Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The Borovo Selo killings of 2 May 1991 (known in Croatia as the Borovo Selo massacre, Croatian:Pokolj u Borovom Selu and in Serbia as the Borovo Selo incident, Serbian: Инцидент у Боровом Селу) were one of the bloodiest incidents in the early stages of the breakup of Yugoslavia. ... A poster for the 2004 presidential elections, for which Å eÅ¡elj himself was not running, due to the fact that he was awaiting trial in The Hague. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Ovčara memorial The Vukovar massacre was an incident that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... We dont have an article called Mile MrkÅ¡ić Start this article Search for Mile MrkÅ¡ić in. ... Veselin Å ljivančanin in 1992 Veselin Å ljivančanin (born June 13, 1953 in Pavez, the municipality of Žabljak, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former officer of the Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Željko Ražnatović (Serbian: Жељко Ражнатовић), widely known as Arkan (Аркан), (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), was a Serbian paramilitary leader accused on numerous accounts of war crimes committed during Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Željko Ražnatović (Serbian: Жељко Ражнатовић), widely known as Arkan (Аркан), (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), was a Serbian paramilitary leader accused on numerous accounts of war crimes committed during Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Lovas on the map of Croatia Lovas is a village and seat of municipality in the Vukovar-Srijem county of eastern Croatia, located on the slopes of FruÅ¡ka Gora, a few kilometers south of the main road connecting Vukovar with Ilok. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Å iroka Kula massacre was a war crime [1] committed by Croatian Serbs forces on October 13, 1991 (the biggest part of it), during Croatian War of Independence, in a village of Å iroka Kula, located 11 km from Gospić and 3 km from Lički Osik. ... Hrvatska Dubica on the map of Croatia Hrvatska Dubica is a village and a municipality in central Croatia in the Sisak-Moslavina county. ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... A monument to victims of massacre in Saborsko One of the identified mass-graves in Saborsko The Saborskom massacre was a war crime [1] committed by Serb-led JNA (mostly consisted of Serbs) and rebel Serbs militia Militia of Republic of Serb Krajina (from neighbouring PlaÅ¡ki [2]) on October... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... According to the census of 1991, Å kabrnja was inhabited by 1,953 people in 397 households, and the vast majority of them were Croats, there wasnt a single Serb resident. ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... Combatants Yugoslav Army (JNA), Montenegro Territorial Defence Forces Croatian Army (HV) Commanders Veljko Kadijević (Chief of Staff of Yugoslav Peoples Army) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (from 1992) Strength Between 7,500 and 20,000 men [1] Up to 2,000 soldiers... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Voćin massacre was a massacre of between 45 and 55 Croatian civilians [1] in the village of Voćin, perpetuated by Serb paramilitary units in December 1991 during the Croatian War of Independence. ... Sholder patch of the paramilitary group the White Eagles. ... A poster for the 2004 presidential elections, for which Å eÅ¡elj himself was not running, due to the fact that he was awaiting trial in The Hague. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... The Zagreb rocket attack was a war crime conducted by Serb armed forces that fired ground-to-ground missiles on the Croatian capital of Zagreb. ... RSK may stand for: Republic of Serb Krajina Robinson-Schensted algorithm, between biwords and pairs of tableaux RSK (gene), ribosomal S6 kinase, a notable gene Sanyo Broadcasting, a Japanese radio and TV station Categories: | ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The borders of the RSK c. ... Milan Babić (Милан Бабић; February 26, 1956 – March 5, 2006) was from 1991 to 1995 the first President of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, a largely Serb-populated region that had broken away from Croatia. ... Milan Martić (born 18 November 1954, near Knin, Yugoslavia) is an ethnic Serbian politician from Croatias Serbian minority. ... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... Croatian Ground Army (Croatian: Hrvatska kopnena vojska), commonly referred as Croatian Army (Hrvatska vojska) is a branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Gospić massacre was an incident that took place between 16 October-18 October 1991 in the town of Gospić, a mixed Serb/Croat community in the district of Lika in Croatia. ... Mirko Norac as duke of Sinjska alka Mirko Norac (born September 19, 1967 in Otok, municipality of Sinj, Croatia) is former general of Croatian Army and a convicted war criminal. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... On June 21, 1992, the Croatian army attacked the Serbian Territorial Defense on the Miljevci Plateau near Drnis in front of the eyes of UN peacekeeping force (UNPROFOR). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia UNPROFOR: - Canadian PPCLI - French armour units Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Janko Bobetko, Petar Stipetić Rahim Ademi Colonel Jim Calvin Mile Novaković Strength Over 2,500 soldiers, T-72 tanks, Large numbers of artillery 875 members of the 2nd Battalion Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI)  ? Casualties... Janko Bobetko (1919 - 2003) was a Croatian army general and the Croatian armys Chief of the General Staff between 1992 and 1995. ... Rahim Ademi (born January 30, 1954) is Croatian Army general of Kosovo-Albanian origin. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina Commanders Croatian Military Command Strength 7,200 soldiers 5000 soldiers Casualties 55 killed, 162 wounded 250 killed, 1,500 POW Operation Flash (Croatian: ) was a brief and successful offensive conducted in the beginning of May 1995 by the the Croatian Army, which removed Serb... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Croatia (HV) Bosnia and Herzegovina (ABiH) Republic of Serbian Krajina (VSK) Republika Srpska (VRS) Commanders Zvonimir ÄŒervenko (HV) Atif Dudakovic (ABiH) Mile MrkÅ¡ić (VSK) Strength 150,000 soldiers, 350 tanks, 400 artillery pieces, 50 rocket launchers, 50 aircraft and helicopters 40,000 soldiers, 150 tanks, 350 artillery pieces... Ante Gotovina Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955, Island of PaÅ¡man, Yugoslavia, now Croatia) is a former lieutenant general (general pukovnik) of the Croatian Army who served in the 1991-1995 war in Croatia. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bosnian War 1992-1995

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Bosnian War Army of Republika Srpska, Paramilitary units from Serbia, local Serb police and civilians.
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Srebrenica Massacre[73] Genocide, according to ICTY and ICJ; Murder of 8,200 Bosnian Muslim men and boys Army of Republika Srpska. President Radovan Karadžić and General Ratko Mladić charged. Following the fall of the eastern Bosnian enclave of Srebrenica the men were separated from the women and executed over a period of several days in July 1995.
Markale massacres[74] Murder of civilians Army of Republika Srpska. No prosecutions The victims were civilians who were shopping in an open air market in Sarajevo when Serb forces shelled the market. Two separate incidents. Feb 1994; 68 killed and 144 wounded and August 1995; 37 killed and 90 wounded.
Tuzla massacre[citation needed] Murder of 72 and wounding of more than 200 civilians Army of Republika Srpska. No prosecutions. On May 25, 1995 the Serb army shelled the city of Tuzla and killed 72 people with a single shell.
Korićani Cliffs massacre[citation needed] More than 200 men executed. Serbian reserve police. Darko Mrđa was convicted.
Ahatovići massacre[citation needed] 64 men and boys tortured, 56 killed. Serb forces. No prosecutions. Rounded up in an attack on a village, they were tortured. Claiming they were going to be exchanged, Serb forces put them on a bus, which they attacked with machineguns and granades on June 14, 1992. 8 survived by hiding under bodies of the dead.
Armed conflict Perpetrator
Bosnian War Croat forces HVO.
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible -
Ahmići[citation needed] Crimes against humanity according to ICTY; Murder of 116 civilians in the village of Ahmići Croatian Defence Council No prosecutions On April 16, 1993, the Croatian Defence Council attacked the village of Ahmići and killed 116 Bosniaks.
Stupni Do[citation needed] Crimes against humanity according to ICTY; Murder of 37 civilians in the village of Stupni Do Croatian Defence Council. No prosecutions. On October 23, 1993, the Croatian Defence Council attacked the village of Stupni do and killed 37 Bosniaks.
Armed conflict perpetrator
Bosnian War HVO and Konjic Territorial Defence (TO)
Incident type of crime Persons responsible -
Čelebići prison camp[citation needed] Torture Konjic defence forces. The commander of the camp Zdravko Mucić and the deputy commander Hazim Delić were sentenced to 9 and 18 years.

Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... Ratko Mladić General Ratko Mladić during UN-mediated talks at Sarajevo airport in 1993. ... Photograph from the scene, shortly after one of the massacres. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Tuzla (disambiguation). ... The Korićani Cliffs massacre was a mass murder of more than 200 Bosniak men by a Serbian reserve police unit from the town of Prijedor (western Bosnia and Herzegovina). ... Ahatovići is a small village in the municipality of Ilidza Sarajevo. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Ahmići is a village in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Stupni Do is a village in the municipality of VareÅ¡ in central Bosnia and Herzegovina It is located 3 km southeast of the city of VareÅ¡. This small village has only received notoriety because of the atrocity committed there during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... The Croatian Defence Council (Croatian Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was the main military unit of the Croats during the Bosnian War charged with achieving the military objectives of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia. ... ÄŒelebići prison camp was a Konjic defence forces run prison camp [1] in the municipality of Konjic during the Bosnian War. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Hazim Delić (*1964) was the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina Deputy Commander of the ÄŒelebići prison camp, a Konjic defence forces run prison camp [1] who was charged with crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, and violations of the customs of war by the International Criminal...

Kosovo War 1998-1999

Armed conflict Perpetrator
Kosovo War Serbian Army, Paramilitary units from Serbia, local Serb police.
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Bela Crkva killings Murder of 65 civilians. Yugoslav military and Serbian police forces. No prosecutions 25 March 1999
Velika and Mala Kruša massacre[citation needed] Massacre of 105 men and boys. Yugoslav military and Serbian police. No prosecutions 25-26 March 1999; the Serbian police burned the bodies
Đakovica incident[citation needed] Murder of 6 men. Yugoslav military. No prosecutions 26 March 1999
Berisha incident[citation needed] at least 44 civilians killed, 3 injured Yugoslav military. No prosecutions 26 March 1999
Padalište killings[citation needed] Murder of around 20 civilians. Yugoslav military. No prosecutions 26 March 1999
Izbica executions[citation needed] Executions of at least 116 men Yugoslav military and Serbian police. No prosecutions 27-28 March 1999
Qerim massacre[citation needed] over 50 people killed Serbian police. No prosecutions 1-2 April 1999; 19 of the victims were women and children
Đakovica assault[citation needed] Murder of up to 300 male civilians. Yugoslav military. No prosecutions 27 April 1999
Vučitrn assault[citation needed] Expulsion of approximately 20,000 people, 104 individuals murdered. Yugoslav military. No prosecutions 2 May 1999
Dubrava Prison complex[citation needed] Execution of over 50 prisoners. Serbian prison guard. No prosecutions. 22-23 May 1999
Kačanik assaults[citation needed] over 100 civilians killed Yugoslav military. No prosecutions March-May 1999; a series of different attacks and massacres in the municipality throughout the war
Kosovo War KLA
Incident type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Llapushnik prison camp[citation needed] inhumane treatment and torture of Serb and Albanian detainees; murder of 11 Albanian prisoners and execution of 21 detainees KLA prison guard Haradin Bala sentenced to 13 years by the ICTY. Fatmir Limaj and Isak Musliu acquitted a 1998 internment camp for Serbs, Roms and Albanians who wouldn't submit to the KLA; 25-26 July 1998 detainees were thrown off the Berisha mountain
Metohija ethnic cleansing[citation needed] persecution of non-Albanians; at least 39 Serb and Roma civilians ex KLA Commander and Kosovo Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj, commander of the Black Eagles Idriz Balaj and KLA Deputy Commander Lahi Brahimaj at trial in ICTY 1997-1998; wide-scale ethnic cleansing of western Kosovo, attacks on refugee camps and removal of Serbs, Roms and opposing Albanians
Kosovo War NATO
Incident type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Operation Allied Force[citation needed] killing over 500 civilians to airbombing NATO air forces under Wesley Clark. No prosecutions. 24-10 June 1999

Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Arms of Armed Forces of Serbia The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије - Vojska Srbije) is the successor to the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... (Redirected from 25 March) March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... (Redirected from 27 March) March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... (Redirected from 1 April) April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... (Redirected from 22 May) May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu and Haradin Bala are charged by the ICTY with a series of beatings and murders in a KLA prison camp in a family compound in Lapusnik to deal with Serbs and suspected Albanian collaborators between May and July 1998 during the Kosovo War. ... Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu and Haradin Bala are charged by the ICTY with a series of beatings and murders in a KLA prison camp in a family compound in Lapusnik to deal with Serbs and suspected Albanian collaborators between May and July 1998 during the Kosovo War. ... (Redirected from 25 July) July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Metohija (Serbian: Метохија) also spelled Metohia, is a large western basin in Kosovo. ... Ramush Haradinaj (born 3 July 1968 in the village of Glodjane near Dečani, in Kosovo, Yugoslavia) is a former guerrilla leader and prime minister of Kosovo. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATOs military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... (Redirected from 24 March) March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

1990-2000: Liberia / Sierra Leone

From The Times March 28 2006 p.43: The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

"Charles Taylor, the former Liberian President who is one of Africas most wanted men, has gone into hiding in Nigeria to avoid extradition to a UN war crimes tribunal... The UN war crimes tribunal in Sierra Leone holds Mr Taylor responsible for about 250,000 deaths. Throughout the 1990s, his armies and supporters, made up of child soldiers orphaned by the conflict wreaked havoc through a swath of West Africa. In Sierra Leone he supported the Revolutionary United Front (R.U.F) whose rebel fighters were notorious for hacking off the limbs of civilians.
  • Current action - Indicted on 17 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity by the UN, which has issued an international warrant for his arrest. As of April 2006 located, extradited, and facing trial in Sierra Leone but then transferred to The Netherlands as requested by the Liberian government.

For other persons named Charles Taylor, see Charles Taylor (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was a rebel army that fought a failed ten-year insurrection in Sierra Leone, starting in 1991 and ending in 2002. ... April 2006 : ← - January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Marcos Pontes, Brazils first astronaut, reaches the International Space Station. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...

1990: Invasion of Kuwait

Armed conflict Perpetrator
1990:Invasion of Kuwait Iraq
Incident Type of crime Persons responsible Notes
Invasion of Kuwait[citation needed] "breach of international peace and security" (UN Security Council Resolution 660) no prosecutions
Looting, raping and killing of civilians in Kuwait[citation needed] crimes against humanity no prosecutions country devastated, resources wantonly destroyed

For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 was adopted on 2 August 1990. ...

1998-2006: Second Congo War

See also: Cases before the International Criminal Court#Democratic Republic of Congo Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ...

  • Civil war 1998-2002, est. 4 million deaths; war "sucked in" Rwanda, Uganda, Angola, Zimbabwe and Namibia, as well as 17,000 United Nations peacekeepers, its "largest and most costly" peace mission and "the bloodiest conflict since the end of the Second World War."
  • Fighting involves Mai-Mai militia and Congolese government soldiers. The Government originally armed the Mai-Mai as civil defence against external invaders, who then turned to banditry.
  • 100,000 refugees living in remote disease ridden areas to avoid both sides
  • Estimated 1000 deaths a day according to Oxfam:
"The army attacks the local population as it passes through, often raping and pillaging like the militias. Those who resist are branded Mai-mai supporters and face detention or death. The Mai-mai accuse the villagers of collaborating with the army, they return to the villages at night and extract revenge. Sometimes they march the villagers into the bush to work as human mules."

[75] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Mai-Mai, also known as Mayi-Mayi, is a general term referring to a broad variety of Congolese militia groups active in the Second Congo War currently taking place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). ... DRC redirects here. ... Oxfam International logo Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice. ... Look up abduction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In logic, abduction is a method of reasoning; see abductive reasoning. ...


2003-present: Darfur conflict, War in Chad (2005–present)

  • The entire conflict is allegedly a genocide perpetrated by the involved combatants in Darfur.

Combatants JEM factions NRF alliance Janjaweed SLM (Minnawi)  Sudan African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Commanders Ibrahim Khalil Ahmed Diraige Omar al-Bashir Minni Minnawi Luke Aprezi Strength N/A N/A 7,000 The Darfur conflict is a crisis in the... Combatants United Front for Democratic Change Janjaweed Allegedly supported by:  Sudan  Chad, Alliance of Revolutionary Forces of West Sudan Commanders Mohammed Nour (UFDC) Idriss Déby Strength Unknown UFDC forces[1] ~23,000 est. ... Dead animals lie in the middle of a burned and looted village in Darfur Main article: Darfur conflict While there is a general consensus in the international community that ethnic groups have been targeted and that crimes against humanity have therefore occurred, there has been debate in some quarters about... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ...

Notes

  1. ^ This list is a work in progress and is not complete
  2. ^ Comment by The Times, November 21 2006 p.17, in relation to Jean-Pierre Bemba of the Congo: "There was nothing funny about his soldiers' actions in Eastern Congo... Among the crimes alleged are mass murder, rape and acts of cannibalism. Yet one senior UN diplomat has indicated privately that for the sake of peace, the investigation [by the International Criminal Court] into Bemba's responsibility may be sidelined. It isn't just in Congo that trade-offs are being made. [...] Skeptics point out that those who have stood trial so far have either been defeated in war or are retired and irrelevant. They insist there would be no chance of hauling powerful political figures in Washington and London before a court to answer for their actions..."
  3. ^ Jugement: The Law Relating to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Staff, Tokyo War Crimes Trial, [[China News Digest International] section "III. The verdict"
  5. ^ HyperWar: International Military Tribunal for the Far East [Chapter 8]
  6. ^ Kangzhan.org article on the Rape of Nanking
  7. ^ Xinhuanet.com article on Changjiao Massacre (in Simplified Chinese) 厂窖惨案一天屠杀一万人
  8. ^ People.com article (in Simplied Chinese) 骇人听闻的厂窖惨案
  9. ^ Banka Island Massacre (1942)
  10. ^ ThisIsFolkestone.co.uk
  11. ^ Fall of Ambon Massacred at Laha
  12. ^ Dr Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
  13. ^ Alexandra Massacre. Retrieved on December 7, 2005.
  14. ^ Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 2003, p.97
  15. ^ Zhifen Ju, Japan's atrocities of conscripting and abusing north China draftees after the outbreak of the Pacific war, 2002.
  16. ^ a b IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land in the Avalon Project at Yale Law School
  17. ^ Excerpt, Chapter one The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945-2002 - William I. Hitchcock - 2003 - ISBN 0-385-49798-9 (No pages cited)
  18. ^ A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 - Alfred-Maurice de Zayas - 1994 - ISBN 0-312-12159-8 (No pages cited)
  19. ^ Barefoot in the Rubble - Elizabeth B. Walter - 1997 - ISBN 0-9657793-0-0 (No pages cited)
  20. ^ Claus-Dieter Steyer, "Stadt ohne Männer" (City without men) , Der Tagesspiegel online June 21 2006 , viewed November 11 2006 at [1]
  21. ^ Antony Beevor They raped every German female from eight to 80 in The Guardian May 1, 2002
  22. ^ Excerpt, Chapter one The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945-2002 - William I. Hitchcock - 2003 - ISBN 0-385-49798-9 (No pages cited)
  23. ^ A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 - Alfred-Maurice de Zayas - 1994 - ISBN 0-312-12159-8 (No pages cited)
  24. ^ Barefoot in the Rubble - Elizabeth B. Walter - 1997 - ISBN 0-9657793-0-0 (No pages cited)
  25. ^ a b Judgement : Doenitz the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School
  26. ^ Shimoda et al. v. The State, Tokyo District Court, 7 December 1963
  27. ^ Falk, Richard A.. "The Claimants of Hiroshima", The Nation, 1965-02-15.  reprinted in (1966) "The Shimoda Case: Challenge and Response", in Richard A. Falk, Saul H. Mendlovitz eds.: The Strategy of World Order. Volume: 1. New York: World Law Fund, pp. 307-13. 
  28. ^ International Review of the Red Cross no 323, p.347-363 The Law of Air Warfare (1998)
  29. ^ John Bolton The Risks and Weaknesses of the International Criminal Court from America's Perspective, (page 4) Law and Contemporary Problems January 2001, while US ambassador to the United Nations
  30. ^ U.S. (and French) abuse of German PoWs, 1945-1948
  31. '^ Xavier Guillaume, "A Heterology of American GIs during World War II". H-US-Japan (July, 2003). Access date: January 4, 2008.
  32. ^ James J. Weingartner “Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941 – 1945” Pacific Historical Review (1992)
  33. ^ Simon Harrison “Skull Trophies of the Pacific War: transgressive objects of remembrance” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S) 12, 817-836 (2006)
  34. ^ James J. Weingartner “Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941 – 1945” Pacific Historical Review (1992) p.59
  35. ^ see the article Foibe massacres, (lots of references but no citations)
  36. ^ Words from the article Bleiburg massacre, (lots of references no citations)
  37. ^ Editorial The Jamaat Talks Backin The Bangladesh Observer December 30, 2005
  38. ^ Dr. N. Rabbee Remembering a Martyr Star weekend Magazine, The [[Daily Star (Bangladesh)|]] December 16, 2005
  39. ^ Hamoodur Rahman Commission, Chapter 2, Paragraph 33
  40. ^ F. Hossain Genocide 1971 Correspondence with the Guinness Book of Records on the number of dead
  41. ^ U.S. Consulate (Dacca) Cable, Sitrep: Army Terror Campaign Continues in Dacca; Evidence Military Faces Some Difficulties Elsewhere, March 31, 1971, Confidential, 3 pp
  42. ^ Debasish Roy Chowdhury 'Indians are bastards anyway' in Asia Times June 23, 2005 "In Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape, Susan Brownmiller likens it to the Japanese rapes in Nanjing and German rapes in Russia during World War II. "... 200,000, 300,000 or possibly 400,000 women (three sets of statistics have been variously quoted) were raped.""
  43. ^ Brownmiller, Susan, "Against Our Will : Men, Women, and Rape" ISBN 0-449-90820-8, page 81
  44. ^ Hamoodur Rahman Commission, Chapter 2, Paragraphs 32,34
  45. ^ Blood, Archer, Transcript of Selective Genocide Telex, Department of State, United States
  46. ^ Ajoy Roy, "Homage to my martyr colleagues", 2002
  47. ^ Shahiduzzaman No count of the nation’s intellectual loss The New Age, December 15, 2005
  48. ^ Killing of Intellectuals Asiatic Society of Bangladesh
  49. ^ Link to article] by the Star-Ledger
  50. ^ Dutch court says gassing of Iraqi Kurds was 'genocide' by Anne Penketh and Robert Verkaik in The Independent December 24, 2005
  51. ^ Dutch man sentenced for role in gassing death of Kurds CBC December 23, 2005
  52. ^ The LRA is described by sources such as The Times as a "cannibalistic cult that has slaughtered whole villages and left its victims without hands, feet or faces".[2]
  53. ^ ICTY, Prosecutor against Vojislav Šešelj, 15 January 2003
  54. ^ Two jailed over Croatia massacre, BBC News, 27 September 2007, accessed 28 September 2007
  55. ^ (Croatian) Državno odvjetništvo RH Priopćenje povodom obilježavanja 16. obljetnice pogibije 39 branitelja u Dalju
  56. ^ (Croatian) Državno odvjetništvo RH Priopćenje povodom obilježavanja 16. obljetnice pogibije 39 branitelja u Dalju
  57. ^ (Croatian) Link leading to a downloadable booklet "Krvava Istina o Lovasu" ("Bloody Truth on Lovas")
  58. ^ a b c d http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2007/pr1162e.htm Summary of judgement: Milan Martić sentenced to 35 years for crimes against humanity and war crimes
  59. ^ ICTY, case Milan Martić, summary of judgement
  60. ^ Summary of judgement: the case of Milan Martić
  61. ^ The battle of Dubrovnik, Final report of the United Nations Commission of Experts
  62. ^ Šešelj Indictment
  63. ^ ICTY, case Milan Martić, summary of judgement
  64. ^ Prosecutors Seek Life Sentence for War Crimes Suspect Martic. Voice of America (2007-01-10). Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  65. ^ References in the article
  66. ^ References in the article
  67. ^ References in the article
  68. ^ References in the article
  69. ^ http://www.hri.org/docs/USSD-Rights/93/Croatia93.html
  70. ^ References in the article
  71. ^ References in the article
  72. ^ References in the article
  73. ^ Federal Commission for Missing Persons; "Preliminary List of Missing and Killed in Srebrenica"; 2005 [3]PDF (522 KiB). The list is discussed here and the identification process here
  74. ^ Fish, Jim. (February 5, 2004). Sarajevo massacre remembered. BBC.
  75. ^ The Times World News, April 3 2006, p.29)

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Jean-Pierre Bemba (4 November 1962) is one of four vice-presidents in the transitional government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Avalon Project is Yale Law Schools digital library of Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (born 1947) is an American lawyer, writer, and historian. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Der Tagesspiegel (The Daily Mirror; motto: rerum cognoscere causas, or to know the causes of things) is a liberal German daily newspaper. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Alfred-Maurice de Zayas (born 1947) is an American lawyer, writer, and historian. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Avalon Project is Yale Law Schools digital library of Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. ... The Sterling Law Building Sculptural ornamentation on the Sterling Law Building Yale Law School, or YLS, is the law school of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of some of the foibe where killings took place Foibe massacres were mass killings attributed to Yugoslav Partisans during and shortly after World War II against Italians. ... Bleiburg memorial in Zagrebs Mirogoj cemetery The Bleiburg massacre, (also known in a more emotional context as the Bleiburg tragedy[1]) is a generalising name that encompasses events that took place during May 1945, after the formal end of World War II in Europe, but at a time when... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Star-Ledger is the leading newspaper in New Jersey and ranks number 16 in total circulation for U.S. daily newspapers. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA), is the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...

See also

Current cases before the International Criminal Court include three situations where the Chief Prosecutor has opened an official investigation, one other referral that has been received from a state and a number of complaints received from individuals. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... . ... Mass murder (massacre) is the act of murdering a large number of people, typically at the same time, or over a relatively short period of time. ... At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. ... Soviet war crimes gives a short overview about serious crimes, which probably offend against international law, committed by the Red Armys (1918-1946, later Soviet Army) leadership and an unknown number of single members of the Soviet armed forces during in 1919 - 1990 including those in Eastern Europe in... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... War crimes of the Wehrmacht are those carried out by traditional German armed forces during World War II. While the principal perpetrators of the Holocaust amongst German armed forces were the Nazi German political armies (the Waffen-SS and particularly the Einsatzgruppen), the traditional armed forces represented by the Wehrmacht... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

External links

  • 1944-1945 Killing of Allied POWs in Europe
International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Sources of international law are the materials and processes out of which the rules and principles regulating the international community are developed. ... Customary international law Unwritten law applied to the behaviour of nations. ... A peremptory norm (also called jus cogens, Latin for compelling law) is a fundamental principle of international law considered to have acceptance among the international community of states as a whole. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international... Original document. ... The London Charter of the International Military Tribunal (usually referred to simply as the London Charter) was the decree that set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted. ... The Nuremberg Principles were a set of guidelines for determining what constitues a war crime. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... CAT states: members in green, non-members in grey The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (UNCAT) is an international human rights instrument, organized by the United Nations and intended to prevent torture and other similar activities. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... A crime against peace, in international law, consists of starting or waging a war against the territorial integrity, political independence or sovereignty of a state, or in violation of international treaties, agreements or (legally binding) assurances. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... The history of slavery covers many different forms of human exploitation across many cultures and throughout human history. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a war of aggression is generally considered to be any war for which the purpose is not to repel an invasion, or respond to an attack on the territory of a sovereign nation. ... The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were a series of hearings held between December 25 - 31st, 1949 in the Russian industrial city of Khabarovsk, (Хабáровск) situated on the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк). Here, twelve members of the Japanese Kwantung Army were tried as war criminals for manufacturing and using biological weapons during World War... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... The Special Tribunal for Lebanon is an international criminal court that has been proposed and approved by the United Nations and the Director-General of the Ministry of Justice on behalf of the Lebanese Republic. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... . ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
War crime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (819 words)
In essence, the term "war crime" represents the concept of an international jurisdiction as applicable to the most severe crimes, in areas where government is dysfunctional and society is in a state of turmoil.
War crimes are sometimes part of instances of mass murder and genocide though these crimes are more broadly covered under international humanitarian law described as crimes against humanity.
War crimes are significant in international humanitarian law because it is an area where international tribunals such as the Nuremberg Trials have been convened.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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