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Encyclopedia > List of tributaries of Imperial China

The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

Contents

Chronological list

Many entities have paid tribute to Imperial China, including: A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ...

  • Ryūkyū Kingdom[6]
    • Chūzan Principality (Middle Mountain, 中山)
    • Hokuzan Principality (Northern Mountain, 北山)
    • Nanzan Principality (Southern Mountain, 南山)
    • Ryūkyū Kingdom[5]
  • Viet Nam[5]
    • Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)
    • Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, 林邑, 占城)
    • Van Xuan (萬春, 野能)
    • Đại Việt (also Dai Co Viet, Dai Ngu, 大越, 大瞿越, 大虞) (Ngô Dynasty 吳朝, Đinh Dynasty 丁朝, Prior Lê Dynasty 前黎朝, Lý Dynasty 李朝, Trần Dynasty 陳朝, Hồ Dynasty 胡朝, Later Lê Dynasty 後黎朝, Mạc Dynasty 莫朝)
  • Thailand[5]
  • Bhutan 不丹[citation needed]
  • Nepal 尼伯爾[citation needed]
    • Karakum (喀喇庫木)
    • Yuli (also Weili, 尉犁)
    • Kushana (also Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)
    • Boluo'er (博羅爾)

A carved wooden beam from Loulan, 3-4th century CE. The patterns show influences from ancient western civilizations. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Wusun --- information about this historic people can be found in Chinese historical annals. ... Ruins of Gaochang Gaochang (高昌) was an ancient city, located 30 km SE of modern Turpan in Xinjiang, China. ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ... The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese, Bokkai in Japanese) was an ancient kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Goguryeo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria (present-day Northeast China), southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip Historical era 1392-1897... Ideogram for Wa, formed by the radical for person (on the left), and the phonetic element Wei on the right (itself represented by a rice plant in the upper part and a woman in the lower part). ... The main building of Shuri Castle The flag of the Ryukyu Kingdom (1875-1879) The RyÅ«kyÅ« Kingdom (Ryukyuan: 琉球王国, Traditional Chinese: then officially 琉球國) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... Map of the Three Kingdoms (Sanzan) of Okinawa, with ChÅ«zan in purple. ... Map of the Three Kingdoms (Sanzan) of Okinawa, with Hokuzan in yellow. ... Map of the Three Kingdoms (Sanzan) of Okinawa, with Nanzan in green. ... The main building of Shuri Castle The flag of the Ryukyu Kingdom (1875-1879) The RyÅ«kyÅ« Kingdom (Ryukyuan: 琉球王国, Traditional Chinese: then officially 琉球國) was an independent kingdom which ruled most of the RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands from the 14th century to the 19th century. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced like Lee), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen L... The Trần Dynasty (陳朝 Trần Triều; or vernacularly Nhà Trần, meaning the Trần House) was a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled Vietnam (at that time known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Chenla, known from Chinese records as Zhenla (真腊), was an early Khmer kingdom. ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... The Lanfang Republic (Traditional Chinese: 蘭芳共和國, Hanyu Pinyin: Lan Fang Gongheguo) was a Hakka Chinese state in western Kalimantan that was established in 1777 until it was ended by Dutch occupation in 1884. ...

Western Han Dynasty

  • Internal vassals (206 BC - ?) - Upon the founding of the dynasty, the first emperor awarded up to one-half of territory of Han as fiefdoms to various relatives, who ruled as princes. These fiefdoms collected their own taxes and established their own laws and were not directly administered by imperial government. Consolidation and centralization by succeeding emperors increased imperial controls and gruadually dissolving the princedoms.
  • Nanyue (211 BC - 111 BC) - A kingdom situated today's northern Vietnam, and the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi founded by a former Chinese general, Zhao Tuo. Under Zhao Tuo it paid nominal tribute to Han but his successors lost more and more power. After a coup-de-tat against the king, Han directly the kingdom and directly administered it from then on.
  • Minyue (138 BC - ?) - A baiyue people situated in modern-day Fujian province. After an attack by the Minyue people, Emperor Wu of Han launched a massive expedition, and forced their entire population to relocate within imperial borders.
  • Dian Kingdom (109 BC) - A kingdom located in modern day Yunnan province. Brought into subjugation by Emperor Wu of Han, who annexed the kingdom into an imperial commandary but allowed local rulers to remain in power.
  • Loulan (108 BC) - Located along the northeastern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in modern-day Xinjiang province. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
  • Cheshi (108 BC) - City-state in modern-day Turpan. Brought into submission by an imperial expedition dispatched by Emperor Wu of Han.
  • Wusun (105 BC - ?) - Central Asian people. Bitter enemies with the Xiongnu, they entered a military alliance with the Han. In 53 BC, the kingdom split into two following a succession dispute. Both continued to recognize Han sovereignty and remained faithful vassals.
  • Dayuan (102 BC) - Kingdom located in the Fergana Valley. Hearing tales of their high-quality horses, which would be of great utility in combatting the Xiongnu, Emperor Wu of Han dispatched an expedition to acquire their submission and the horses. The first expedition of 3,000 was woefully undermanned, but the second, numbering 100,000 besieged the capital, bringing them into submission after negotiations. The expedition returned with 10,000 horses along with a promise to pay an annual tribute in horses.
  • Xiongnu (53 BC - 10) - A nomadic confederation/empire in Central Asia and modern day Mongolia and extending their control to territories as far as Siberia, western Manchuria, the areas along the Caspian Sea, and modern day Chinese provinces of Inner Mongolia, Gansu and Xinjiang. They entered tributory relations with the Han after several defeats, territorial losses, and internal conflicts. Tributory relationships terminated as a result of diplomatic fumblings during the reign of Wang Mang.

Wangs of Han Dynasty can be divided as two categories: Yixing Wang (Kings) and Tongxing Wang (Princes). ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Guangdong, often spelt as Kwangtung, is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Guangxi (Zhuang: Gvangjsih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西; Traditional Chinese: 廣西; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Kuang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangsi), full name Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Zhuang: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih; old orthography: ; Simplified Chinese: 广西壮族自治区; Traditional Chinese: 廣西壯族自治區; Pinyin: GuÇŽngxÄ« Zhuàngzú ZìzhìqÅ«) is a Zhuang autonomous region of... Zhao Tuo (Traditional Chinese: 趙佗; pinyin: Zhào Tuō) or Triệu Đà in Vietnamese, was a Chinese commanding general of the Qin dynasty who later founded the kingdom of Nanyue, or Nam Việt (南越). He was also the founder of the Zhao Dynasty (Trieu Dynasty) of Nanyue. ... Minyue (Traditional Chinese: 閩越) was an ancient kingdom located in today Fujian, Southern China, during Han Dynasty. ... Yue (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüeh4; also seen as Yueh, Yuet, Việt) refers to ancient semi-Sinicized or non-Sinicized Chinese peoples of southern China, originally those along the eastern coastline of present-day Zhejiang province and Shanghai. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... The Dian Kingdom was established by the Dian people, who lived around Lake Dian in eastern Yunnan, China from the late Spring and Autumn Period until the Eastern Han Dynasty. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... A carved wooden beam from Loulan, 3-4th century CE. The patterns show influences from ancient western civilizations. ... The Taklamakan is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Wusun (烏孫) --- information about this historic people can be found in Chinese historical annals. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Uzbek: , Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Tajik: водии Фaрғонa, Russian: , Persian: ) is a region in the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ...

Wang Mang interregnum (Xin Dynasty)

During Wang Mang's reign, relations with many of the empire's allies and tributories deteriorated, due in large part to Wang Mang's arrogance and inept diplomacy.


Eastern Han Dynasty

  • Southern Xiongnu (50-220) - The Xiongnu split into northern and southern factions. The southern Xiongnu brought themselves into tributory relations with the Han. They were resettled along with large numbers of Chinese immigrants in frontier regions. Economically dependent on Han, they were obliged to provide military services under a tightened tributory system with greater direct imperial supervision.

The Southern Xiongnu existed for 50 years from 48 CE in competition with the original Xiongnu before they replaced the latter. ...

Ming dynasty

Under the Ming, countries that wanted to have any form of relationship with China, political, economic or otherwise, had to enter the tribute system. As a result, a lot of tribute was paid for opportunistic reasons rather than as a serious gesture of allegiance to the Chinese emperor, and some tribute missions may just have been up by ingenious traders. A number of countries only paid tribute once, as a result of Zheng He's expeditions. As of 1587, in Chinese sources the following countries are listed to have paid tribute to the Ming emperors:[10] Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Pinyin: ; Islamic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western...

  • Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)
  • Japan (occasionally between 1403 and 1551)
  • Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands or Taiwan, every two years since 1368)
  • Annam (every three years since 1369)
  • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))
  • Siam (every three years since 1371)
  • Champa (every three years since 1369)
  • Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)
  • Pahang (1378, 1414)
  • BaiHua(?) (1378)
  • Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)
  • Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)
  • Samudra (on Sumatra (?), 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)
  • Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)
  • LanBang(?) (1376, 1403-1435)
  • DanBa(?) (1377)
  • Sulu (1417, 1421)
  • GuMaLa (?) (1420)
  • Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)
  • Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)
  • Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)
  • Aru (1407)
  • Kollam (1407)
  • Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)
  • Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)
  • Jaunpur (1420)
  • Syria (Fulin?, 1371)
  • Cochin (1404, 1412)
  • Melinde (1414)
  • Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)
  • TieLi (?), ZhiLoXiaShi (?), HoMaoLi (Marinduque?) (1405)
  • GuLiBanZu (?) (1405)
  • DaHui(?) (1405)
  • Hormuz (1405)
  • Coyampadi (1411)
  • Cail, Djofar, Maldives, Burma (YaWa), Lambri (NanWuLi), Kelatan, QiLaNi, XiaLaBi (Arabia?), KuChaNi, WuSheLaTang, Aden, Rum, Bengal (PengJiaNa), SheLaQi, BaKoYi, HeiGaDa, LaSa, Barawa, Mogadishu, QianLiTa, Cananore (all somewhere between 1403 and 1425)
  • DoYan(?), FuYü(?), Taining(?) (1388,twice a year from 1403)
  • Jurchens and other tribes in the northeast (irregularly)
  • JienZhou(?) (annually)
  • Hami (beginning in 1404, annually from 1465, every five years from 1475)
  • AnDing(?) (beginning in 1374)
  • HanDong(?) (?)
  • ChiShin (another group of Mongols?) (beginning in 1404, every five years since 1563)
  • QuXian (1437)
  • Herat (1402, 1409, 1437)
  • HaSan(?)
  • HaLieEr(?)
  • ShaDiMan(?)
  • Kashgar
  • HaTiLan(?)
  • Sairam
  • SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)
  • Ilbalik and Bashbalik (1391, 1406, 1413, 1418(?), 1437, 1457ff)
  • NieKoLi (or MiekoLi) (?)
  • Badakhshan
  • Balkh
  • Almalik (?)
  • Togmak
  • Chalish
  • GanShi(?)
  • Bukhara(?)
  • PaLa(?)
  • Shiraz
  • Nishapur
  • Kashmir
  • Tabriz
  • GuoSaSü(?)
  • HuoTan(?)
  • Khodjend
  • KuXian(?)
  • YaXi(?)
  • Yarkand
  • Jong(?)
  • Bai(?)
  • WuLun(?)
  • Alani
  • Hotan (?)
  • YeSuCheng(?)
  • KunCheng (Kunduz?)
  • SheHei(?)
  • BaiYin(?)
  • KoQie(?)
  • Turfan (1430, 1497, 1509, 1510, every 5 years since 1523)
  • Karakhodjo (1409, 1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
  • LiuChen(?) (1430, afterwards together with Turfan)
  • Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)
  • Rum (after 1524 every five years)
  • Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)
  • Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)
  • Hotan 1408
  • ZhiLo(?), Badakhshan, Andkhui, Isfahan (all somewhere between 1403 and 1424)
  • Horasan (1432)
  • Ejijie(?), HaShin(?) (both somewhere between 1522 and 1566)
  • A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest.

Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... State anthem: Pahang State Anthem Capital Kuantan Royal capital Pekan Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Ahmad Shah  - Menteri Besar Adnan Yaakob History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 35,964 km² Population  - 2005 estimate 1,372,500  - Density 38. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Sulu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). ... Kozhikode, also known as Calicut, is the third largest city (pop. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh State anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya Capital Malacca Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob  - Ketua Menteri Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam History    - Malacca Sultanate 13th century   - Portuguese control 24 August 1511   - Dutch control 14 January 1641   - British control 17 March 1824   - Japanese occupation... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Aru or Arru, also known as the Aroe Islands, is a group of about 95 low-lying islands in Indonesia. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Jaunpur is a city in Jaunpur District in Uttar Pradesh state of India. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... Marinduque is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region in Luzon. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Barawa or Brava (Somali: Baraawe; Arabic: ; Bravanese: Mwiini or Nti ya Mbalazi) is a port town in the south eastern coast of Somalia. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ), is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Olmaliq (also known as Almalyk), is a city (2004 pop est 138,000) in the Toshkent Province of central Uzbekistan, approximately 65 km east of Tashkent. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... For other uses, see Shiraz (disambiguation). ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Khujand (also transliterated as Khudjand, Khudzhand, and Khodjend), formerly Leninabad is a city on the Syr-Darya at the mouth of the Ferghana Valley, and also gives its name to the northernmost region of the Republic of Tajikistan. ... Yarkand or Yecheng (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin: Yèchéng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車, also written Shache and Suoche; alt. ... Mosque in Hotan Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/; Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; also spelled Khotan)[1] is an oasis town in Khotan Prefecture and its capital as well, population 114,000 (2006). ... President Celal Bayar, King Zahir and Lord Serwar Nasher inspecting the once world-renown cotton of Kunduz Spinzar factory Kunduz (قندوز) is a city in Afghanistan; the name has also sometimes been rendered as Kûnduz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mosque in Hotan Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/; Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; also spelled Khotan)[1] is an oasis town in Khotan Prefecture and its capital as well, population 114,000 (2006). ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Andkhui, a town in northern Afghanistan, Faryab Province, is located at The town (said to have been founded by Alexander the Great) stands between the northern spurs of the Paropamisus and the Oxus; it is 100 m. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Horasan is a district of Erzurum Province of Turkey. ...

See also

This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... For more information on the topic see Emerging Superpowers and Superpower The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is often considered an emerging superpower due to its large and stable population, its rapidly growing economy and military spending and capabilities [1]. However, it has several economic, political, and demographic problems... Historically, ancient China has been one of the worlds oldest empires. ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... Greater China, Singapore, and countries culturally linked to Chinese culture. ... Greater China in dark green, and areas with strong Chinese cultural influence in light green Greater China (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or simply 大华/大華, is a term referring collectively to both the territories administered by the Peoples Republic of China as well as Hong Kong and Macau, and territories... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... Zheng He (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Hé; Wade-Giles: Cheng Ho; Birth name: 馬三寶 / 马三宝; Pinyin: ; Islamic name: حجّي محمود شمس Hajji Mahmud Shams) (1371–1433), was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who made the voyages collectively referred to as the travels of Eunuch Sanbao to the Western...

References

  1. ^ a b "Unified Silla", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  2. ^ "Koguryo", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  3. ^ a b "Guardian Protector of Silla", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  4. ^ "Usurpers and Freebooters", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Tribute and Trade", KoreanHistoryProject.org. Retrieved on 30-01-2007.
  6. ^ "The Ancient Ryukyus Period/The Sanzan Period"
  7. ^ Funan. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-02.
  8. ^ The Kingdom of Funan and Chenla (First to Eighth Century AD). Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  9. ^ The Political Economy of Philippines- China Relations
  10. ^ John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü: On the Ch'ing Tributary System, in: Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941), p. 150ff
  • John K. Fairbank and Têng Ssu-yü. "On the Ch'ing Tributary System." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 6, no. 2 (1941): 135-246.
  • John K. Fairbank. "Tributary Trade and China's Relations with the West." The Far Eastern Quarterly 1, no. 2 (1942): 129-49.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John King Fairbank (1907-1991) was among the most renowned American scholars of East Asia in the twentieth century. ...

External links

  • Vietnam's many names - in Simplified Chinese
  • See appendix - Year names of Vietnamese kings - in Simplified Chinese
  • Citystates along the Silk Road - in English
  • Tributary states in Chinese history - in Simplified Chinese

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