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Encyclopedia > List of tectonic plate interactions

See plate tectonics for a more complete discussion Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs and destroys, τεκτων, tektoon) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ...


Tectonic plate interactions are of three different basic types: The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...

  • Divergent boundaries are areas where plates move away from each other, forming either mid-oceanic ridges or rift valleys.
  • Convergent boundaries are areas where plates move toward each other and collide. These are also known as compressional or destructive boundaries.
    • Subduction zones occur where an oceanic plate meets a continental plate and is pushed underneath it. Subduction zones are marked by oceanic trenches. The descending end of the oceanic plate melts and creates pressure in the mantle, causing volcanoes to form.
    • Obduction occurs when the continental plate is pushed under the oceanic plate, but this is unusal as the relative densities of the tectonic plates favours subduction of the oceanic plate. This causes the oceanic plate to buckle and usually results in a new mid ocean ridge forming and turning the obduction into subduction
    • Orogenic belts occur where two continental plates collide and push upwards to form large mountain ranges.
  • Transform boundaries occur when two plates grind past each other with only limited convergent or divergent activity.

Contents

In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary (divergent fault boundary or divergent plate boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. ... Courtesy USGS The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an underwater mountain range of the Atlantic Ocean that runs from Iceland to Antarctica, and is the longest mountain range on Earth. ... In geology, a rift valley is a valley created by the formation of a rift. ... In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary (convergent fault boundary, convergent plate boundary, or active margin) is where two tectonic plates slide towards each other and usually collide forming either a subduction zone with its associated island arc or an orogenic belt and associated mountain range. ... Subduction zones mark sites of convective downwelling of the Earths lithosphere. ... The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a planets surface of magma, molten rock welling up from the planets interior. ... Obduction is the overthrusting of continental crust by oceanic crust or mantle rocks. ... Orogeny is the process of mountain building, and as such is both a tectonic structural event, a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events happen within a time frame, affect certain regions of rocks and crust, and cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity. ... The most general definition of a mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands. ... In plate tectonics, a transform boundary (also known as transform fault boundary, transform plate boundary, transform plate margin or conservative plate boundary) is said to occur when tectonic plates slide and grind against each other along a transform fault. ...


Divergent boundaries

Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... Courtesy USGS The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a mostly underwater mountain range of the Atlantic Ocean that runs from 87°N (about 333 km South of the North Pole) to subantarctic Bouvet Island, where it turns into Atlantic-Indian-Ridge and continues further East through Crozet Plateau to the Southwest... The North American plate is shown in brown on this map The North American Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ... The South American Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the continents Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ...  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The Gakkel Ridge is a mid-oceanic ridge located in the Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Siberia with a length of about 1800 kilometers. ...

Subduction zones

[[Image:http://www. ... The Nazca plate is shown in light blue on this map The Nazca Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ... Subduction zones mark sites of convective downwelling of the Earths lithosphere. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The South American Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... The Pacific plate is shown in pale yellow on this map The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the continents Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... The Alpine Fault is easily visible from space, running along the western edge of the Southern Alps from the south-western coast towards the north-eastern corner of the South Island. ... Structure of the Cascadia subduction zone Area of the Cascadia subduction zone The Cascadia subduction zone is a very long sloping fault that stretches from mid-Vancouver Island to northern California. ... hi ...

Orogenic belts

  • The most dramatic orogenic belt on the planet is the one between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The Himalayas are forming along this boundary.
  • The Alps have formed due to the interaction of the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

The Indo-Australian plate is shown in dull orange on this map. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ...

Transform boundaries


  Results from FactBites:
 
List of tectonic plate interactions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (435 words)
Obduction occurs when the continental plate is pushed under the oceanic plate, but this is unusal as the relative densities of the tectonic plates favours subduction of the oceanic plate.
The Pacific Plate is being subducted under the Eurasian and Philippine Plates.
The Pacific Plate is also being subducted under the Indo-Australian Plate north and east of New Zealand, but as this map (109 KB jpg) illustrates, the direction of subduction reverses south of the Alpine Fault where the Indo-Australian Plate starts being subducted under the Pacific Plate.
Transform boundary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (123 words)
In plate tectonics, a transform boundary (also known as transform fault boundary, transform plate boundary, transform plate margin, slip boundary or conservative plate boundary) is said to occur when tectonic plates slide and grind against each other along a transform fault.
The relative motion of such plates is horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction.
Most transform boundaries are found on the ocean floor, where they often offset active spreading ridges to form a zigzag plate boundary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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